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3 The Application Program Interface. This section describes the C API for Lua, that is, the set of C functions available to the host program to communicate with Lua. All API functions and related types and constants are declared in highest for act the header file lua.h . Even when we use the term function, any facility in the API may be provided as a macro instead. All such macros use each of their arguments exactly once (except for the first argument, which is always a Lua state), and so do not generate any hidden side-effects. As in most C libraries, the Lua API functions do not check their arguments for validity or consistency. However, you can change this behavior by compiling Lua with a proper definition for the macro luai_apicheck , in file luaconf.h . Lua uses a virtual stack to pass values to and from C. English Alternative Entry For Graduate Students? Each element in this stack represents a Lua value ( nil , number, string, etc.). Whenever Lua calls C, the called function gets a new stack, which is independent of previous stacks and of stacks of C functions that are still active. This stack initially contains any arguments to the C function and it is for act, where the C function pushes its results to phd english, be returned to the caller (see lua_CFunction ).
For convenience, most query operations in the API do not follow a strict stack discipline. Highest Score For Act? Instead, they can refer to any element in the stack by using an for the of manager index : A positive index represents an absolute stack position (starting at 1); a negative index represents an offset relative to the top of the stack. More specifically, if the highest for act stack has n elements, then index 1 represents the wang-kong tse thesis first element (that is, the highest essay element that was pushed onto the stack first) and index n represents the last element; index -1 also represents the last element (that is, the element at the top) and index -n represents the first element. We say that an index is valid if it lies between 1 and the stack top (that is, if 1 ≤ abs(index) ≤ top ). When you interact with Lua API, you are responsible for ensuring consistency. In particular, you are responsible for controlling stack overflow . You can use the function lua_checkstack to grow the stack size. Whenever Lua calls C, it ensures that at least LUA_MINSTACK stack positions are available. Engineering English Language Entry For Graduate Coursework Students? LUA_MINSTACK is defined as 20, so that usually you do not have to worry about stack space unless your code has loops pushing elements onto the stack.
Most query functions accept as indices any value inside the available stack space, that is, indices up to the maximum stack size you have set through lua_checkstack . Such indices are called acceptable indices . More formally, we define an acceptable index as follows: Note that 0 is highest score for act essay, never an coursework acceptable index. Unless otherwise noted, any function that accepts valid indices can also be called with pseudo-indices , which represent some Lua values that are accessible to score, C code but which are not in the stack. Pseudo-indices are used to access the thread environment, the function environment, the registry, and dissertations, the upvalues of a C function (see §3.4). The thread environment (where global variables live) is always at pseudo-index LUA_GLOBALSINDEX . The environment of the running C function is always at pseudo-index LUA_ENVIRONINDEX . To access and change the value of global variables, you can use regular table operations over essay an environment table. For instance, to access the tse thesis value of a global variable, do.
When a C function is created, it is highest, possible to associate some values with it, thus creating a C closure ; these values are called upvalues and are accessible to the function whenever it is called (see lua_pushcclosure ). Whenever a C function is called, its upvalues are located at specific pseudo-indices. These pseudo-indices are produced by the macro lua_upvalueindex . The first value associated with a function is at vaughan williams music position lua_upvalueindex(1) , and so on. Any access to score, lua_upvalueindex( n ) , where n is greater than the number of upvalues of the current function (but not greater than 256), produces an acceptable (but invalid) index. Lua provides a registry , a pre-defined table that can be used by phd english any C code to store whatever Lua value it needs to store. This table is always located at score for act pseudo-index LUA_REGISTRYINDEX . Any C library can store data into this table, but it should take care to choose keys different from those used by other libraries, to avoid collisions. Typically, you should use as key a string containing your library name or a light userdata with the tse thesis address of a C object in your code. The integer keys in the registry are used by the reference mechanism, implemented by the auxiliary library, and therefore should not be used for other purposes. Internally, Lua uses the highest score C longjmp facility to jobs essay, handle errors. (You can also choose to essay, use exceptions if you use C++; see file luaconf.h .) When Lua faces any error (such as memory allocation errors, type errors, syntax errors, and runtime errors) it raises an error; that is, it does a long jump. A protected environment uses setjmp to set a recover point; any error jumps to vaughan national music, the most recent active recover point. Most functions in score for act essay the API can throw an error, for instance due to a memory allocation error.
The documentation for each function indicates whether it can throw errors. Inside a C function you can throw an error by calling lua_error . Here we list all functions and types from the C API in alphabetical order. Each function has an indicator like this: [-o, +p, x ] The first field, o , is how many elements the function pops from the stack. The second field, p , is how many elements the function pushes onto the stack. (Any function always pushes its results after popping its arguments.) A field in the form x|y means the function can push (or pop) x or y elements, depending on the situation; an interrogation mark ' ? ' means that we cannot know how many elements the function pops/pushes by resume coursework projects looking only at its arguments (e.g., they may depend on what is on essay the stack). The third field, x , tells whether the function may throw errors: ' - ' means the function never throws any error; ' m ' means the national music and other function may throw an score for act error only due to not enough memory; ' e ' means the function may throw other kinds of job application for the of manager errors; ' v ' means the function may throw an error on purpose. The type of the memory-allocation function used by Lua states.
The allocator function must provide a functionality similar to for act essay, realloc , but not exactly the same. Its arguments are ud , an opaque pointer passed to job application letter, lua_newstate ; ptr , a pointer to highest essay, the block being allocated/reallocated/freed; osize , the original size of the block; nsize , the phd english new size of the score essay block. ptr is NULL if and only if osize is vaughan williams national and other essays, zero. When nsize is zero, the allocator must return NULL ; if osize is highest essay, not zero, it should free the block pointed to by ptr . When nsize is not zero, the allocator returns NULL if and only if it cannot fill the request. When nsize is coursework, not zero and score essay, osize is zero, the allocator should behave like malloc . When nsize and osize are not zero, the allocator behaves like realloc . Lua assumes that the allocator never fails when osize = nsize . Here is a simple implementation for the allocator function. It is used in the auxiliary library by luaL_newstate . This code assumes that free(NULL) has no effect and wang-kong tse thesis, that realloc(NULL, size) is equivalent to malloc(size) . ANSI C ensures both behaviors. Sets a new panic function and score essay, returns the old one. If an error happens outside any protected environment, Lua calls a panic function and then calls exit(EXIT_FAILURE) , thus exiting the host application. Your panic function can avoid this exit by letter never returning (e.g., doing a long jump). The panic function can access the highest essay error message at the top of the stack.
Calls a function. To call a function you must use the following protocol: first, the function to be called is pushed onto the stack; then, the arguments to the function are pushed in direct order; that is, the first argument is pushed first. Finally you call lua_call ; nargs is the number of arguments that you pushed onto the stack. English Language Entry For Graduate? All arguments and the function value are popped from the stack when the function is called. The function results are pushed onto the stack when the highest essay function returns.
The number of results is adjusted to nresults , unless nresults is LUA_MULTRET . In this case, all results from the function are pushed. Lua takes care that the returned values fit into the stack space. The function results are pushed onto the stack in direct order (the first result is pushed first), so that after the call the last result is on vaughan the top of the stack. Any error inside the called function is propagated upwards (with a longjmp ). The following example shows how the highest score host program can do the engineering english for graduate equivalent to this Lua code: Here it is in C: Note that the code above is balanced: at its end, the stack is back to its original configuration. This is considered good programming practice. Type for C functions. In order to communicate properly with Lua, a C function must use the following protocol, which defines the way parameters and results are passed: a C function receives its arguments from highest Lua in its stack in direct order (the first argument is pushed first). So, when the function starts, lua_gettop(L) returns the phd english dissertations number of arguments received by the function.
The first argument (if any) is at index 1 and its last argument is at index lua_gettop(L) . To return values to for act, Lua, a C function just pushes them onto the stack, in job application letter direct order (the first result is essay, pushed first), and returns the teenagers jobs number of results. Any other value in the stack below the results will be properly discarded by Lua. Like a Lua function, a C function called by Lua can also return many results. As an example, the following function receives a variable number of numerical arguments and returns their average and sum: Ensures that there are at least extra free stack slots in highest score for act essay the stack. Resume? It returns false if it cannot grow the stack to that size.
This function never shrinks the highest score essay stack; if the stack is already larger than the new size, it is left unchanged. Destroys all objects in the given Lua state (calling the corresponding garbage-collection metamethods, if any) and frees all dynamic memory used by this state. On several platforms, you may not need to call this function, because all resources are naturally released when the host program ends. Should Teenagers? On the score essay other hand, long-running programs, such as a daemon or a web server, might need to release states as soon as they are not needed, to resume coursework, avoid growing too large. Concatenates the n values at the top of the for act essay stack, pops them, and leaves the result at the top. If n is engineering english entry coursework, 1, the result is the single value on highest essay the stack (that is, the williams music function does nothing); if n is 0, the result is the empty string. Concatenation is performed following the usual semantics of Lua (see §2.5.4). Calls the C function func in protected mode. func starts with only one element in its stack, a light userdata containing ud . In case of errors, lua_cpcall returns the essay same error codes as lua_pcall , plus the error object on the top of the jobs stack; otherwise, it returns zero, and for act, does not change the jobs essay stack. All values returned by func are discarded. Creates a new empty table and essay, pushes it onto the stack. English Language Alternative Entry Coursework Students? The new table has space pre-allocated for narr array elements and nrec non-array elements.
This pre-allocation is useful when you know exactly how many elements the table will have. Otherwise you can use the function lua_newtable . Dumps a function as a binary chunk. Receives a Lua function on the top of the highest score for act essay stack and produces a binary chunk that, if loaded again, results in a function equivalent to the one dumped. As it produces parts of the wang-kong tse thesis chunk, lua_dump calls function writer (see lua_Writer ) with the given data to write them. The value returned is the error code returned by the last call to the writer; 0 means no errors. This function does not pop the Lua function from the highest for act essay stack.
Returns 1 if the two values in phd english acceptable indices index1 and index2 are equal, following the semantics of the Lua == operator (that is, may call metamethods). Score For Act Essay? Otherwise returns 0. Also returns 0 if any of the indices is non valid. Generates a Lua error. The error message (which can actually be a Lua value of any type) must be on the stack top. This function does a long jump, and therefore never returns. (see luaL_error ). Controls the garbage collector. This function performs several tasks, according to the value of the parameter what : LUA_GCSTOP : stops the garbage collector.
LUA_GCRESTART : restarts the garbage collector. LUA_GCCOLLECT : performs a full garbage-collection cycle. LUA_GCCOUNT : returns the resume coursework projects current amount of memory (in Kbytes) in use by Lua. LUA_GCCOUNTB : returns the remainder of dividing the current amount of bytes of memory in use by highest essay Lua by letter post 1024. LUA_GCSTEP : performs an score incremental step of garbage collection. The step size is controlled by data (larger values mean more steps) in a non-specified way. If you want to for the, control the step size you must experimentally tune the value of data . The function returns 1 if the step finished a garbage-collection cycle. LUA_GCSETPAUSE : sets data as the new value for the pause of the collector (see §2.10).
The function returns the previous value of the pause. LUA_GCSETSTEPMUL : sets data as the highest for act new value for the step multiplier of the collector (see §2.10). The function returns the previous value of the step multiplier. Returns the phd english memory-allocation function of a given state. If ud is not NULL , Lua stores in *ud the opaque pointer passed to lua_newstate . Pushes onto the stack the environment table of the value at the given index. Pushes onto highest for act the stack the value t[k] , where t is the tse thesis value at the given valid index. As in Lua, this function may trigger a metamethod for the index event (see §2.8).
Pushes onto score the stack the value of the global name . Vaughan Williams National Music? It is defined as a macro: Pushes onto the stack the metatable of the value at the given acceptable index. If the index is not valid, or if the value does not have a metatable, the function returns 0 and score, pushes nothing on the stack. Pushes onto the stack the value t[k] , where t is the value at the given valid index and k is the value at vaughan williams music the top of the stack. This function pops the key from the stack (putting the resulting value in its place). As in Lua, this function may trigger a metamethod for the index event (see §2.8). Returns the index of the top element in the stack.
Because indices start at 1, this result is equal to the number of elements in the stack (and so 0 means an empty stack). Moves the top element into the given valid index, shifting up the elements above this index to open space. Cannot be called with a pseudo-index, because a pseudo-index is highest for act, not an actual stack position. The type used by the Lua API to represent integral values. By default it is a ptrdiff_t , which is usually the largest signed integral type the resume coursework machine handles comfortably. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index has type boolean, and for act essay, 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is a C function, and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is a function (either C or Lua), and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is a light userdata, and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at wang-kong the given acceptable index is nil , and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the given acceptable index is not valid (that is, it refers to an element outside the current stack), and 0 otherwise.
Returns 1 if the given acceptable index is not valid (that is, it refers to an element outside the current stack) or if the highest for act value at this index is nil , and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at job application letter for the post of manager the given acceptable index is score, a number or a string convertible to a number, and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at resume projects the given acceptable index is a string or a number (which is always convertible to for act essay, a string), and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is a table, and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is phd english dissertations, a thread, and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is a userdata (either full or light), and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at acceptable index index1 is smaller than the value at acceptable index index2 , following the semantics of the Lua operator (that is, may call metamethods). For Act? Otherwise returns 0. Also returns 0 if any of the indices is non valid.
Loads a Lua chunk. If there are no errors, lua_load pushes the compiled chunk as a Lua function on entry for graduate coursework students top of the for act stack. Otherwise, it pushes an error message. The return values of lua_load are: 0: no errors; LUA_ERRSYNTAX : syntax error during pre-compilation; LUA_ERRMEM : memory allocation error. This function only loads a chunk; it does not run it.
lua_load automatically detects whether the chunk is text or binary, and loads it accordingly (see program luac ). The lua_load function uses a user-supplied reader function to read the chunk (see lua_Reader ). The data argument is an opaque value passed to the reader function. The chunkname argument gives a name to the chunk, which is tse thesis, used for error messages and in debug information (see §3.8). Creates a new, independent state. Returns NULL if cannot create the state (due to lack of memory). The argument f is the allocator function; Lua does all memory allocation for this state through this function. Highest? The second argument, ud , is an have summer jobs opaque pointer that Lua simply passes to the allocator in every call.
Creates a new empty table and pushes it onto the stack. It is equivalent to lua_createtable(L, 0, 0) . Creates a new thread, pushes it on the stack, and returns a pointer to score for act, a lua_State that represents this new thread. The new state returned by this function shares with the original state all global objects (such as tables), but has an independent execution stack. There is no explicit function to close or to coursework projects, destroy a thread. Threads are subject to garbage collection, like any Lua object. This function allocates a new block of memory with the given size, pushes onto the stack a new full userdata with the highest for act essay block address, and returns this address. Userdata represent C values in Lua.
A full userdata represents a block of memory. It is an object (like a table): you must create it, it can have its own metatable, and you can detect when it is being collected. A full userdata is only equal to itself (under raw equality). When Lua collects a full userdata with a gc metamethod, Lua calls the metamethod and marks the userdata as finalized. When this userdata is wang-kong tse thesis, collected again then Lua frees its corresponding memory. Pops a key from the stack, and pushes a key-value pair from the table at the given index (the next pair after the given key).
If there are no more elements in the table, then lua_next returns 0 (and pushes nothing). A typical traversal looks like this: While traversing a table, do not call lua_tolstring directly on a key, unless you know that the key is highest score essay, actually a string. Recall that lua_tolstring changes the wang-kong tse thesis value at the given index; this confuses the next call to lua_next . The type of numbers in highest score for act Lua. By default, it is double, but that can be changed in luaconf.h . Through the configuration file you can change Lua to operate with another type for phd english numbers (e.g., float or long).
Returns the length of the value at the given acceptable index: for strings, this is the string length; for tables, this is the essay result of the should have summer jobs essay length operator (' # '); for userdata, this is the size of the block of score essay memory allocated for wang-kong the userdata; for other values, it is 0. Calls a function in highest score for act protected mode. Both nargs and nresults have the same meaning as in lua_call . Coursework? If there are no errors during the for act essay call, lua_pcall behaves exactly like lua_call . Engineering Entry? However, if there is any error, lua_pcall catches it, pushes a single value on the stack (the error message), and returns an score essay error code. Like lua_call , lua_pcall always removes the function and wang-kong tse thesis, its arguments from the highest score for act stack. If errfunc is 0, then the error message returned on for graduate students the stack is exactly the original error message. Otherwise, errfunc is the stack index of an error handler function . (In the current implementation, this index cannot be a pseudo-index.) In case of highest score essay runtime errors, this function will be called with the error message and its return value will be the dissertations message returned on the stack by lua_pcall . Typically, the essay error handler function is used to add more debug information to the error message, such as a stack traceback. Such information cannot be gathered after the return of lua_pcall , since by then the stack has unwound. The lua_pcall function returns 0 in case of success or one of the following error codes (defined in lua.h ): LUA_ERRRUN : a runtime error. LUA_ERRMEM : memory allocation error. For such errors, Lua does not call the error handler function. LUA_ERRERR : error while running the error handler function.
Pops n elements from the stack. Pushes a boolean value with value b onto the stack. Pushes a new C closure onto the stack. When a C function is created, it is possible to job application letter post, associate some values with it, thus creating a C closure (see §3.4); these values are then accessible to the function whenever it is called. Highest Score For Act Essay? To associate values with a C function, first these values should be pushed onto the stack (when there are multiple values, the first value is pushed first). Letter? Then lua_pushcclosure is called to create and push the C function onto the stack, with the argument n telling how many values should be associated with the function. lua_pushcclosure also pops these values from the stack. The maximum value for n is 255. Pushes a C function onto the stack.
This function receives a pointer to a C function and pushes onto for act essay the stack a Lua value of type function that, when called, invokes the corresponding C function. Any function to wang-kong, be registered in Lua must follow the correct protocol to receive its parameters and highest essay, return its results (see lua_CFunction ). lua_pushcfunction is defined as a macro: Pushes onto the stack a formatted string and returns a pointer to this string. It is phd english, similar to highest for act, the C function sprintf , but has some important differences: You do not have to should have, allocate space for highest the result: the result is a Lua string and Lua takes care of resume memory allocation (and deallocation, through garbage collection). The conversion specifiers are quite restricted. There are no flags, widths, or precisions. The conversion specifiers can only be ' %% ' (inserts a ' % ' in score the string), ' %s ' (inserts a zero-terminated string, with no size restrictions), ' %f ' (inserts a lua_Number ), ' %p ' (inserts a pointer as a hexadecimal numeral), ' %d ' (inserts an int ), and letter for the post, ' %c ' (inserts an int as a character). Pushes a number with value n onto the stack. Pushes a light userdata onto the stack. Userdata represent C values in Lua.
A light userdata represents a pointer. Highest Score For Act Essay? It is a value (like a number): you do not create it, it has no individual metatable, and it is not collected (as it was never created). A light userdata is williams national music and other essays, equal to any light userdata with the same C address. This macro is equivalent to lua_pushlstring , but can be used only when s is a literal string. In these cases, it automatically provides the string length. Pushes the string pointed to score, by s with size len onto the stack.
Lua makes (or reuses) an internal copy of the should have essay given string, so the memory at s can be freed or reused immediately after the function returns. The string can contain embedded zeros. Pushes a nil value onto the stack. Pushes a number with value n onto the stack. Pushes the zero-terminated string pointed to by s onto highest score essay the stack. Lua makes (or reuses) an internal copy of the should jobs essay given string, so the memory at s can be freed or reused immediately after the function returns. The string cannot contain embedded zeros; it is assumed to highest essay, end at the first zero. Pushes the thread represented by L onto the stack. Projects? Returns 1 if this thread is the main thread of highest score for act essay its state.
Pushes a copy of the element at the given valid index onto resume the stack. Equivalent to highest score for act, lua_pushfstring , except that it receives a va_list instead of a variable number of arguments. Returns 1 if the two values in acceptable indices index1 and index2 are primitively equal (that is, without calling metamethods). Engineering Entry Coursework? Otherwise returns 0. Also returns 0 if any of the indices are non valid. Similar to highest score for act essay, lua_gettable , but does a raw access (i.e., without metamethods). Pushes onto the stack the value t[n] , where t is the value at have summer jobs essay the given valid index. Highest Score Essay? The access is raw; that is, it does not invoke metamethods. Similar to lua_settable , but does a raw assignment (i.e., without metamethods). Does the equivalent of t[n] = v , where t is the engineering english language alternative entry for graduate coursework students value at score for act the given valid index and v is the value at post of manager the top of the stack. This function pops the value from the stack.
The assignment is raw; that is, it does not invoke metamethods. The reader function used by score for act lua_load . Every time it needs another piece of the jobs chunk, lua_load calls the reader, passing along its data parameter. Highest Score For Act Essay? The reader must return a pointer to a block of memory with a new piece of the chunk and set size to the block size. The block must exist until the reader function is called again. To signal the wang-kong tse thesis end of the chunk, the reader must return NULL or set size to zero.
The reader function may return pieces of any size greater than zero. Sets the C function f as the score new value of global name . Williams Music? It is defined as a macro: Removes the element at essay the given valid index, shifting down the elements above this index to fill the gap. Cannot be called with a pseudo-index, because a pseudo-index is not an letter for the post of manager actual stack position. Moves the top element into the given position (and pops it), without shifting any element (therefore replacing the value at the given position).
Starts and resumes a coroutine in a given thread. To start a coroutine, you first create a new thread (see lua_newthread ); then you push onto its stack the main function plus any arguments; then you call lua_resume , with narg being the number of arguments. This call returns when the coroutine suspends or finishes its execution. When it returns, the stack contains all values passed to lua_yield , or all values returned by score for act essay the body function. lua_resume returns LUA_YIELD if the coroutine yields, 0 if the coroutine finishes its execution without errors, or an vaughan williams national and other essays error code in case of errors (see lua_pcall ). In case of errors, the highest for act stack is not unwound, so you can use the vaughan and other debug API over it. The error message is on the top of the highest for act stack. To restart a coroutine, you put on its stack only the values to be passed as results from yield , and then call lua_resume . Changes the allocator function of a given state to english coursework students, f with user data ud . Pops a table from the stack and sets it as the new environment for the value at the given index. If the value at the given index is neither a function nor a thread nor a userdata, lua_setfenv returns 0. Otherwise it returns 1. Does the equivalent to t[k] = v , where t is the value at the given valid index and v is the value at score for act the top of the stack.
This function pops the value from the stack. As in Lua, this function may trigger a metamethod for the newindex event (see §2.8). Pops a value from the stack and sets it as the new value of global name . It is defined as a macro: Pops a table from the stack and sets it as the new metatable for the value at the given acceptable index. Does the equivalent to t[k] = v , where t is the value at the given valid index, v is the value at the top of the stack, and k is the value just below the top. This function pops both the key and the value from the stack. As in coursework Lua, this function may trigger a metamethod for the newindex event (see §2.8). Accepts any acceptable index, or 0, and sets the stack top to this index.
If the new top is larger than the old one, then the new elements are filled with nil . If index is 0, then all stack elements are removed. Opaque structure that keeps the whole state of highest for act a Lua interpreter. The Lua library is fully reentrant: it has no global variables. All information about vaughan national and other essays a state is for act essay, kept in this structure. A pointer to this state must be passed as the first argument to every function in tse thesis the library, except to lua_newstate , which creates a Lua state from scratch. Returns the status of the for act essay thread L . The status can be 0 for a normal thread, an error code if the thread finished its execution with an error, or LUA_YIELD if the thread is suspended. Converts the Lua value at the given acceptable index to a C boolean value (0 or 1). Like all tests in Lua, lua_toboolean returns 1 for any Lua value different from false and nil ; otherwise it returns 0. It also returns 0 when called with a non-valid index. (If you want to job application letter of manager, accept only actual boolean values, use lua_isboolean to test the highest score value's type.) Converts a value at the given acceptable index to a C function. That value must be a C function; otherwise, returns NULL . Converts the Lua value at wang-kong the given acceptable index to the signed integral type lua_Integer . The Lua value must be a number or a string convertible to a number (see §2.2.1); otherwise, lua_tointeger returns 0. If the number is not an integer, it is truncated in some non-specified way.
Converts the highest for act essay Lua value at the given acceptable index to entry, a C string. If len is not NULL , it also sets *len with the highest essay string length. The Lua value must be a string or a number; otherwise, the williams national function returns NULL . If the value is a number, then lua_tolstring also changes the actual value in the stack to a string . (This change confuses lua_next when lua_tolstring is applied to keys during a table traversal.) lua_tolstring returns a fully aligned pointer to score, a string inside the Lua state. This string always has a zero (' 0 ') after its last character (as in C), but can contain other zeros in its body. Because Lua has garbage collection, there is no guarantee that the pointer returned by lua_tolstring will be valid after the corresponding value is removed from the williams stack.
Converts the for act Lua value at the given acceptable index to the C type lua_Number (see lua_Number ). The Lua value must be a number or a string convertible to a number (see §2.2.1); otherwise, lua_tonumber returns 0. Converts the value at the given acceptable index to a generic C pointer ( void* ). The value can be a userdata, a table, a thread, or a function; otherwise, lua_topointer returns NULL . Vaughan Williams Essays? Different objects will give different pointers. For Act? There is no way to convert the pointer back to its original value. Typically this function is used only for english language coursework students debug information. Equivalent to lua_tolstring with len equal to NULL . Converts the value at the given acceptable index to highest score essay, a Lua thread (represented as lua_State* ). This value must be a thread; otherwise, the function returns NULL . If the value at the given acceptable index is a full userdata, returns its block address. If the value is phd english dissertations, a light userdata, returns its pointer. Score? Otherwise, returns NULL . Returns the type of the value in and other essays the given acceptable index, or LUA_TNONE for score for act essay a non-valid index (that is, an index to an empty stack position). The types returned by lua_type are coded by the following constants defined in engineering for graduate coursework students lua.h : LUA_TNIL , LUA_TNUMBER , LUA_TBOOLEAN , LUA_TSTRING , LUA_TTABLE , LUA_TFUNCTION , LUA_TUSERDATA , LUA_TTHREAD , and LUA_TLIGHTUSERDATA . Returns the name of the type encoded by the value tp , which must be one the values returned by lua_type . The type of the writer function used by lua_dump . Every time it produces another piece of score essay chunk, lua_dump calls the writer, passing along the buffer to be written ( p ), its size ( sz ), and the data parameter supplied to lua_dump . The writer returns an error code: 0 means no errors; any other value means an error and stops lua_dump from summer essay calling the writer again. Exchange values between different threads of the same global state. This function pops n values from the stack from for act , and pushes them onto the stack to . Yields a coroutine.
This function should only be called as the return expression of a C function, as follows: When a C function calls lua_yield in that way, the running coroutine suspends its execution, and the call to lua_resume that started this coroutine returns. Phd English? The parameter nresults is the highest number of tse thesis values from the stack that are passed as results to lua_resume . Lua has no built-in debugging facilities. Instead, it offers a special interface by means of functions and hooks . This interface allows the construction of for act different kinds of debuggers, profilers, and other tools that need inside information from the english coursework students interpreter. A structure used to carry different pieces of essay information about an active function. lua_getstack fills only the private part of resume this structure, for later use. To fill the other fields of lua_Debug with useful information, call lua_getinfo . The fields of lua_Debug have the following meaning: source : If the function was defined in a string, then source is that string. Highest Score For Act Essay? If the function was defined in a file, then source starts with a ' @ ' followed by the file name. short_src : a printable version of source , to dissertations, be used in error messages. linedefined : the line number where the definition of the function starts. Highest Score Essay? lastlinedefined : the projects line number where the definition of the function ends. what : the string Lua if the function is a Lua function, C if it is score for act essay, a C function, main if it is the main part of coursework projects a chunk, and tail if it was a function that did a tail call. In the latter case, Lua has no other information about the function. currentline : the current line where the given function is executing. When no line information is available, currentline is set to -1. name : a reasonable name for the given function.
Because functions in Lua are first-class values, they do not have a fixed name: some functions can be the value of multiple global variables, while others can be stored only in score for act a table field. The lua_getinfo function checks how the function was called to find a suitable name. If it cannot find a name, then name is set to NULL . namewhat : explains the name field. Wang-kong? The value of namewhat can be global , local , method , field , upvalue , or (the empty string), according to how the function was called. (Lua uses the empty string when no other option seems to apply.) nups : the for act number of upvalues of the function. Returns the current hook function. Returns the current hook count. Returns the current hook mask.
Returns information about a specific function or function invocation. To get information about tse thesis a function invocation, the parameter ar must be a valid activation record that was filled by a previous call to lua_getstack or given as argument to a hook (see lua_Hook ). To get information about a function you push it onto highest score the stack and start the what string with the character ' '. (In that case, lua_getinfo pops the function in the top of the stack.) For instance, to know in which line a function f was defined, you can write the following code: Each character in the string what selects some fields of the structure ar to be filled or a value to be pushed on the stack: ' n ': fills in the field name and namewhat ; ' S ': fills in the fields source , short_src , linedefined , lastlinedefined , and what ; ' l ': fills in the field currentline ; ' u ': fills in engineering english entry coursework students the field nups ; ' f ': pushes onto the stack the function that is running at the given level; ' L ': pushes onto the stack a table whose indices are the numbers of the for act essay lines that are valid on the function. (A valid line is a line with some associated code, that is, a line where you can put a break point. Williams And Other? Non-valid lines include empty lines and comments.) This function returns 0 on error (for instance, an invalid option in what ). Gets information about a local variable of a given activation record. The parameter ar must be a valid activation record that was filled by a previous call to highest for act, lua_getstack or given as argument to a hook (see lua_Hook ). The index n selects which local variable to inspect (1 is the first parameter or active local variable, and for the post, so on, until the last active local variable). lua_getlocal pushes the variable's value onto the stack and returns its name. Variable names starting with ' ( ' (open parentheses) represent internal variables (loop control variables, temporaries, and C function locals). Returns NULL (and pushes nothing) when the index is greater than the number of active local variables.
Get information about the interpreter runtime stack. This function fills parts of a lua_Debug structure with an identification of the highest essay activation record of the function executing at wang-kong tse thesis a given level. Level 0 is the current running function, whereas level n+1 is the highest score for act function that has called level n . Should Teenagers Jobs? When there are no errors, lua_getstack returns 1; when called with a level greater than the highest for act stack depth, it returns 0. Gets information about summer a closure's upvalue. (For Lua functions, upvalues are the external local variables that the function uses, and highest score essay, that are consequently included in its closure.) lua_getupvalue gets the index n of an upvalue, pushes the upvalue's value onto the stack, and returns its name. funcindex points to the closure in the stack. Dissertations? (Upvalues have no particular order, as they are active through the essay whole function. Music And Other Essays? So, they are numbered in an arbitrary order.) Returns NULL (and pushes nothing) when the index is greater than the number of upvalues.
For C functions, this function uses the empty string as a name for highest for act essay all upvalues. Type for debugging hook functions. Whenever a hook is called, its ar argument has its field event set to the specific event that triggered the hook. Lua identifies these events with the following constants: LUA_HOOKCALL , LUA_HOOKRET , LUA_HOOKTAILRET , LUA_HOOKLINE , and LUA_HOOKCOUNT . Moreover, for line events, the field currentline is also set. To get the value of any other field in dissertations ar , the hook must call lua_getinfo . For return events, event can be LUA_HOOKRET , the normal value, or LUA_HOOKTAILRET . In the latter case, Lua is highest essay, simulating a return from should teenagers have jobs essay a function that did a tail call; in this case, it is useless to call lua_getinfo . While Lua is running a hook, it disables other calls to hooks. Therefore, if a hook calls back Lua to score, execute a function or a chunk, this execution occurs without any calls to hooks. Sets the debugging hook function. Argument f is the hook function. mask specifies on which events the hook will be called: it is formed by a bitwise or of the constants LUA_MASKCALL , LUA_MASKRET , LUA_MASKLINE , and LUA_MASKCOUNT . The count argument is only meaningful when the engineering english language entry coursework students mask includes LUA_MASKCOUNT . For each event, the hook is called as explained below: The call hook: is called when the interpreter calls a function.
The hook is called just after Lua enters the new function, before the function gets its arguments. Highest For Act? The return hook: is called when the interpreter returns from a function. Dissertations? The hook is called just before Lua leaves the score function. You have no access to the values to be returned by the function. The line hook: is called when the interpreter is engineering coursework students, about to start the execution of a new line of code, or when it jumps back in highest essay the code (even to the same line). (This event only happens while Lua is executing a Lua function.) The count hook: is called after the interpreter executes every count instructions. (This event only phd english dissertations, happens while Lua is executing a Lua function.) A hook is disabled by setting mask to zero. Sets the highest for act essay value of english language coursework students a local variable of for act a given activation record. Wang-kong Tse Thesis? Parameters ar and n are as in lua_getlocal (see lua_getlocal ). lua_setlocal assigns the value at the top of the stack to the variable and returns its name. It also pops the value from the stack.
Returns NULL (and pops nothing) when the score for act essay index is greater than the number of wang-kong active local variables. Sets the value of a closure's upvalue. For Act? It assigns the value at the top of the stack to the upvalue and returns its name. It also pops the value from the stack. Parameters funcindex and n are as in the lua_getupvalue (see lua_getupvalue ).
Returns NULL (and pops nothing) when the index is greater than the wang-kong tse thesis number of upvalues. The auxiliary library provides several convenient functions to interface C with Lua. While the basic API provides the primitive functions for all interactions between C and Lua, the auxiliary library provides higher-level functions for some common tasks. All functions from the auxiliary library are defined in header file lauxlib.h and have a prefix luaL_ . All functions in the auxiliary library are built on top of the basic API, and so they provide nothing that cannot be done with this API. Several functions in the auxiliary library are used to check C function arguments. Score For Act Essay? Their names are always luaL_check* or luaL_opt* . All of these functions throw an error if the check is not satisfied.
Because the error message is formatted for wang-kong tse thesis arguments (e.g., bad argument #1 ), you should not use these functions for essay other stack values. Here we list all functions and coursework, types from the auxiliary library in alphabetical order. Adds the character c to the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). Adds the string pointed to by s with length l to the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). The string may contain embedded zeros. Adds to the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ) a string of length n previously copied to the buffer area (see luaL_prepbuffer ). Adds the zero-terminated string pointed to by s to the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). The string may not contain embedded zeros. Adds the value at highest essay the top of the stack to the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). Pops the value. This is the only function on string buffers that can (and must) be called with an extra element on the stack, which is the value to be added to the buffer.
Checks whether cond is tse thesis, true. If not, raises an error with the following message, where func is retrieved from the call stack: Raises an error with the following message, where func is retrieved from the call stack: This function never returns, but it is an idiom to use it in C functions as return luaL_argerror( args ) . Type for a string buffer . A string buffer allows C code to build Lua strings piecemeal. Its pattern of use is as follows: First you declare a variable b of type luaL_Buffer . For Act? Then you initialize it with a call luaL_buffinit(L, b) . Then you add string pieces to the buffer calling any of the luaL_add* functions. You finish by calling luaL_pushresult(b) . This call leaves the final string on the top of the stack. During its normal operation, a string buffer uses a variable number of stack slots. Engineering Language Alternative Entry Coursework Students? So, while using a buffer, you cannot assume that you know where the top of the highest score for act stack is. You can use the stack between successive calls to buffer operations as long as that use is language alternative entry for graduate coursework students, balanced; that is, when you call a buffer operation, the stack is at the same level it was immediately after the previous buffer operation. (The only exception to this rule is luaL_addvalue .) After calling luaL_pushresult the stack is back to its level when the buffer was initialized, plus the final string on its top. Initializes a buffer B . Highest Score For Act? This function does not allocate any space; the resume coursework projects buffer must be declared as a variable (see luaL_Buffer ).
Calls a metamethod. If the object at highest score essay index obj has a metatable and this metatable has a field e , this function calls this field and passes the object as its only argument. In this case this function returns 1 and pushes onto the stack the value returned by the call. If there is resume coursework, no metatable or no metamethod, this function returns 0 (without pushing any value on the stack). Checks whether the highest essay function has an argument of any type (including nil ) at position narg . Checks whether the job application letter post of manager function argument narg is a number and returns this number cast to an int . Checks whether the function argument narg is a number and highest score, returns this number cast to tse thesis, a lua_Integer . Checks whether the highest score essay function argument narg is a number and returns this number cast to a long . Checks whether the function argument narg is a string and returns this string; if l is not NULL fills *l with the string's length. This function uses lua_tolstring to get its result, so all conversions and caveats of entry coursework students that function apply here. Checks whether the function argument narg is score for act essay, a number and returns this number. Checks whether the function argument narg is a string and searches for this string in the array lst (which must be NULL-terminated). Returns the index in the array where the and other string was found. Score For Act? Raises an error if the argument is not a string or if the string cannot be found. If def is job application post of manager, not NULL , the function uses def as a default value when there is no argument narg or if this argument is nil . This is a useful function for mapping strings to C enums. For Act Essay? (The usual convention in Lua libraries is to use strings instead of numbers to select options.)
Grows the stack size to top + sz elements, raising an error if the stack cannot grow to that size. msg is an additional text to wang-kong, go into the error message. Checks whether the function argument narg is a string and score for act essay, returns this string. This function uses lua_tolstring to get its result, so all conversions and caveats of that function apply here. Checks whether the function argument narg has type t . See lua_type for the encoding of types for t . Checks whether the language alternative students function argument narg is a userdata of the type tname (see luaL_newmetatable ). Loads and for act essay, runs the given file. It is defined as the following macro: It returns 0 if there are no errors or 1 in case of errors. Loads and runs the given string. It is defined as the following macro: It returns 0 if there are no errors or 1 in case of errors.
Raises an error. Job Application Letter Post Of Manager? The error message format is score, given by fmt plus any extra arguments, following the resume coursework same rules of lua_pushfstring . It also adds at the beginning of the message the file name and score, the line number where the error occurred, if this information is available. This function never returns, but it is an tse thesis idiom to highest score essay, use it in C functions as return luaL_error( args ) . Pushes onto tse thesis the stack the field e from the metatable of the object at highest for act index obj . If the object does not have a metatable, or if the metatable does not have this field, returns 0 and projects, pushes nothing. Pushes onto the stack the metatable associated with name tname in the registry (see luaL_newmetatable ). Creates a copy of string s by replacing any occurrence of the string p with the score string r . Pushes the resulting string on the stack and returns it. Loads a buffer as a Lua chunk. This function uses lua_load to load the chunk in the buffer pointed to by buff with size sz . This function returns the phd english dissertations same results as lua_load . For Act Essay? name is the chunk name, used for debug information and wang-kong tse thesis, error messages. Loads a file as a Lua chunk. For Act Essay? This function uses lua_load to load the chunk in the file named filename . If filename is NULL , then it loads from the standard input. Should Have? The first line in the file is highest essay, ignored if it starts with a # . This function returns the same results as lua_load , but it has an extra error code LUA_ERRFILE if it cannot open/read the file. As lua_load , this function only loads the chunk; it does not run it.
Loads a string as a Lua chunk. This function uses lua_load to dissertations, load the chunk in highest score the zero-terminated string s . This function returns the same results as lua_load . Also as lua_load , this function only loads the chunk; it does not run it. If the registry already has the key tname , returns 0. Otherwise, creates a new table to tse thesis, be used as a metatable for userdata, adds it to the registry with key tname , and returns 1. In both cases pushes onto the stack the final value associated with tname in highest for act the registry. Creates a new Lua state. Teenagers Have Summer Jobs Essay? It calls lua_newstate with an allocator based on the standard C realloc function and highest, then sets a panic function (see lua_atpanic ) that prints an error message to the standard error output in for the post of manager case of fatal errors. Returns the for act essay new state, or NULL if there is a memory allocation error. Opens all standard Lua libraries into national music, the given state.
If the function argument narg is a number, returns this number cast to an int . Highest For Act Essay? If this argument is absent or is nil , returns d . Otherwise, raises an error. If the function argument narg is a number, returns this number cast to teenagers have summer, a lua_Integer . If this argument is absent or is nil , returns d . Otherwise, raises an for act essay error. If the function argument narg is a number, returns this number cast to a long . If this argument is absent or is nil , returns d . Otherwise, raises an error. If the function argument narg is a string, returns this string. If this argument is absent or is nil , returns d . Otherwise, raises an error. If l is letter for the of manager, not NULL , fills the position *l with the score results's length. If the function argument narg is a number, returns this number. Vaughan National Music Essays? If this argument is absent or is highest score for act, nil , returns d . Otherwise, raises an error. If the wang-kong tse thesis function argument narg is a string, returns this string.
If this argument is absent or is nil , returns d . Otherwise, raises an error. Returns an address to a space of size LUAL_BUFFERSIZE where you can copy a string to be added to buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). Essay? After copying the string into teenagers summer jobs, this space you must call luaL_addsize with the score for act essay size of the string to actually add it to the buffer. Finishes the use of projects buffer B leaving the final string on the top of the stack. Creates and returns a reference , in score the table at engineering english alternative entry coursework students index t , for the object at the top of the for act essay stack (and pops the object). A reference is letter for the of manager, a unique integer key. As long as you do not manually add integer keys into table t , luaL_ref ensures the uniqueness of the key it returns. You can retrieve an object referred by reference r by highest score calling lua_rawgeti(L, t, r) . Engineering English Language Alternative For Graduate Coursework Students? Function luaL_unref frees a reference and its associated object. If the object at the top of the stack is nil , luaL_ref returns the highest score constant LUA_REFNIL . The constant LUA_NOREF is guaranteed to be different from any reference returned by luaL_ref . Type for arrays of functions to be registered by luaL_register . Resume Coursework? name is the function name and func is a pointer to the function. Highest Score Essay? Any array of luaL_Reg must end with an sentinel entry in which both name and func are NULL . Opens a library.
When called with libname equal to NULL , it simply registers all functions in the list l (see luaL_Reg ) into the table on the top of the stack. When called with a non-null libname , luaL_register creates a new table t , sets it as the coursework value of the global variable libname , sets it as the value of package.loaded[libname] , and registers on highest for act it all functions in the list l . Phd English Dissertations? If there is a table in package.loaded[libname] or in variable libname , reuses this table instead of creating a new one. In any case the highest score essay function leaves the table on the top of the stack. Returns the name of the type of the value at the given index. Generates an job application letter for the error with a message like the following: where location is produced by luaL_where , func is the name of the current function, and rt is the type name of the actual argument. Releases reference ref from the table at index t (see luaL_ref ). The entry is removed from the table, so that the referred object can be collected.
The reference ref is also freed to be used again. Pushes onto the stack a string identifying the current position of the highest score essay control at level lvl in the call stack. Typically this string has the following format: Level 0 is the phd english running function, level 1 is the highest score for act essay function that called the running function, etc. This function is used to build a prefix for error messages.
The standard Lua libraries provide useful functions that are implemented directly through the C API. Vaughan Williams National Music And Other? Some of these functions provide essential services to score essay, the language (e.g., type and getmetatable ); others provide access to outside services (e.g., I/O); and others could be implemented in should have summer jobs essay Lua itself, but are quite useful or have critical performance requirements that deserve an score for act implementation in for the post C (e.g., table.sort ). All libraries are implemented through the official C API and are provided as separate C modules. Currently, Lua has the following standard libraries: basic library, which includes the for act essay coroutine sub-library; package library; string manipulation; table manipulation; mathematical functions (sin, log, etc.); input and output; operating system facilities; debug facilities. Except for the basic and package libraries, each library provides all its functions as fields of a global table or as methods of its objects. To have access to these libraries, the C host program should call the vaughan national essays luaL_openlibs function, which opens all standard libraries. Alternatively, it can open them individually by calling luaopen_base (for the basic library), luaopen_package (for the package library), luaopen_string (for the for act string library), luaopen_table (for the table library), luaopen_math (for the mathematical library), luaopen_io (for the projects I/O library), luaopen_os (for the Operating System library), and luaopen_debug (for the debug library). These functions are declared in lualib.h and should not be called directly: you must call them like any other Lua C function, e.g., by using lua_call . The basic library provides some core functions to highest for act, Lua. If you do not include this library in your application, you should check carefully whether you need to provide implementations for some of its facilities.
This function is a generic interface to the garbage collector. It performs different functions according to phd english dissertations, its first argument, opt : collect: performs a full garbage-collection cycle. This is the default option. stop: stops the garbage collector. restart: restarts the garbage collector. count: returns the total memory in use by score essay Lua (in Kbytes). step: performs a garbage-collection step. The step size is controlled by arg (larger values mean more steps) in a non-specified way. If you want to national music and other, control the step size you must experimentally tune the value of arg . Returns true if the step finished a collection cycle. setpause: sets arg as the new value for score for act the pause of the collector (see §2.10).
Returns the previous value for pause . Williams And Other? setstepmul: sets arg as the new value for the step multiplier of the collector (see §2.10). Returns the previous value for step . Usually, error adds some information about the highest essay error position at the beginning of the message. Engineering English Language For Graduate? The level argument specifies how to get the error position. With level 1 (the default), the error position is highest score essay, where the error function was called. Level 2 points the engineering language alternative entry for graduate students error to where the function that called error was called; and so on. Highest Score For Act? Passing a level 0 avoids the addition of error position information to the message. If object does not have a metatable, returns nil . Wang-kong Tse Thesis? Otherwise, if the object's metatable has a __metatable field, returns the associated value.
Otherwise, returns the metatable of the given object. Returns three values: an iterator function, the table t , and for act essay, 0, so that the construction. will iterate over the pairs ( 1,t ), ( 2,t ), ···, up to the first integer key absent from the table. Loads a chunk using function func to get its pieces. Each call to func must return a string that concatenates with previous results. A return of an empty string, nil , or no value signals the end of the chunk.
If there are no errors, returns the compiled chunk as a function; otherwise, returns nil plus the error message. The environment of the returned function is the global environment. chunkname is phd english dissertations, used as the chunk name for error messages and debug information. When absent, it defaults to =(load) . Similar to score, load , but gets the chunk from file filename or from the standard input, if no file name is given. Similar to load , but gets the chunk from the given string. To load and run a given string, use the idiom. When absent, chunkname defaults to the given string. Allows a program to traverse all fields of a table.
Its first argument is a table and its second argument is an index in should essay this table. next returns the next index of the table and its associated value. When called with nil as its second argument, next returns an initial index and its associated value. When called with the last index, or with nil in an empty table, next returns nil . If the second argument is absent, then it is highest score for act, interpreted as nil . In particular, you can use next(t) to check whether a table is empty. The order in which the indices are enumerated is wang-kong tse thesis, not specified, even for numeric indices . (To traverse a table in numeric order, use a numerical for or the highest score for act essay ipairs function.) The behavior of next is resume, undefined if, during the traversal, you assign any value to a non-existent field in the table. You may however modify existing fields. In particular, you may clear existing fields.
Returns three values: the highest essay next function, the table t , and letter for the of manager, nil , so that the construction. will iterate over all keyvalue pairs of table t . See function next for the caveats of modifying the score essay table during its traversal. Calls function f with the given arguments in protected mode . This means that any error inside f is not propagated; instead, pcall catches the error and returns a status code. Its first result is the status code (a boolean), which is true if the call succeeds without errors. Should Teenagers Summer Jobs? In such case, pcall also returns all results from the call, after this first result. In case of any error, pcall returns false plus the error message.
This function returns table . If index is a number, returns all arguments after argument number index . Otherwise, index must be the string # , and select returns the total number of highest score for act essay extra arguments it received. Sets the environment to be used by the given function. f can be a Lua function or a number that specifies the function at that stack level: Level 1 is the engineering english entry function calling setfenv . setfenv returns the given function. As a special case, when f is 0 setfenv changes the environment of the running thread. Score Essay? In this case, setfenv returns no values. Sets the metatable for the given table. (You cannot change the resume coursework metatable of other types from Lua, only from highest score for act essay C.) If metatable is nil , removes the metatable of the wang-kong tse thesis given table. If the original metatable has a __metatable field, raises an error. This function returns table . An optional argument specifies the base to interpret the highest score for act numeral. Job Application Letter? The base may be any integer between 2 and 36, inclusive. Score For Act Essay? In bases above 10, the letter ' A ' (in either upper or lower case) represents 10, ' B ' represents 11, and dissertations, so forth, with ' Z ' representing 35.
In base 10 (the default), the highest score essay number can have a decimal part, as well as an optional exponent part (see §2.1). In other bases, only engineering english language entry coursework students, unsigned integers are accepted. If the metatable of e has a __tostring field, then tostring calls the corresponding value with e as argument, and uses the result of the highest essay call as its result. except that the above code can be written only for letter a fixed number of elements. By default, i is 1 and score essay, j is the length of the list, as defined by the length operator (see §2.5.5). This function is similar to have summer jobs essay, pcall , except that you can set a new error handler.
xpcall calls function f in highest protected mode, using err as the error handler. Any error inside f is not propagated; instead, xpcall catches the error, calls the err function with the original error object, and returns a status code. Its first result is the status code (a boolean), which is true if the call succeeds without errors. In this case, xpcall also returns all results from the call, after this first result. In case of any error, xpcall returns false plus the projects result from err . The operations related to coroutines comprise a sub-library of the basic library and essay, come inside the table coroutine . See §2.11 for a general description of post of manager coroutines. Creates a new coroutine, with body f . f must be a Lua function. Returns this new coroutine, an for act object with type thread . Starts or continues the execution of coroutine co . The first time you resume a coroutine, it starts running its body. The values val1 , ··· are passed as the arguments to the body function. If the coroutine has yielded, resume restarts it; the values val1 , ··· are passed as the results from the yield.
If the coroutine runs without any errors, resume returns true plus any values passed to yield (if the coroutine yields) or any values returned by the body function (if the coroutine terminates). If there is any error, resume returns false plus the error message. Returns the running coroutine, or nil when called by tse thesis the main thread. Returns the highest for act status of coroutine co , as a string: running , if the coroutine is running (that is, it called status ); suspended , if the coroutine is suspended in a call to yield , or if it has not started running yet; normal if the coroutine is active but not running (that is, it has resumed another coroutine); and tse thesis, dead if the coroutine has finished its body function, or if it has stopped with an error. Creates a new coroutine, with body f . f must be a Lua function. Highest For Act? Returns a function that resumes the coroutine each time it is called. Any arguments passed to the function behave as the phd english extra arguments to for act essay, resume . Engineering English Entry For Graduate? Returns the same values returned by resume , except the first boolean. In case of highest for act essay error, propagates the resume coursework projects error.
Suspends the execution of the calling coroutine. The coroutine cannot be running a C function, a metamethod, or an iterator. Any arguments to yield are passed as extra results to resume . The package library provides basic facilities for score for act essay loading and building modules in Lua. It exports two of its functions directly in the global environment: require and module . Everything else is exported in a table package . Creates a module. Should Have Jobs Essay? If there is a table in package.loaded[name] , this table is the module. Highest Essay? Otherwise, if there is a global table t with the engineering language coursework students given name, this table is the module. Highest? Otherwise creates a new table t and sets it as the phd english dissertations value of the global name and the value of package.loaded[name] . This function also initializes t._NAME with the given name, t._M with the module ( t itself), and t._PACKAGE with the highest package name (the full module name minus last component; see below). Finally, module sets t as the new environment of the current function and the new value of package.loaded[name] , so that require returns t . If name is a compound name (that is, one with components separated by dots), module creates (or reuses, if they already exist) tables for each component.
For instance, if name is a.b.c , then module stores the module table in resume coursework projects field c of field b of global a . This function can receive optional options after the module name, where each option is a function to be applied over the module. Loads the given module. The function starts by looking into score for act essay, the package.loaded table to determine whether modname is already loaded. Vaughan Williams Music Essays? If it is, then require returns the value stored at package.loaded[modname] . Otherwise, it tries to find a loader for highest score essay the module. To find a loader, require is guided by the package.loaders array. Resume Coursework? By changing this array, we can change how require looks for a module. Highest Score? The following explanation is based on the default configuration for package.loaders . First require queries package.preload[modname] . If it has a value, this value (which should be a function) is the should teenagers have essay loader. Otherwise require searches for a Lua loader using the path stored in package.path . If that also fails, it searches for a C loader using the path stored in package.cpath . If that also fails, it tries an all-in-one loader (see package.loaders ). Once a loader is found, require calls the loader with a single argument, modname . If the loader returns any value, require assigns the returned value to package.loaded[modname] . If the highest loader returns no value and has not assigned any value to package.loaded[modname] , then require assigns true to this entry.
In any case, require returns the final value of package.loaded[modname] . If there is wang-kong tse thesis, any error loading or running the module, or if it cannot find any loader for the module, then require signals an error. The path used by require to search for a C loader. Lua initializes the C path package.cpath in the same way it initializes the Lua path package.path , using the environment variable LUA_CPATH or a default path defined in luaconf.h . A table used by require to control which modules are already loaded. When you require a module modname and for act, package.loaded[modname] is not false, require simply returns the value stored there. A table used by require to control how to load modules. Each entry in this table is a searcher function . When looking for a module, require calls each of wang-kong these searchers in ascending order, with the module name (the argument given to score essay, require ) as its sole parameter. The function can return another function (the module loader ) or a string explaining why it did not find that module (or nil if it has nothing to say).
Lua initializes this table with four functions. The first searcher simply looks for a loader in the package.preload table. The second searcher looks for dissertations a loader as a Lua library, using the path stored at package.path . A path is a sequence of templates separated by semicolons. For each template, the searcher will change each interrogation mark in the template by filename , which is the module name with each dot replaced by a directory separator (such as / in score for act essay Unix); then it will try to open the resulting file name. So, for instance, if the Lua path is the string.
the search for for the post a Lua file for score for act module foo will try to open the files ./foo.lua , ./foo.lc , and /usr/local/foo/init.lua , in that order. The third searcher looks for a loader as a C library, using the path given by the variable package.cpath . For instance, if the C path is the string. the searcher for module foo will try to should teenagers have summer jobs essay, open the files ./foo.so , ./foo.dll , and /usr/local/foo/init.so , in highest score for act that order. Once it finds a C library, this searcher first uses a dynamic link facility to link the national essays application with the library. Then it tries to find a C function inside the highest library to be used as the loader.
The name of this C function is the string luaopen_ concatenated with a copy of the module name where each dot is replaced by an underscore. Moreover, if the module name has a hyphen, its prefix up to (and including) the first hyphen is removed. For instance, if the resume module name is a.v1-b.c , the function name will be luaopen_b_c . The fourth searcher tries an all-in-one loader . It searches the C path for a library for the root name of the given module. Highest For Act Essay? For instance, when requiring a.b.c , it will search for a C library for a . If found, it looks into it for an open function for the submodule; in our example, that would be luaopen_a_b_c . With this facility, a package can pack several C submodules into one single library, with each submodule keeping its original open function. Dynamically links the host program with the C library libname . Inside this library, looks for a function funcname and returns this function as a C function. (So, funcname must follow the protocol (see lua_CFunction )).
This is a low-level function. Should Teenagers Jobs? It completely bypasses the package and module system. Unlike require , it does not perform any path searching and highest score, does not automatically adds extensions. libname must be the complete file name of the C library, including if necessary a path and extension. funcname must be the exact name exported by the C library (which may depend on the C compiler and linker used). This function is not supported by job application letter ANSI C. As such, it is only available on some platforms (Windows, Linux, Mac OS X, Solaris, BSD, plus other Unix systems that support the dlfcn standard). The path used by require to search for a Lua loader. At start-up, Lua initializes this variable with the value of the environment variable LUA_PATH or with a default path defined in luaconf.h , if the highest environment variable is not defined. Projects? Any ;; in the value of the environment variable is replaced by the default path. A table to store loaders for specific modules (see require ). Sets a metatable for module with its __index field referring to the global environment, so that this module inherits values from the global environment. To be used as an option to function module . This library provides generic functions for string manipulation, such as finding and extracting substrings, and pattern matching.
When indexing a string in Lua, the highest first character is at position 1 (not at 0, as in C). Indices are allowed to be negative and are interpreted as indexing backwards, from the end of the string. Thus, the last character is at position -1, and wang-kong, so on. The string library provides all its functions inside the table string . Essay? It also sets a metatable for strings where the __index field points to the string table. Therefore, you can use the string functions in object-oriented style. For instance, string.byte(s, i) can be written as s:byte(i) . The string library assumes one-byte character encodings.
Note that numerical codes are not necessarily portable across platforms. Note that numerical codes are not necessarily portable across platforms. Returns a string containing a binary representation of the given function, so that a later loadstring on this string returns a copy of the function. function must be a Lua function without upvalues. string.find (s, pattern [, init [, plain]]) If the pattern has captures, then in a successful match the captured values are also returned, after the teenagers have summer essay two indices. will produce the string: The options c , d , E , e , f , g , G , i , o , u , X , and x all expect a number as argument, whereas q and s expect a string.
This function does not accept string values containing embedded zeros, except as arguments to the q option. As an example, the highest for act following loop. will iterate over all the words from string s , printing one per line. The next example collects all pairs key=value from the given string into a table: For this function, a ' ^ ' at the start of a pattern does not work as an anchor, as this would prevent the iteration.
If repl is a string, then its value is used for resume projects replacement. Highest Score Essay? The character % works as an escape character: any sequence in repl of the letter for the post form % n , with n between 1 and 9, stands for the value of the for act essay n -th captured substring (see below). The sequence %0 stands for the whole match. The sequence %% stands for a single % . If repl is engineering english language entry for graduate coursework students, a table, then the highest table is queried for every match, using the first capture as the key; if the pattern specifies no captures, then the whole match is used as the key. If repl is a function, then this function is called every time a match occurs, with all captured substrings passed as arguments, in order; if the job application letter post of manager pattern specifies no captures, then the whole match is passed as a sole argument. If the highest for act value returned by the table query or by the function call is a string or a number, then it is used as the replacement string; otherwise, if it is false or nil , then there is no replacement (that is, the original match is kept in the string).
Here are some examples: A character class is used to represent a set of characters. The following combinations are allowed in describing a character class: x : (where x is not one of the magic characters ^$()%.*+-? ) represents the character x itself. . : (a dot) represents all characters. %a : represents all letters. %c : represents all control characters. %d : represents all digits. %l : represents all lowercase letters. %p : represents all punctuation characters. Phd English? %s : represents all space characters. %u : represents all uppercase letters. %w : represents all alphanumeric characters. %x : represents all hexadecimal digits. %z : represents the character with representation 0. % x : (where x is any non-alphanumeric character) represents the highest score for act essay character x . This is the standard way to escape the magic characters. Any punctuation character (even the non magic) can be preceded by a ' % ' when used to represent itself in a pattern. [ set ] : represents the class which is the union of teenagers summer essay all characters in set . A range of characters can be specified by separating the end characters of the range with a ' - '. All classes % x described above can also be used as components in set . Highest Score Essay? All other characters in set represent themselves. Wang-kong Tse Thesis? For example, [%w_] (or [_%w] ) represents all alphanumeric characters plus the underscore, [0-7] represents the octal digits, and [0-7%l%-] represents the octal digits plus the score lowercase letters plus the ' - ' character. The interaction between ranges and classes is not defined. Therefore, patterns like [%a-z] or [a-%%] have no meaning. Have Summer Jobs Essay? [^ set ] : represents the complement of set , where set is interpreted as above. For all classes represented by single letters ( %a , %c , etc.), the corresponding uppercase letter represents the complement of the class.
For instance, %S represents all non-space characters. The definitions of letter, space, and other character groups depend on the current locale. In particular, the class [a-z] may not be equivalent to %l . A pattern item can be a single character class, which matches any single character in the class; a single character class followed by ' * ', which matches 0 or more repetitions of characters in the class. These repetition items will always match the longest possible sequence; a single character class followed by ' + ', which matches 1 or more repetitions of characters in the class. These repetition items will always match the longest possible sequence; a single character class followed by ' - ', which also matches 0 or more repetitions of characters in the class. Unlike ' * ', these repetition items will always match the shortest possible sequence; a single character class followed by ' ? ', which matches 0 or 1 occurrence of a character in the class; % n , for score for act n between 1 and 9; such item matches a substring equal to the n -th captured string (see below); %b xy , where x and y are two distinct characters; such item matches strings that start with x , end with y , and where the x and y are balanced . This means that, if one reads the string from left to right, counting +1 for an x and -1 for a y , the ending y is the should teenagers jobs first y where the count reaches 0. For instance, the item %b() matches expressions with balanced parentheses.
A pattern is a sequence of pattern items. A ' ^ ' at the beginning of a pattern anchors the match at the beginning of the subject string. A ' $ ' at the end of a pattern anchors the highest score match at the end of the should teenagers summer jobs subject string. At other positions, ' ^ ' and ' $ ' have no special meaning and represent themselves. A pattern can contain sub-patterns enclosed in parentheses; they describe captures . Highest Essay? When a match succeeds, the projects substrings of the subject string that match captures are stored ( captured ) for future use.
Captures are numbered according to their left parentheses. For instance, in the pattern (a*(.)%w(%s*)) , the part of the string matching a*(.)%w(%s*) is stored as the first capture (and therefore has number 1); the character matching . Score For Act? is captured with number 2, and language entry, the part matching %s* has number 3. As a special case, the highest score essay empty capture () captures the current string position (a number). For instance, if we apply the alternative coursework students pattern ()aa() on the string flaaap , there will be two captures: 3 and 5. A pattern cannot contain embedded zeros.
Use %z instead. This library provides generic functions for table manipulation. It provides all its functions inside the table table . Most functions in for act the table library assume that the table represents an array or a list. For these functions, when we talk about the tse thesis length of a table we mean the result of the highest for act length operator. Inserts element value at coursework projects position pos in table , shifting up other elements to open space, if necessary. The default value for pos is n+1 , where n is the score length of the table (see §2.5.5), so that a call table.insert(t,x) inserts x at the end of table t . Returns the largest positive numerical index of the given table, or zero if the table has no positive numerical indices. Wang-kong? (To do its job this function does a linear traversal of the whole table.) Removes from table the essay element at music essays position pos , shifting down other elements to close the space, if necessary. Returns the value of the removed element. The default value for pos is score for act essay, n , where n is the length of the table, so that a call table.remove(t) removes the last element of table t . The sort algorithm is not stable; that is, elements considered equal by the given order may have their relative positions changed by the sort. This library is an should summer jobs interface to the standard C math library. It provides all its functions inside the table math . Returns the absolute value of x . Returns the arc cosine of highest score for act essay x (in radians).
Returns the arc sine of x (in radians). Returns the arc tangent of x (in radians). Returns the arc tangent of y/x (in radians), but uses the signs of both parameters to find the quadrant of the result. (It also handles correctly the teenagers summer case of x being zero.) Returns the smallest integer larger than or equal to x . Returns the cosine of x (assumed to for act essay, be in dissertations radians). Returns the hyperbolic cosine of x . Returns the angle x (given in radians) in degrees. Returns the value e x . Returns the largest integer smaller than or equal to x . Returns the remainder of the division of x by highest for act essay y that rounds the resume projects quotient towards zero. Returns m and e such that x = m2 e , e is an integer and the absolute value of m is in the range [0.5, 1) (or zero when x is zero). The value HUGE_VAL , a value larger than or equal to any other numerical value. Returns m2 e ( e should be an integer). Returns the natural logarithm of x . Returns the base-10 logarithm of x . Returns the maximum value among its arguments. Returns the minimum value among its arguments.
Returns two numbers, the integral part of x and the fractional part of x . Returns x y . (You can also use the expression x^y to compute this value.) Returns the angle x (given in degrees) in radians. This function is an for act essay interface to the simple pseudo-random generator function rand provided by vaughan williams national music ANSI C. (No guarantees can be given for score for act essay its statistical properties.) When called without arguments, returns a uniform pseudo-random real number in the range [0,1) . When called with an engineering english entry integer number m , math.random returns a uniform pseudo-random integer in the range [1, m] . Score Essay? When called with two integer numbers m and phd english dissertations, n , math.random returns a uniform pseudo-random integer in the range [m, n] . Sets x as the seed for the pseudo-random generator: equal seeds produce equal sequences of numbers. Returns the sine of score essay x (assumed to for the, be in radians). Returns the hyperbolic sine of x . Returns the square root of highest score for act x . (You can also use the expression x^0.5 to compute this value.)
Returns the tangent of engineering english language for graduate students x (assumed to be in essay radians). Returns the hyperbolic tangent of x . The I/O library provides two different styles for file manipulation. The first one uses implicit file descriptors; that is, there are operations to set a default input file and a default output file, and all input/output operations are over these default files. The second style uses explicit file descriptors. When using implicit file descriptors, all operations are supplied by table io . When using explicit file descriptors, the operation io.open returns a file descriptor and then all operations are supplied as methods of the file descriptor. The table io also provides three predefined file descriptors with their usual meanings from C: io.stdin , io.stdout , and io.stderr . The I/O library never closes these files. Unless otherwise stated, all I/O functions return nil on failure (plus an error message as a second result and a system-dependent error code as a third result) and coursework, some value different from highest score for act essay nil on success. Equivalent to file:close() . Wang-kong Tse Thesis? Without a file , closes the default output file.
Equivalent to file:flush over the default output file. When called with a file name, it opens the named file (in text mode), and sets its handle as the default input file. When called with a file handle, it simply sets this file handle as the default input file. When called without parameters, it returns the current default input file. In case of errors this function raises the error, instead of returning an highest for act essay error code. Opens the tse thesis given file name in read mode and returns an iterator function that, each time it is called, returns a new line from the file.
Therefore, the construction. will iterate over all lines of the file. When the highest score for act iterator function detects the end of file, it returns nil (to finish the loop) and automatically closes the file. The call io.lines() (with no file name) is english alternative coursework, equivalent to io.input():lines() ; that is, it iterates over the lines of the default input file. Highest? In this case it does not close the file when the for the loop ends. This function opens a file, in the mode specified in the string mode . Highest Score? It returns a new file handle, or, in case of errors, nil plus an error message. The mode string can be any of the following: r: read mode (the default); w: write mode; a: append mode; r+: update mode, all previous data is preserved; w+: update mode, all previous data is erased; a+: append update mode, previous data is preserved, writing is only allowed at the end of job application letter for the file.
The mode string can also have a ' b ' at score essay the end, which is needed in williams music and other some systems to open the file in binary mode. This string is exactly what is used in the standard C function fopen . Similar to io.input , but operates over the default output file. Starts program prog in score for act a separated process and returns a file handle that you can use to vaughan williams national, read data from this program (if mode is highest score, r , the default) or to write data to this program (if mode is w ). This function is system dependent and is not available on all platforms. Equivalent to projects, io.input():read . Returns a handle for a temporary file. This file is opened in score update mode and it is automatically removed when the program ends. Checks whether obj is a valid file handle.
Returns the string file if obj is an open file handle, closed file if obj is a closed file handle, or nil if obj is not a file handle. Equivalent to should teenagers have jobs essay, io.output():write . Closes file . Note that files are automatically closed when their handles are garbage collected, but that takes an unpredictable amount of time to happen. Saves any written data to score for act, file . Returns an iterator function that, each time it is called, returns a new line from the dissertations file. Therefore, the highest score for act construction. will iterate over all lines of the file. (Unlike io.lines , this function does not close the file when the vaughan williams music and other loop ends.)
Reads the file file , according to the given formats, which specify what to read. For each format, the function returns a string (or a number) with the characters read, or nil if it cannot read data with the specified format. When called without formats, it uses a default format that reads the score for act entire next line (see below). The available formats are *n: reads a number; this is the only format that returns a number instead of a string. *a: reads the whole file, starting at the current position. On end of job application file, it returns the empty string. *l: reads the next line (skipping the end of line), returning nil on end of file. This is the default format. Score For Act? number : reads a string with up to this number of characters, returning nil on end of file. If number is zero, it reads nothing and returns an empty string, or nil on job application letter post of manager end of file. Sets and essay, gets the file position, measured from the beginning of the file, to the position given by offset plus a base specified by the string whence , as follows: set: base is position 0 (beginning of the file); cur: base is current position; end: base is dissertations, end of file; In case of highest score essay success, function seek returns the vaughan national and other essays final file position, measured in highest score essay bytes from the tse thesis beginning of the file. For Act Essay? If this function fails, it returns nil , plus a string describing the error. The default value for teenagers have jobs whence is cur , and for offset is essay, 0. Therefore, the call file:seek() returns the current file position, without changing it; the call file:seek(set) sets the position to the beginning of the file (and returns 0); and the call file:seek(end) sets the position to phd english dissertations, the end of the file, and returns its size.
Sets the buffering mode for an output file. There are three available modes: no: no buffering; the highest for act result of any output operation appears immediately. full: full buffering; output operation is performed only when the buffer is full (or when you explicitly flush the file (see io.flush )). line: line buffering; output is buffered until a newline is output or there is any input from some special files (such as a terminal device). For the last two cases, size specifies the size of the buffer, in music bytes. The default is an for act appropriate size. Writes the value of each of its arguments to the file . National? The arguments must be strings or numbers. To write other values, use tostring or string.format before write . This library is implemented through table os . Returns an approximation of the amount in seconds of CPU time used by score for act the program. Returns a string or a table containing date and time, formatted according to the given string format . If the time argument is language entry coursework, present, this is the time to be formatted (see the os.time function for a description of this value). Otherwise, date formats the current time. If format starts with ' ! ', then the date is formatted in Coordinated Universal Time.
After this optional character, if format is the string *t , then date returns a table with the for act following fields: year (four digits), month (1--12), day (1--31), hour (0--23), min (0--59), sec (0--61), wday (weekday, Sunday is 1), yday (day of the year), and engineering english students, isdst (daylight saving flag, a boolean). If format is highest score, not *t , then date returns the date as a string, formatted according to the same rules as the should summer jobs essay C function strftime . When called without arguments, date returns a reasonable date and time representation that depends on the host system and on highest score for act the current locale (that is, os.date() is equivalent to os.date(%c) ). Returns the number of seconds from time t1 to time t2 . In POSIX, Windows, and some other systems, this value is exactly t2 - t1 . This function is equivalent to the C function system . It passes command to be executed by an operating system shell. It returns a status code, which is job application for the post of manager, system-dependent. Highest Score? If command is absent, then it returns nonzero if a shell is available and zero otherwise. Calls the C function exit , with an optional code , to terminate the engineering english language host program. The default value for code is the success code. Returns the value of the process environment variable varname , or nil if the variable is highest score for act, not defined. Deletes the resume projects file or directory with the given name.
Directories must be empty to be removed. If this function fails, it returns nil , plus a string describing the error. Renames file or directory named oldname to newname . If this function fails, it returns nil , plus a string describing the error. Sets the current locale of the highest score program. locale is teenagers jobs, a string specifying a locale; category is an optional string describing which category to change: all , collate , ctype , monetary , numeric , or time ; the default category is all . The function returns the name of the new locale, or nil if the request cannot be honored. If locale is the empty string, the current locale is set to an implementation-defined native locale. If locale is the string C , the current locale is set to the standard C locale. When called with nil as the first argument, this function only returns the name of the current locale for the given category. Returns the for act current time when called without arguments, or a time representing the alternative entry for graduate coursework date and time specified by the given table. This table must have fields year , month , and day , and highest score essay, may have fields hour , min , sec , and isdst (for a description of these fields, see the os.date function).
The returned value is phd english dissertations, a number, whose meaning depends on your system. In POSIX, Windows, and some other systems, this number counts the highest for act essay number of seconds since some given start time (the epoch). In other systems, the meaning is not specified, and the number returned by williams and other essays time can be used only highest score, as an argument to date and difftime . Returns a string with a file name that can be used for a temporary file. The file must be explicitly opened before its use and explicitly removed when no longer needed. On some systems (POSIX), this function also creates a file with that name, to avoid security risks. (Someone else might create the file with wrong permissions in post of manager the time between getting the name and creating the highest for act essay file.) You still have to open the file to use it and to remove it (even if you do not use it). When possible, you may prefer to vaughan essays, use io.tmpfile , which automatically removes the highest for act file when the program ends. This library provides the functionality of the resume coursework debug interface to Lua programs. You should exert care when using this library.
The functions provided here should be used exclusively for debugging and similar tasks, such as profiling. Please resist the highest score temptation to use them as a usual programming tool: they can be very slow. Tse Thesis? Moreover, several of highest score essay these functions violate some assumptions about Lua code (e.g., that variables local to a function cannot be accessed from job application letter post of manager outside or that userdata metatables cannot be changed by Lua code) and therefore can compromise otherwise secure code. All functions in this library are provided inside the highest debug table. All functions that operate over a thread have an optional first argument which is the thread to operate over. The default is always the resume coursework current thread. Enters an interactive mode with the user, running each string that the user enters. Using simple commands and other debug facilities, the user can inspect global and local variables, change their values, evaluate expressions, and so on. A line containing only the word cont finishes this function, so that the caller continues its execution. Note that commands for debug.debug are not lexically nested within any function, and so have no direct access to local variables. Returns the current hook settings of the thread, as three values: the current hook function, the highest current hook mask, and the current hook count (as set by the debug.sethook function).
debug.getinfo ([thread,] function [, what]) Returns a table with information about a function. You can give the function directly, or you can give a number as the value of function , which means the function running at level function of the national call stack of the given thread: level 0 is the current function ( getinfo itself); level 1 is the function that called getinfo ; and so on. If function is a number larger than the number of active functions, then getinfo returns nil . The returned table can contain all the fields returned by lua_getinfo , with the string what describing which fields to highest for act, fill in. The default for what is to get all information available, except the table of valid lines. If present, the option ' f ' adds a field named func with the function itself. If present, the option ' L ' adds a field named activelines with the table of valid lines. For instance, the expression debug.getinfo(1,n).name returns a table with a name for the current function, if a reasonable name can be found, and the expression debug.getinfo(print) returns a table with all available information about the print function. This function returns the name and should jobs, the value of the local variable with index local of the function at score for act essay level level of the stack. Teenagers? (The first parameter or local variable has index 1, and so on, until the last active local variable.) The function returns nil if there is no local variable with the given index, and raises an error when called with a level out of range. (You can call debug.getinfo to check whether the level is score for act, valid.)
Variable names starting with ' ( ' (open parentheses) represent internal variables (loop control variables, temporaries, and C function locals). Returns the metatable of the given object or nil if it does not have a metatable. Returns the phd english dissertations registry table (see §3.5). This function returns the name and the value of the upvalue with index up of the function func . The function returns nil if there is no upvalue with the given index. Sets the score essay environment of the vaughan national music and other given object to the given table . Returns object . debug.sethook ([thread,] hook, mask [, count]) Sets the given function as a hook. The string mask and the number count describe when the hook will be called. Highest Score For Act? The string mask may have the following characters, with the given meaning: c : the hook is called every time Lua calls a function; r : the hook is called every time Lua returns from a function; l : the hook is called every time Lua enters a new line of code. With a count different from english alternative for graduate students zero, the hook is called after every count instructions. When called without arguments, debug.sethook turns off the hook. When the hook is called, its first parameter is a string describing the event that has triggered its call: call , return (or tail return , when simulating a return from highest essay a tail call), line , and count . For line events, the hook also gets the new line number as its second parameter.
Inside a hook, you can call getinfo with level 2 to get more information about the english language alternative students running function (level 0 is the highest score for act essay getinfo function, and resume projects, level 1 is the hook function), unless the event is tail return . In this case, Lua is only simulating the highest for act return, and a call to getinfo will return invalid data. debug.setlocal ([thread,] level, local, value) This function assigns the value value to the local variable with index local of the function at resume level level of the stack. Score For Act? The function returns nil if there is no local variable with the given index, and wang-kong, raises an error when called with a level out of range. (You can call getinfo to check whether the highest for act level is valid.) Otherwise, it returns the phd english name of the local variable. Sets the metatable for the given object to the given table (which can be nil ). This function assigns the value value to the upvalue with index up of the function func . The function returns nil if there is no upvalue with the given index. Otherwise, it returns the name of the upvalue.
debug.traceback ([thread,] [message [, level]]) Returns a string with a traceback of the call stack. An optional message string is appended at the beginning of the traceback. An optional level number tells at which level to start the highest for act traceback (default is 1, the wang-kong function calling traceback ). Although Lua has been designed as an extension language, to be embedded in a host C program, it is also frequently used as a stand-alone language. An interpreter for Lua as a stand-alone language, called simply lua , is provided with the standard distribution. The stand-alone interpreter includes all standard libraries, including the debug library. Its usage is: The options are: -e stat : executes string stat ; -l mod : requires mod ; -i : enters interactive mode after running script ; -v : prints version information; -- : stops handling options; - : executes stdin as a file and stops handling options. After handling its options, lua runs the given script , passing to highest, it the given args as string arguments.
When called without arguments, lua behaves as lua -v -i when the standard input ( stdin ) is a terminal, and as lua - otherwise. Before running any argument, the interpreter checks for an environment variable LUA_INIT . If its format is @ filename , then lua executes the file. Otherwise, lua executes the string itself. All options are handled in vaughan williams and other order, except -i . For instance, an invocation like. will first set a to 1, then print the value of score a (which is ' 1 '), and finally run the file script.lua with no arguments. (Here $ is the shell prompt. Dissertations? Your prompt may be different.) Before starting to highest for act essay, run the script, lua collects all arguments in engineering english language for graduate coursework students the command line in highest score for act a global table called arg . The script name is stored at index 0, the phd english first argument after the highest script name goes to index 1, and so on. Dissertations? Any arguments before the script name (that is, the interpreter name plus the options) go to negative indices.
For instance, in the call. the interpreter first runs the file a.lua , then creates a table. and finally runs the file b.lua . The script is called with arg , arg , ··· as arguments; it can also access these arguments with the vararg expression ' . '. In interactive mode, if you write an incomplete statement, the highest score for act interpreter waits for its completion by issuing a different prompt. If the global variable _PROMPT contains a string, then its value is used as the resume projects prompt. Similarly, if the global variable _PROMPT2 contains a string, its value is used as the secondary prompt (issued during incomplete statements). Therefore, both prompts can be changed directly on the command line or in highest score for act any Lua programs by assigning to _PROMPT . See the next example: (The outer pair of wang-kong quotes is for the shell, the inner pair is for Lua.) Note the use of highest score for act essay -i to letter for the post, enter interactive mode; otherwise, the program would just end silently right after the assignment to _PROMPT . To allow the use of Lua as a script interpreter in Unix systems, the stand-alone interpreter skips the score for act essay first line of a chunk if it starts with # . Should Teenagers Have Essay? Therefore, Lua scripts can be made into essay, executable programs by using chmod +x and the #! form, as in. (Of course, the job application letter of manager location of the Lua interpreter may be different in your machine.
If lua is in your PATH , then. is a more portable solution.) 7 Incompatibilities with the highest for act essay Previous Version. Here we list the incompatibilities that you may find when moving a program from Lua 5.0 to Lua 5.1. You can avoid most of the of manager incompatibilities compiling Lua with appropriate options (see file luaconf.h ). However, all these compatibility options will be removed in the next version of Lua.
The vararg system changed from the score for act essay pseudo-argument arg with a table with the english language entry extra arguments to the vararg expression. (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_VARARG in luaconf.h .) There was a subtle change in score for act the scope of the implicit variables of should teenagers have summer jobs essay the for statement and for the repeat statement. The long string/long comment syntax ( [[ string ]] ) does not allow nesting. Score? You can use the new syntax ( [=[ string ]=] ) in these cases. (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_LSTR in luaconf.h .) Function string.gfind was renamed string.gmatch . (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_GFIND in luaconf.h .) When string.gsub is called with a function as its third argument, whenever this function returns nil or false the replacement string is the whole match, instead of the empty string. Function table.setn was deprecated. Function table.getn corresponds to the new length operator ( # ); use the operator instead of the engineering entry for graduate coursework function. (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_GETN in luaconf.h .) Function loadlib was renamed package.loadlib . (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_LOADLIB in luaconf.h .) Function math.mod was renamed math.fmod . (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_MOD in for act luaconf.h .) Functions table.foreach and table.foreachi are deprecated. You can use a for loop with pairs or ipairs instead. There were substantial changes in function require due to the new module system. Job Application Post? However, the new behavior is mostly compatible with the highest old, but require gets the vaughan williams music and other essays path from essay package.path instead of from LUA_PATH . Function collectgarbage has different arguments. Function gcinfo is deprecated; use collectgarbage(count) instead.
The luaopen_* functions (to open libraries) cannot be called directly, like a regular C function. They must be called through Lua, like a Lua function. Function lua_open was replaced by lua_newstate to allow the job application letter user to set a memory-allocation function. Score For Act? You can use luaL_newstate from the standard library to create a state with a standard allocation function (based on wang-kong tse thesis realloc ). Functions luaL_getn and luaL_setn (from the auxiliary library) are deprecated. Score Essay? Use lua_objlen instead of luaL_getn and nothing instead of luaL_setn . Function luaL_openlib was replaced by luaL_register . Function luaL_checkudata now throws an error when the given value is not a userdata of the jobs essay expected type. (In Lua 5.0 it returned NULL .) Here is the complete syntax of score for act essay Lua in extended BNF. (It does not describe operator precedences.)
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8 Things You Need To Know About Applicant Tracking Systems. How much do you know about score for act essay, applicant tracking systems? You may have heard that the first step to getting a job interview is making it past the stage where a recruiter glances at your resume and makes a split-second decision about whether to chuck your resume into the discard pile. But 90% of essay Fortune 500 companies filter job applicants and resumes through an applicant tracking system (ATS) before a live person reads through job applications. Find out below how to get your resume ranked highly within applicant tracking systems, so that it can then go on to the real human beings who will call you for interviews. Score Essay! 1. What is an applicant tracking system? An ATS is should teenagers summer, a type of software application that handles the recruitment process, namely by sorting through thousands of resumes, to highest for act essay determine which ones are the best fit for tse thesis, the positions for which they were submitted.
Applicant tracking systems do not process your resume so differently from recruiters glancing at your resume, as both are looking for highest score, certain criteria for dissertations, inclusion. Whereas human recruiters are often looking for highest, grounds for automatic rejection, such as spelling errors or lack of relevant skills, applicant tracking systems operate by searching resumes for keywords. 2. English Language For Graduate Coursework! Why do employers use applicant tracking systems? Applicant tracking systems help employers save time and highest paper and help them stay organized. With applicant tracking systems, there is no risk of an employer accidentally deleting the wang-kong, email containing the resume of the applicant the company wants to hire or misplacing a file.
An ATS also makes it easy for employers to highest for act essay keep tabs on tse thesis, the hiring process and to communicate with applicants directly. Applicant tracking systems were first used by large corporations that receive thousands of applications, but smaller businesses are now using them just as frequently. Just as companies use software applications to for act keep track of relevant information on their customers, using similar software to organize information on prospective employees makes sense for employers. Taleo ATS screenshot. 3. How do applicant tracking systems work? Applicant tracking systems process resumes submitted by english language entry coursework applicants and sometimes even use social media to actively recruit prospective employees. When you submit your resume through an ATS, it stores your resume and an entry in the database. The recruiters then search for keywords for the particular job opening. If your resume contains the keywords the employer wants, then the ATS will rank you higher in the search results. The keyword searches by recruiters include the skills and experiences specific to the particular job opening.
The employer can even command the ATS to search the company’s entire database of resumes to highest for act look for candidates with certain qualifications. Letter For The Post Of Manager! This means that even if you submitted your resume a long time ago and never got a response, the company may have kept it on file in its database, and the ATS might identify you as a good candidate for for act, a different position long after you originally submitted your resume. Catsone ATS screenshot. Networking has always been an important part of the job seeking process, and coursework projects now social media plays an increasingly important role. Highest Score For Act! The prevailing sentiment is that having a social media presence helps more than it hurts when it comes to looking for a job, and most job seekers already understand the dissertations, importance of highest for act presenting a professional image on social media. Of course, when it comes to williams music and other attracting recruiters, it is score essay, more than just a matter of not posting pictures of phd english dissertations your drunken exploits on Facebook. There is social recruiting software that crawls the web for specific keywords, and highest score for act essay the best way to get noticed is to have a social media profile that includes basic details about your education, work experience, and skills. Some ATS actually show your profile directly within your application, so it is readily available to recruiters and dissertations HR.
Letting the ATS find your social profile can be beneficial and the best site for this is, of for act essay course, LinkedIn. The process by which job candidates tailor their resumes to get them noticed by should teenagers have ATS is similar to the process of for act essay search engine optimization, or SEO. Resume Coursework! This is when companies tailor their web content to make search engines notice them and rank them high on highest for act, the list of tse thesis search results. Matching keywords is an important part of how search engine optimization works; if your website contains the words the user typed into the search engine, then it will appear in the search results. The best way to get an ATS to notice your resume is to highest score essay anticipate which keywords the ATS and recruiters will be trying to find. Phd English! Jobscan can analyze your resume compared to the job description in order to increase your ranking within an ATS, thereby increasing your chances of landing an interview. You may have heard the advice that you should tailor your resume specifically for highest essay, each job application you submit.
Whether this means making major or minor changes, your resume should make clear why you are a good candidate for that specific job. Every employer is looking for certain qualifications, whether resumes will first be scanned by wang-kong a recruiter or by for act essay keyword-seeking ATS. You should find out as much as possible about the organization to which you are applying. Letter Post Of Manager! If current employees of the company have social media profiles, especially on LinkedIn, see if you have similar qualifications or keywords. When recruiters search for keywords in applicant tracking systems, they are usually looking for certain concrete skills in your resume. Highest For Act! If you are applying for phd english, a job as the manager of a hotel restaurant, for example, a recruiter may search for phrases such as “restaurant manager” and “hotel restaurant” or for the word “hospitality.#8221; Recruiters will probably not look for words and phrases such as “outgoing” and for act “team player.” One of the main purposes of the ATS is to ease recruiters#8217; search process for candidates whose resumes are most closely in job application letter for the of manager line with a particular job. An applicant tracking system#8217;s decision about how your resume ranks among other candidates is based heavily on keywords, whereas recruiters base their decision not only on keywords but also, to some degree, on at least a little bit of arbitrary human judgment. If you#8217;re starting your resume from scratch, try our Resume Writing Guide which can help you eliminate the fluff right off the bat. 8. Applicant tracking systems: friend or foe?
Applicant tracking systems make the highest score, recruitment process much more streamlined for recruiters, shortening the time it takes before a hiring manager contacts applicants who seem like good candidates for the job. For most jobs, it is not possible for the hiring process to be entirely automated. If you think your best qualities only resume show once you meet your potential employers face to face, you can boost your chances if you can rank highly in the ATS. Researching jobs and optimizing your resume with keywords before you apply is the best way to get interviews. Scan your resume to see if it stands up against highest essay, ATS: 5 thoughts on “8 Things You Need To Know About Applicant Tracking Systems” I love your stuff. You describe everything that recruiting and staffing companies need to know about Applicant Tracking Systems and how it helps with their hiring process.
Thanks for sharing these great points. Have you ever thought about publishing an ebook or guest authoring. on other blogs? I have a blog based on should teenagers summer jobs essay, the same subjects. you discuss and would love to for act essay have you share some stories/information. I know my subscribers would appreciate your work. If you are even remotely interested, feel free to send me an e-mail. Thanks! Yes, we do guest authoring on other blogs sometimes. Wang-kong! Please feel free to send an email to [emailprotected] if you#8217;d like to talk about that! Great expose.
I have never heard of this software before now. May be the reason why i never get job interview invitations despite my qualification. Can you tell me if plus signs cause search issues in ATS#8217;s? For example, if I said responsible for 500+ accounts. Thank you.
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Free Essays on Conformity And Non Conformity. on gender differences in conforming behaviour at highest score for act traffic lights. Abstract This study was carried out to job application letter of manager examine gender differences in relation to conformity at pedestrian crossing. Essay. The hypothesis of this study was that females were more likely to conform than men at pedestrian crossing. This study involved. Conformity is a type of social influence involving a change in belief or behavior in order to fit in jobs essay with a group. This change is in response to real (involving the physical presence of others) or imagined (involving the pressure of social norms / expectations) group pressure. Conformity can also. Individualism vs.
Conformity The lives of human beings are centered around the thin blue line that separates conformity and for act essay, individuality. Many times one is confused and rushed, and this line is drawn too short or too long, thus being too much of a conformist or an individual. The individual, in the. Factors That Influence Conformity. Factors that influence conformity Conformity can be defined as a adjusting of behavior to fit the social norms of a group of culture in one’s life. Phd English. In Ashes study (1951) about conformity it is shown that we have a need to belong, to fit in the social norms and culture surrounding us. Human beings usually. ?Essay: What have the students of highest, Gordon high school learned about individuality and conformity ?How has Rhue conveyed their experiences to the responder? In the national music, book “The wave”, Morton Rhue conveys his idea of the conformity through the introduction of the essay, organization called “the wave” and its impact upon. Conformity and Obedience. In order to answer the question it is first necessary to define conformity and williams national, obedience.
According to Woods, (2001 p. 107): ‘ We often adjust our actions or opinions so that they fit in highest for act essay well with those of job application for the of manager, other people. This is known as social conformity . ’ . Ross Carroll firstname.lastname@example.org Experiencing Society (120) Consequences of highest score, Conformity “Man is vaughan williams national and other, born free, and everywhere he is in chains” (Jean Jacques Rousseau, Social Contract, 1762). From the moment of birth, man is burdened with an immense social pressure to act within social guidelines that are. the era surrounding the second World War. Spark's novel is for act essay, a narrative relating to us the should teenagers, complexities of politics and of social conformity , as well as of non - conformity . Through looking at the Brodie set and the reciprocities between these students and highest score for act, their teacher, the music and other essays, writer, in this novel, reviews. Explain and cite two examples by two different authors of the transcendentalist preoccupations with conformity or desire to highest essay break from conformity. cite two examples by two different authors of the post of manager, transcendentalist preoccupations with conformity or desire to break from conformity The aim of this essay is to highest for act essay explore the transcendentalist concerns with conformity or desire to break from wang-kong, it. For establishing such contrast this analysis takes as a. the gender resistance and conformity exhibited among these individuals.
However, important lessons can be learned about the power dynamics of gender and highest for act essay, how such systems may and may not be resisted. Transgender people experience the same kinds of mental health problems that non -transgender people do. Language For Graduate Coursework Students. However. 1Noelia Hubert Conformity and its Drawbacks Conformity is a kind behaviour that obeys the accepted rules of society or a close group. Throughout life, human beings are social creatures and as such, they tend to seek for highest score the acceptance of their close ones. This behaviour may be considered. ?Outline and vaughan and other, evaluate explanations of conformity . (12 marks) Normative social influence says people conform because they feel they need to be accepted and highest for act essay, belong to the group. They accept the majorities’ views publicly, but privately they disagree – this type of conformity is compliance. The majority control.
?Topic: The major theme of the film is conformity . Discuss In the english language entry students, Dead Poets Society there is an overall motif of conformity and it is enforced throughout the school and its traditions. The movie is score essay, centered around the boys of vaughan williams music and other essays, Welton Academy breaking free from for act, rules and regulations, striving to find. Conformity - Behavioral Assessment Barbara Carney PSY/525 May 13, 2013 Conformity - Behavioral Assessment Definition “Many forms of social conformity exist but a correct definition would realize it as a phenomenon that occurs when an vaughan williams music essays individual’s values, beliefs, behaviors, and attitude are. PSY 301 (NEW) ASH Course Tutorial/TutorialRank. 301 Week 3 Assignment Persuasion Who, What, To Whom ASHFORD PSY 301 Week 3 DQ 1 Persuasion Techniques ASHFORD PSY 301 Week 3 DQ 2 Obedience and Conformity ASHFORD PSY 301 Week 4 Asssignment Power of Love and Relationships ASHFORD PSY 301 Week 4 DQ 1 Altruism and ProsocialBehavior ASHFORD PSY 301. college Millennial aged females. Keywords Status consumption, Conspicuous consumption, Millennial, Handbags, Symbolic self completion, Materialism, Conformity Paper type Research paper Journal of Fashion Marketing and score, Management Vol.
17 No. 3, 2013 pp. 280-293 r Emerald Group Publishing Limited 1361-2026. ?Gender Roles vs. Conformity Ralph Emerson once said in his essay ‘Self-Reliance’, “Envy is ignorance, imitation is suicide”.
As enticing as it sounds to fit in with a voluminous group of people, being yourself can build confidence, happiness, and character. Dissertations. Conformity is involving a change of highest for act essay, behavior. Anti-Transendentalists vs. Alternative For Graduate. Transendentalists. of interconnectedness between himself, the essay, over-soul, and nature itself. Transcendentalists believe in a freer life with free thought, and in non - conformity . Language Alternative Entry Students. Out of highest score essay, free thought they believe “as long as possible live free and uncommitted (Thoreau 255).” This relates to free thought because it means. authority.
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Krishnamurti is saying that when a person is born they are being taught socialization by there parents. The parents instill in the child the tool of conformity . Letter. Krishnamurti quotes “not to imitate but discover.” People should not be so fearful of fitting in, but willing to change. Ragsdale quotes “Form. Standardization of English Language. advantages and disadvantages of the standardisation of a societies language The standardisation of a language refers to the diachronic maintenance and conformity of highest score for act, a societies’ language. Language has great variation and is permeated by many attitudes and values. Milroy (1992) said that “at any time we care. ASH MGT 415 Week 3 DQ 2 Norms and Conformity.
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In order to survive in essay this school one must never. Conformity and should have jobs, Obedience in Society The desire to be accepted and belong to a group is an undeniable human need. But how does this need affect an individual? Social psychologists have conducted numerous experiments and concluded that, through various forms of social influence, groups can change. Planning and essay, Non Planning Factors. PART ONE Question Discuss the range of language alternative entry, planning and non -planning factors that would be taken into account in drawing up a scheme for highest score the development of should teenagers summer jobs essay, a site. Introduction Like any other design process, site development starts with the analysis of the existing situation and the design problem. UOP PSYCH 555 Week 6 Individual Influences of Conformity and Obedience Paper. UOP PSYCH 555 Week 6 Individual Influences of highest essay, Conformity and projects, Obedience Paper Check this A+ tutorial guideline at for act essay http://www.assignmentcloud.com/PSYCH-555/PSYCH-555-Week-6-Individual-Influences-of- Conformity -and-Obedience-Paper Prepare a 1,750- to 2,100-word paper in which you evaluate the effect. PSY 210 Week 5 Exercise Conformity Response.
PSY 210 Week 5 Exercise Conformity Response Click Following Link To Purchase http://www.uopcoursetutorials.com/PSY-210/PSY-210-Week-5-Exercise- Conformity -Response Exercise: Conformity Response Complete Appendix E. Post as an attachment. UOPCOURSETUTORIALS http://www.uopcoursetutorials. Conformity: To Conform or Not to Conform? ?“You’re the have essay, psychologist, so why do people go along with the group instead of making their own decisions?” Conformity can be described as a type of social influence whereby an individual changes their behaviour in score for act order to match certain social or group norms. This change of behaviour is a private. monitoring and measurement tool. The audit function checks actual performance for conformance and compliance with established guidelines and standards. For The. Non conformance and deficiencies are noted and possible recommendations proffered. Internal Auditing benefits organizations in so many ways. From a quality. Acts of highest, Non-Conformity: Admonished or Admired?
Acts of non - conformity should either be admonished or admired, I feel, depending on circumstance and the effect that act has on people. Each and every act is unique and different and phd english, may either have a negative or positive effect on people. It is the result of the act of highest essay, non - conformity where we can truly. to manifest itself in the form of people speaking out, it is silenced by voices of the majority and those supporting the tradition. This fear of non - conformity is another way the should teenagers have jobs, lottery has lasted so long. Some of the townspeople, especially the older generation feel that the lottery is a necessary tradition.
PSY 301 (NEW) Paper teaching effectively/psy301paperdotcom. 301 Week 3 Assignment Persuasion Who, What, To Whom (New) PSY 301 Week 3 DQ 1 Persuasion Techniques (New) PSY 301 Week 3 DQ 2 Obedience and Conformity (New) PSY 301 Week 4 Asssignment Power of highest for act essay, Love and Relationships (New) PSY 301 Week 4 DQ 1 Altruism and ProsocialBehavior (New) PSY 301. Describe Conformity and Obedience. Define the terms Conformity and Obedience. Conformity in tse thesis psychology is basically when a person’s attitude, behaviour, beliefs etc are influenced by other people , it may occur unconsciously as an unconscious influence or by direct social pressure. People often conform to achieve a sense of security. Conformity And Compliance During The 1950’s. Conformity and Compliance During the 1950's The 1950's are often labeled as an era of conformity and highest score for act essay, complacency.
But how valid is vaughan music and other essays, this label? Could the highest, same radical and rebellious Americans of the 1960's be submissive and compliant just one decade earlier? The answer (for the engineering english entry for graduate coursework students, most part) is yes. Highest For Act. The. Conformity - a Review of Eugene Ionesco's The Rhinoceros Conformity Throughout history there have been many men and women who were considered non -conformists and have fought for letter post an injustice or protested against highest score essay, social norm to help promote an alternative way of life.
What most people fail to realize is that the majority of people dubbed non -conformists. Conformity in coursework The catcher in the rye and Igby goes down society that surrounds them and in a desperate attempt to preserve their own ideals which differ so greatly from highest score essay, what is accepted; they choose non - conformity . Despite differing contexts of the two texts, Post world war 2 for J.D Salinger in the Catcher in dissertations the Rye and early 21st century America for Burr. PSY 301 NEW COURSE TUTORIAL/SHOPTUTORIAL. PSY 301 Week 3 Assignment Persuasion Who, What, To Whom (New) PSY 301 Week 3 DQ 1 Persuasion Techniques (New) PSY 301 Week 3 DQ 2 Obedience and Conformity (New) PSY 301 Week 4 Asssignment Power of Love and Relationships (New) PSY 301 Week 4 DQ 1 Altruism and ProsocialBehavior (New) PSY 301 Week 4. 3. Discuss how and highest score essay, why particular research methods are used at the sociocultural level of analysis - SAQ - two research method - Lab - Asch ( conformity ), Ross (quiz show), Tajfel, Gergely et al, Bandura, Reagan preferable - Field - Sherif, Cialdini - Natural - (Charlton), Kashima and triandis (modesty. shift. By 1960, a third of the nation’s populations were living in suburbs.
The demands of the Cold War created a culture of conformity for America during the 1950s. Wang-kong Tse Thesis. Conformity was a central role in suburbia. Highest. Houses in suburbia were often built in language entry for graduate coursework the same manner as the others in for act essay the community- same floor. Empirical Report on Conformity and tse thesis, Behaviour. Introduction: Conformity occurs when individuals respond to peer- pressure by changing their behaviour to adapt to what the highest for act, group of people they’re with do. Solomon Asch conducted a study on conformity in tse thesis 1951 which addressed the contemplation of conformity and non - conformity as a result of highest for act, peer. Conformity Speech I strongly believe that individuality should be valued over conformity . Today I will tell you how precious and rare individuality is, and why we should value it over conformity . Resume Coursework. As human beings, our lives are circled around a thin line that separates conformity and individuality. Discuss the Impact and Ethical Status of Milgram’s Studies on score, Conformity and Zimbardo’s Prison Experiment. Do the should teenagers summer jobs essay, Findings of Studies Like These Justify Their Methods?
Discuss the impact and ethical status of Milgram’s studies on highest essay, conformity AND Zimbardo’s prison experiment. For The. Do the findings of studies like these justify their methods? In my essay I will attempt to outline Milgram’s study on conformity and Zimbardo’s prison experiment. Highest For Act Essay. I will also be drawing out the. PSY 301 NEW Tutorials / psy301dotcom. PSY 301 Week 3 Assignment Persuasion Who, What, To Whom (New) PSY 301 Week 3 DQ 1 Persuasion Techniques (New) PSY 301 Week 3 DQ 2 Obedience and Conformity (New) PSY 301 Week 4 Asssignment Power of Love and Relationships (New) PSY 301 Week 4 DQ 1 Altruism and ProsocialBehavior (New) PSY 301 Week 4. are expected to abide by. Conformity , in general, means to go in accordance with those rules that govern our society. For instance, a group is going for camping; now that group cannot function if each of their individual members do not display a reasonable extent of conformity . This e.g. implies that even. Conformity - Behavioral Assessment Barbara Kearney PSY/525 May 13, 2013 Dr. Corey Greenlaw Conformity - Behavioral Assessment Definition “Many forms of social conformity exist but a correct definition would realize it as a phenomenon that occurs when an individual’s values, beliefs, behaviors.
Response to Self-Reliance by Ralph Waldo Emerson. members agree, for wang-kong the better securing of his bread to each shareholder, to surrender the liberty and highest score, culture of the eater. The virtue of letter for the, request is conformity . Self-Reliance is its aversion. In everything that I do I decide to for act go the road less traveled, I make the choice to see something in a. individuals to obtain acceptance, security and fulfilment from others. In the mocumentary strictly ballroom belonging is based on should teenagers summer essay, fear and social conformity this is seen through the protagonist Scott Hastings as he is caught between belonging to the dance federation and the Spanish community. Highest Score Essay. Scott dancing. One might argue that by not conforming and being part of the herd one puts himself at teenagers have summer jobs essay risk, but while in for act history there are many instances where the non -conformist is killed, there are just as many instances where the herd has been led over a cliff by blindly following their shepherd.
A list of the. attracted to people – same or different sex - Causes: nature vs nurture, early life experience or innate biological urge? - Childhood gender non - conformity was reported higher with homosexuals - Identification with other-sex parent = no impact - Determined by adolescence - Combination of biological. How Far Should Schools Insist on Conformity? Felicia Chiuh How far should schools insist on english language alternative for graduate, conformity ? It is not human nature to conform to everything and anything; if it was, there would not be any progress in the world and we may all still be living as cavemen. Hence, when agreeing that schools should ensure that students conform, we do. propaganda. Once people started to agree with his ideals, it only became easier to spread the word. Soon everyone followed his racist beliefs. Conformity was a way of life during that time. “The Lottery” also seems to include people conforming to a terrible tradition. Hitler had his people programmed.
Exercise: Conformity Response The two students are both successful in both situations from appendix E. I think after reading conformities , and how people conform to society believes and behaviors. I have chosen one of the young men as a person whom will likely conform before the highest score, other student. PSY 450 (Diversity and Cultural Factors in Psychology) Complete. 4 articles concerning these issues. Please use research articles with authors and websites that meet the UOP criteria for websites (official versus non -official – if you have doubts, please ask). As a part of your analysis, be sure to address the vaughan national and other, following items: Define cultural and cross-cultural. as needed to essay dissect specific pieces of action as they unfold at different points in the film.
He organizes the resume coursework projects, paper around three main themes, ( conformity , attitude change and persuasion, and group process), and within these he brings to bear a number of highest score essay, different theories and perspectives. In doing. individualism and non - conformity ? Transcendentalism is a philosophy where in order to williams and other essays get to essay a higher understanding of yourself and your place in the Universe you need to follow four main elements, live life to resume the fullest, don’t conform, find spirituality in nature, and rebel against conformity . Transcendentalism. Conformity: V for Vendetta and Civil Disobedience. By definition, conformity is action or behavior in correspondence with socially accepted standards, conventions, rules, or laws. What this means to me is when someone of higher ranking tells you to do something that has an effect on a whole. Conformity can either be good or bad.
In V for Vendetta and.
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essay on reflexivity Reflexivity as said by Timmins is highest score essay “Critical reflexiveness informs critical action and analysis. and contributes to the overall apprehension of a situation” ( Timmins. 2006. p. 53 ) . There are many events and experiences that I would wish to believe about reflexively but I think the jobs essay, 1 that sticks out in my head the most was my relationship with Joe* . and how bad it ended. Although the relationship did terminal. there were a batch of for act, things that I learned from it. Resume! I guess I truly should hold known from the start that things were non traveling to travel swimmingly. The lone ground I had this feeling is because I frequently feel like I have a 6th sense about cats and the state of highest for act essay, affairss I seem to acquire myself in. The intent of resume, this paper is to analyse this experience reflexively and use constructs learned this semester to it. Score For Act! Written Analysis: Reflexivity of an should teenagers summer Experience. It all started on a confab line that was provided by MSN in 2003.
I had merely moved to BC non excessively long before the chatting started. and was experiencing truly lonely. particularly populating on highest score Salt Spring. Phd English! Since I did non turn up at that place I did non hold a friend base and had to trust on the cyberspace for amusement for the clip being. Highest Score For Act! So I started speaking to some random people and post of manager, one of them was Joe. a 21 twelvemonth old 6’4 ruddy caput cat. ne’er thought I would wish a ruddy headed cat but I did. He was so charming and truly nice. and shortly the essay, speaking on the computing machine turned into speaking on the phone. The lone job was that he lived in Delta. This would intend that one of us would hold to transpose if we were to should have summer essay get down a relationship. and since he did non hold a driver’s license that person would be me. After a few months of transposing we decided that it would be for the best if I moved to Vancouver and live at that place with him. My move was to go on at the terminal of February. as I had to give notice at my current employer and happen a new one in Delta. The first mark that there would be problem in our relationship was a twosome of weekends before I moved to Delta. Score For Act Essay! It was Valentine’s Day and we were acquiring ready to travel out for dinner when the phone rang.
It happened to be his “friend” who was holding problem in her relationship. and she was disquieted that he could non remain and engineering alternative for graduate students, speak to her. I got truly upset that he was speaking to another miss on Valentine’s Day. non because I was covetous. but because it was our vacation and highest for act, we ended up being late for dissertations our reserves at the eating house. Highest Score For Act Essay! All was forgiven largely because I do non look to coursework projects hold a back bone when it comes to for act essay relationships so I merely allow it skid. This decidedly ended up coming back to seize with teeth me large clip. Should Have! because a five months down the route I happened to score for act essay read a conversation he had with the same “friend” and the conversation sounded nil like it would if he had a girlfriend. The “friend” was non even cognizant that a girlfriend existed at the clip. about a twelvemonth into williams national our relationship. I confronted him and besides sent her a message stating her that he has a girlfriend who would appreciate that they stopped speaking like they did. He did non deny anything alternatively he apologized and acted like prince capturing for the following twosome of months. I feel that my biggest error happened at score this clip for engineering english language entry for graduate students even giving him another opportunity. particularly since my trust had been broken so severely. The sap in highest for act, love that I was once more I gave him a opportunity and ended up acquiring burned for it. Three months after that incident my ma offered to take me back to Yugoslavia for a visit to projects my grandparents whom I had non seen since 1995.
I was more than excited and score essay, thought that things were traveling good between Joe and me. Williams! Again I could non hold been more incorrect. From this relationship I learned that non merely am I a door mat for people to pass over off their soiled pess but besides person who can be lied to over and over once more because I would maintain giving opportunities. Since we were coming back on Wednesday I had decided to name Joe on score for act essay the Friday earlier merely to see how things were and to allow him cognize what clip I would be coming back. When he picked up the english language coursework, phone I could state something was wholly long.
Siting in the phone booth at the station office. watching the metre go up every 2nd I felt as though my bosom and highest essay, tummy may come out of my pharynx. The ill feeling came over me when he said that he was out vaughan national with his “friend” and she had come over to the house where we lived. At this point I was speechless. and he said to essay me “this is non working for me and I merely do non desire a girlfriend any longer. ” My first reaction was why he waited until now to state me this alternatively of merely stating me before I left for my trip. When I asked him his response was “I wanted you to hold a good holiday! ” At this point I had racked up a phone measure of approximately 50 Canadian dollars. and had said “fine I will come back and should have summer, travel out. ” I cried the whole manner back to my grandmother’s house. non because I was said that it ended but because of how it was handled by him. I had to name my foreman and state him that Thursday would be my last twenty-four hours at work. which I felt atrocious about because I truly loved working at that place.
There were a batch of feelings that I felt besides choler. I felt ashamed that I would hold to be traveling back into my parents topographic point after populating off from place. I felt that they would keep this over my caput for a long clip. They have the wont of utilizing I told you so. Highest For Act Essay! whenever I did the antonym of teenagers summer jobs, what they told me to make. That was the highest essay, last thing I needed from them at this clip. I needed their support and apprehension. In the terminal. the terminal of this relationship meant a whole new get downing for my life. and had it non happened I would non be populating the life that I presently have. Dissertations! A immense portion of me felt betrayed. and score essay, another portion of me learned that I should non swear people so easy. Phd English Dissertations! or be speedy to give them 2nd opportunities. Besides I learned that sometimes it is better to be entirely so be in a toxic relationship.
Critical Scrutiny. As stated in Doane #038; A ; Varcoe. self-observation and highest, paying attending to the ideas. emotions. and bodily responses one is holding at any minute. the opportunity to tse thesis reflexively look at those responses and expression at how you would move or react is created ( Doane #038; A ; Varcoe. 2005. Essay! p. 204 ) . This acquisition has helped me to critically look back on the experience and it allowed me to better analyse the emotions I was experiencing at the clip. Engineering English Alternative For Graduate Students! Because self-observation and self-awareness is non frequently viewed as something that can be wholly attained. it is of import to see it as changeless journey of find ( Jack #038; A ; Smith. 2007. p. 50 ) . The lessons learned in this semester have allowed me to invariably turn in highest for act, my journey to coursework detect myself through self-observation. The three chief constructs that resonate in this journey are values and beliefs. emotional responses. and for act essay, bodily esthesiss that are being experiences because of events or experiences. Not merely can these points be applied to my nursing pattern but besides to wang-kong the experience which I described antecedently. The beliefs and values that I gained a stronger appreciation of because of my acquisition in Nursing 160. is to be true who you are and to travel with your initial inherent aptitude when it comes to score for act people. Since this experiences occurred I have tried to make my best and non to allow my bosom lead the manner. but alternatively to listen to the voice deep inside me that said that possibly this was non the should teenagers summer jobs essay, greatest thought. and score, that I would acquire burned if I continued on the way.
My beliefs besides tell me that I should non allow this experience ruin all the other fantastic times that I had with Joe. Although he did ache me really much. I believe in Karma and it all came back around to him. My values after I am no longer in jobs, a relationship with person. Highest For Act! biased in a manner because I am so blinded by choler. Dissertations! I need to take clip for myself and for my mental health in order to be able to be okay with speaking to that individual once more. My emotional responses have besides been enhanced. and looking back now. the responses that I had may hold all been legitimate but they were non decently channelled.
There was a clip that after the experience I had felt commiseration on myself and that I would ne’er be good plenty for anyone to handle me decently. I think that this response was jaded by the fact that I was so wounded. From the cognition I have gained. I now see that no affair how severely you are treated I am deserving holding the highest score for act, best relationship possible. So my new response to the result of this experience would be that I am happy that I do non hold to be in a state of affairs where I am made to resume coursework experience bad about highest essay, myself and bad about caring for others more than they may care for me.
As mentioned before the job application, feeling of my bosom being in my pharynx was a manner that my organic structure felt when the experience was at the flood tide. I feel that this may be the score, lone response that would non alter based on the cognition gained about self-observation. The ground being. in my sentiment. is phd english dissertations that everyone needs a manner that they deal with sad or horrifying or heartbreaking intelligence. Score! I feel that whenever something bad happens to me I have a reaction where I lose my appetency. and all I would desire to projects make is kip. Score For Act Essay! No affair what experience I have had since so or in the last few yearss even this is how I would respond. so I do non needfully think that I would make things otherwise. Conscious engagement in the nowadays has allowed me to look deeper into the experience that I have had and has besides taught me non to do the same errors once more. I think that if this state of affairs were to go on once more I would be a batch more self-aware and besides I would be a batch more unfastened to engineering english language entry students inquire inquiries of my spouse and non merely let them to brush things under the carpet as if everything was O.K. . There are three constructs that tie together to organize the umbrella that is the witting engagement of the events which occur in highest for act, people’s lives. Vaughan And Other Essays! Those consist of self-knowing. heedfulness. and intentionality. Although heedfulness is an ancient Buddhist pattern it does non merely use to that civilization or faith.
It merely means we have to analyze who we are. with inquiring what is our position of the universe and where and how we fit into it. while at the same clip we appreciate the fact that we are alive and good ( Kabat-Zinn. Highest For Act! J. . Wang-kong Tse Thesis! 1994 ) . At this clip being aware of my past experience to highest score for act essay me means that there is a ground that things worked out the manner they did. and coursework, even though there are things I would make otherwise this clip about. does non intend that it will wipe out score essay what has already happened. I think that this accomplishment will come in ready to hand when covering with certain clients in the infirmaries every bit good. Wang-kong Tse Thesis! The manner I think this would use is that I need to larn how non to brood on past experiences when faced with new challenges. These challenges could besides show themselves in score for act essay, the ways of self-knowing. In my sentiment the vaughan williams music essays, significance of highest score for act essay, self-knowing has a batch to make with being in the minute now and non seeking to letter for the look excessively far into the hereafter or excessively far into the yesteryear. Looking at myself today I can state that I have grown up since the score essay, experience. but at the same clip I feel that the experience has made me the phd english dissertations, individual who I am today. You have to highest score for act be able to job application letter for the post swear yourself whenever you are faced with a tough determination or come across an experience that may alter you. Trust in the fact that I will do the right determination. and even if I do non the lone individual that it is traveling to impact is me. For Act! The construct of intentionality seems sort of foreign to me and I truly do non cognize if I understand it wholly.
The manner I would hold felt about the experience now that I am in wang-kong, the present I do non believe would alter from what I was experiencing at highest the clip. What I was feeling was there was jobs but I feel that I did non desire to believe that things could stop so I avoided the issue. Had I non avoided the issue would things hold worked out otherwise? It makes me experience really powerless when it comes to the control factor of the state of affairs. I was overseas so there was nil that I could make to english language entry coursework protract the inevitable. Highest! The things that I do know are that I felt like a sap and I felt that I had been taken advantage of for wang-kong tse thesis a twelvemonth of my life.
As stated in Doane and Varcoe. “reflexive procedure and the information it affords has served as an of import compass alarming me to when I need to halt and reflect” ( Doane #038; A ; Varcoe. 2005. p164 ) . Decision. In decision this paper discussed a personal experience which I reflexively analyzed based on the cognition that I gained in my Nursing 160 class. I feel that it has given me great insight into the manner I dealt with the state of affairs and highest for act essay, besides the post, things I would make otherwise or the for act, same should the state of affairs re-occur. I besides believe that these covered subjects will be important to my nursing pattern and it will merely move as great leaping platform in my ability to cover with client’s demands and their ain tests and coursework projects, trials. Doane. G. Highest Score! H. Essay! . Highest Score For Act Essay! #038; A ; Varcoe. C. ( 2005 ) . The accomplishment of wang-kong, reflexiveness. Family Nursing as Relational Inquiry: Developing Health-Promoting Practice. ( pp. 149-171 ) . Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams #038; A ; Wilkins.
Doane. G. H. . #038; A ; Varcoe. C. ( 2005 ) . Relational pattern in context. Score! Family Nursing as Relational Inquiry: Developing Health-Promoting Practice. ( pp. 240-242 ) . Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams #038; A ; Wilkins. Jack. Job Application Letter! K. . #038; A ; Smith. A. ( 2007 ) . Score! Promoting self-awareness in nurses to better nursing pattern. Nursing Standard. 21 ( 32 ) . 47-52.
Retrieved November 12. 2010 from hypertext transfer protocol: //libsecure. camosun. bc. ca:2443/login? url=http: //search. ebscohost. com/login. aspx direct=true #038; A ; db=c8h #038; A ; AN=2009571771 #038; A ; login. For The Post! asp #038; A ; site=ehost-live Kabat-Zinn. Highest Essay! J. ( 1994 ) . Wherever you go. there you are. ( pp. Have Summer Essay! 3-13 ) . New York: Hyperion Shafir. R. Z. ( 2000 ) . The Zen of listening: aware communicating in the age of distraction. ( pp. Essay! 13-23 ) . Wheaton.