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Metaphysics Epistemology Axiology And Logic Essays and Research Papers. Reflection Essay on Epistemology What is knowledge? How do we know what we know? Do we really know anything at all? These questions, as . well as multiple others that arise when searching for the answers are what epistemology is all about.
Various philosophers present their own positions in ap language and composition essays 2014 which they try to provide answers to these questions. From externalism to internalism, empiricism to rationalism, and even skepticism, we are exposed to a wide variety of ways that these thinkers use to find. Empiricism , Epistemology , Logic 1674 Words | 5 Pages. Descartes uses epistemology and metaphysics to frame his famous cogito argument. But in order to understand how that works, . first, we must discuss the differences between an epistemological and a metaphysical question.
Epistemology is a facet of philosophy interested in knowledge. And an epistemological question is a question concerned with something relating to knowledge, apprehension of knowledge, knowledge-world correspondence, or the origins of on occupational knowledge. And Composition Essays 2014! What is phd english, knowledge? Is knowledge. Epistemology , Immanuel Kant , Metaphysics 751 Words | 3 Pages. Rachel Kunker Philosophy Epistemology October 7, 2011 Is it true to say that there is no truth? The very concept itself is . contradictory, but is still a topic worth exploring. If a person were to simply go about their life believing everything they ever heard or experienced to and composition 2014 be true, they could be deceived without their own knowledge. Say they overheard someone talking about Sam Houston when they stated, “. and then Sam Houston claimed her land.” Rightfully, without any other knowledge. Belief , Epistemology , Immanuel Kant 854 Words | 3 Pages.
Main Branches of Philosophy Metaphysics The name ' Metaphysics ' is is the of all crimes, derived from the Greek words 'Meta', which means . beyond or after, and 'Physika', which means physics. It is that branch of philosophy which goes beyond the realms of science. It is concerned with answering the questions about identity and the world. Ap Language And Composition 2014! It questions the existence of spiritual beings, nature of universe, life after death, etc. Aristotle, one of the writing paper most well-known philosophers, acknowledged Thales as the first. Aesthetics , Epistemology , Ethics 466 Words | 3 Pages. ? Metaphysics : Aristotle and Plato’s Views Metaphysics is a branch of philosophy that tries to answer a few questions by ap language essays, . looking at the fundamental nature of the world. What is appearance? What is real?
And ultimately what is the nature of reality? It helps us to try and see past the physical things and determine for ourselves whether something actually exists and the ultimate reason for why it exists. Although a single term, metaphysics covers a wide array of essay on occupational health and safety topics, including Plato’s idea. Aristotle , Causality , Existence 1040 Words | 3 Pages. Epistemology : Jaggar Philosophy has been around since 600 BC and is still being studied today. Ap Language 2014! In Ancient Greek, to now, philosophy means . Writing Paper! “love of wisdom” but can be defined as the study of the fundamental nature of knowledge, reality, and existence, truth, nature and meaning of essays 2014 life, especially when considered as an academic discipline.
Philosophy is actually divided into smaller sub-fields such as epistemology , logic , metaphysics , ethics, and aesthetics. Epistemology is the study of knowledge. Belief , Emotion , Emotional expression 923 Words | 3 Pages. Axiology * Area of philosophy that specifically deals with the problem of value. * Refers to well-founded standards of right and wrong . Writing A Professional Research! that prescribe what humans ought to do, usually in terms of essays 2014 rights, obligations, benefits to phd english society, fairness, or specific virtues. * It seeks to ap language and composition essays realize the question like: What is phd english, value? What are the important values which are to be desired in livings? Are these values rooted in ap language essays reality? And how can these values be realized in our daily experiences. Critical thinking , Deductive reasoning , Education 746 Words | 3 Pages. lost our “beliefs” we need to is cover delve deeper into what makes up our philosophy.
There are four major components to philosophy – Metaphysics , . Epistemology , Axiology , and Logic . In order to and composition essays be able to understand philosophy we need to be able to understand its components. Metaphysics is the branch of writing research philosophy that deals with the nature of reality. In metaphysics , one asks themselves what is really real; what is the nature between being and reality; what is the origin of the universe; these. Education , Epistemology , Logic 1219 Words | 6 Pages. as we thought it to be? For David Chalmers, he believes that we should not be alarmed or afraid of a drastic change in ap language what we think of essay writing as reality; granted, . this altered reality presents itself plausible in essays theory. In his paper, The Matrix as Metaphysics , Chalmers explores the possibility of our world being similar to that of the one in the movie The Matrix (details of what what type of world this is and composition 2014, will be explained later), and asserts that it is plausible that we could be living in such a world right. Artificial intelligence , Brain , Mind 1889 Words | 5 Pages. object, but that does not necessarily mean it will always happen. Therefore, Hume, who starts out phd english as an empiricist, has arrived at the conclusion where an . individual may not have knowledge at all, of skeptic doubt.
This is explored through the three epistemology questions, the process he did take, and what the reader thinks on essays, the matter. According to sources essay writing Hume, with his process of and composition essays thought with empiricism, thinks knowledge is possible. He believed that all information about the world comes through. Cognition , Empiricism , Epistemology 1564 Words | 4 Pages. The Relationship Between Epistemology and Metaphysics. What is the relationship between epistemology and metaphysics In many ways epistemology clears the way for . metaphysical construction or hypothesis. Essay On Poverty Is The! By adhering to the principles of one branch of philosophy, it allows us to become better at searching within the other. It is true that epistemic ideas are often knocked down by metaphysics , but when one considers that it is entirely possible to base metaphysical ideas on epistemology , it becomes clear that the branches of philosophy are very. Epistemology , Metaphysics , Mind 698 Words | 2 Pages. Aaron Feizet Metaphysics Paper 2 Why Mereological Universalism and Nihilism Are Not Mutually Exclusive In Function 1. Introduction In the . following paper, I'll attempt to argue that the Mereological Universalism championed by James Van Cleve, and metaphysical nihilism, are more or less reconcilable.
What’s more, I’ll argue that the functional understanding of the and composition 2014 world occupied by universalists is more or less identical to essay writing that which is necessarily employed by all nihilists (or at least all. Absurdism , Albert Camus , Existentialism 1347 Words | 4 Pages. Epistemology and and composition 2014, Metaphysics Schools Paper. Epistemology and paper, Metaphysics Schools Paper Team B PSY/215 Epistemology and . Metaphysics Schools Paper The nature of skepticism in real-life today, on a daily basis goes mostly unnoticed. People react to environments of skepticism differently and could become biased upon the subject discussed.
According to Encyclopedia Britannica (2011), “skepticism is defined as 1: an attitude of doubt or a disposition to incredulity either in general or toward a particular object 2. Critical thinking , Doubt , Empiricism 512 Words | 2 Pages. G. E. Ap Language 2014! Moore’s Response to phd english dissertations Skepticism Patricia Baiyewu PHI 472/ Introduction to Metaphysics amp; Epistemology October 20, . 2012 Professor John Barker G. Ap Language And Composition! E. Moore’s main contributions to philosophy were in on poverty is the of all the areas of metaphysics , epistemology , ethics, and philosophical methodology. In epistemology , Moore is remembered as a stalwart defender of commonsense realism. Rejecting skepticism on the one hand, and, on and composition essays, the other, metaphysical theories that would invalidate the on occupational and safety commonsense beliefs. Epistemology , Idealism , Immanuel Kant 570 Words | 2 Pages. ? LOGIC (2S 1415) FINAL PROJECT Rodelas, Allyssa Jane D. #29 Song Fallacy Explanation Mahal ko o mahal ako by KZ Tandingan . “nalilito litong litong lito sino ang iibigin ko ikaw ba na pangarap ko o siya bang kumakatok sa puso ko oh anong paiiralin ko isip ba o ang puso ko nalilitong litong litong lito sinong pipiliin ko mahal ko o mahal ako” False Dilemma (False Dichotomy) When the arguer sets up the situation so it looks like there are only ap language and composition essays 2014 two choices.
In this song, the health and safety singer. Causality , Critical thinking , Evidence 780 Words | 1 Pages. also see in ap language and composition essays studying these differences, that in phd english life, most arguments fall into these two categories. So in conclusion, I studied hard, I stressed hard, . therefore, this essay deserves an A+. Ap Language And Composition Essays 2014! Deductive Valid . Dissertations! Bibliography A CONCISE INTRODUCTION TO LOGIC , ELEVENTH EDITION Patrick J. Hurley: Wadsworth, Cengage Learning, 2012. Analogy , Argument , Deductive reasoning 1266 Words | 4 Pages. Education Philisophy Outline and Rational.
Education Philosophy Outline and Rationale Education Philosophy Outline and essays, Rationale Metaphysics History Aristotle's . metaphysics included Ontology (study of existence), Natural Theology (Study of phd english God), and Universal Science (causality, relations, interactions, etc.) Major Branches Theology: What is God? Is there a God, and and composition essays, if so, what is its purpose/ Cosmology: Where did the universe come from, and what is it comprised of? Determinism/Free Will: To what extent are people responsible. Education , Educational philosophy , Epistemology 1266 Words | 6 Pages. infinite attributes necessarily exists.
From these two facts, Spinoza claims that there can be only what is cover letter for resume one substance in essays this world, and that the single . substance is God. However, many people object to health this claim. These objections are not based on the logic of the essays proposition itself, but rather on the premises of it. I will first state one of the more common objections. Then I will refute their arguments. The most common objection is one going against Spinoza’s claim that no two substances can share. Atheism , Existence , God 1557 Words | 4 Pages. Philosophy as Metaphysics ABSTRACT: Philosophy works with special types of objects: the totalities. The basic characteristics of this . type of object are their metaphysical, transcendental, and total character.
The character of phd english these objects determines the 2014 specificity of paper language and ap language essays 2014, the methods of philosophy. The language of philosophy represents symbolic language; speculation is the basic method of philosophy. On the one hand, objects of this type emphasis homo sapien as essences capable of. Human , Immanuel Kant , Logic 2051 Words | 6 Pages. Architecture Olanio, Marc Q. BS Architecture Branches of Philosophy Main branches of philosophy Traditionally, there are five main branches of . philosophy.
They are: Metaphysics , which deals with the fundamental questions of reality. Epistemology , which deals with our concept of knowledge, how we learn and what we can know. Logic , which studies the rules of valid reasoning and argumentation Ethics, or moral philosophy, which is essay mother, concerned with human values and how individuals should act. Aesthetics. Aesthetics , Epistemology , Ethics 1626 Words | 6 Pages. Metaphysics Aristotle considered the most fundamental features of reality in the twelve books of the ??????????( Metaphysics ). Ap Language And Composition Essays! . Although experience of writing what happens is a key to all demonstrative knowledge, Aristotle supposed that the abstract study of essays 2014 being qua being must delve more deeply, in order to understand why things happen the statement way they do. A quick review of past attempts at achieving this goal reveals that earlier philosophers had created more difficult questions than they had answered: the Milesians over-emphasized.
Aristotle , Causality , Life 1410 Words | 4 Pages. Epistemology: Scientific Method and Knowledge. Epistemology can be difficult to understand and maybe even harder to say. The short answer is that epistemology is the theory of . knowledge. Essays! Perhaps that is too short of an answer, allow me expand. Epistemology is the branch of philosophy that deals with questions concerning the nature, scope, and sources of knowledge. Even these concepts can be foreign to the common public. The nature of on occupational health knowledge is basically the qualities that constitute knowledge. One would find this answer by asking What is. Empiricism , Epistemology , Immanuel Kant 930 Words | 3 Pages. philosophy and rationale for that philosophy will be explained.
Based on my belief statements from module one, I will include my mission statement as an . educator. I will also describe my own educational philosophy as it relates to metaphysics , epistemology , axiology , and logic . Although I have chosen the philosophy that seems to best fit my classroom, there are several elements from other philosophies that encompass some of my beliefs. My Educational Philosophy Outline I. The Teacher’s Philosophy. Education , Learning , Philosophy 969 Words | 5 Pages. ? Logic Logic (from the ap language 2014 Greek ??????, logike) has two meanings: first, it describes the use of valid reasoning in some . activity; second, it names the normative study of reasoning or a branch thereof. In the latter sense, it features most prominently in the subjects of essay on occupational health and safety philosophy, mathematics, and ap language, computer science. Logic was studied in several ancient civilizations, including India, China, Persia and Greece. In the West, logic was established as a formal discipline by Aristotle, who. Aristotle , Logic , Organon 2080 Words | 6 Pages.
Difference in Metaphysics Between Aristotle and Kant. What is the writing central difference between metaphysics as Kant conceives it, and metaphysics as Aristotle conceives it? Argue in . support of and composition one or the other view. Metaphysics is usually taken to involve both questions of what is existence and what types of things exist; in order to writing a professional research answer either questions, one will find itself using and investigating the concepts of being. Aristotle proposed the first of these investigations which he called ‘first philosophy’, also known as ‘the science of being’.
Aristotle , Critique of Pure Reason , Existence 2273 Words | 7 Pages. philosophy: metaphysics , epistemology , axiology , and logic . Ap Language And Composition Essays! These subdivisions help educators create . the blueprint for the way their classroom is organized, and what strategies they use to present information to essay health students. Metaphysics is defined as “the study of the nature of ap language and composition essays 2014 ultimate reality, involves speculation about the nature of thesis existence” ( Gutek, G.L., 2009, p. 3). The best way to understand metaphysics is to ask two questions. What is there? What is and composition, it like?
Metaphysics can help mold. Education , Epistemology , Ethical code 1516 Words | 5 Pages. Methods and phd english dissertations, Applications July 15, 2003 Metaphysics In philosophy, a term known as metaphysics , referred to the writings of ap language and composition essays . Essay! Aristotle nearly three centuries after his death. Metaphysics is the area of philosophy that attempts to understand the ap language and composition essays 2014 basic nature of all reality, whether it is seen or indistinguishable we try to relate to our existence. It seeks a description so basic that it applies to everything, whether divine or human. In short, metaphysics attempts to research enlighten what anything must. Idealism , Materialism , Metaphysics 1022 Words | 4 Pages. Metaphysics Is the ap language essays Branch of Philosophy. Metaphysics is the branch of philosophy that deals with abstract concepts. These abstract concepts include things like being, knowing, . substance, cause, identity, time, and space. Over the years I have asked myself numerous questions pertaining to metaphysics . Things such as what is real?
How do things such as our souls or even fate work? Do we determine our own fate or is it predetermined for us? Most people, including myself, ask a majority of these questions when they leave the nest. When I. Belief , Epistemology , Metaphysics 808 Words | 3 Pages. ? Introduction The study of metaphysics is a broad spectrum of comprehensive ideas that ultimately serve to discover the . generalities of human thought. Without Aristotle, the concept of metaphysics would cease to exist.
Taking this into is cover letter, consideration, it is evident that Aristotle plays a major part in the study of ap language and composition 2014 metaphysics and how we know it today. Therefore, he formulated the basic entities of research paper metaphysics and constructed its foundation through his own philosophies. Also, after reviewing. Aristotle , Causality , Free will 932 Words | 3 Pages. Metaphysics and Realism Proponents St. educational philosophy which advocates that education should be concerned with the realities of ap language and composition 2014 life and should prepare a person for his/her duties in life. Phd English Dissertations! . Ontology (Reality) for realism is a world of things Epistemology (how we know) - realists use their senses of observation Axiology of ap language and composition 2014 realism (values) is the laws of nature that can be revealed through the application of research scientific reason Proponents: *John Milton--- believe that education must prepare one for and composition essays 2014 life in on occupational and safety the real world *Francois.
Education , Epistemology , Metaphysics 647 Words | 3 Pages. Courtney D’Andrea Philosophy 1100 Professor Magrini Final Paper Epistemology Epistemology is one of the very important . branches of ap language and composition essays 2014 philosophy. It is also known as the knowledge theory. The knowledge theory consists of three questions; “What is the origin of knowledge? What is the what reliability of knowledge? amp; What is the criteria of essays knowledge?” Rene Descartes and John Locke really looked into epistemology and both had different theories to phd english dissertations approach it. John Locke looked at empiricism and. Empiricism , Epistemology , Immanuel Kant 877 Words | 3 Pages. Institutes. His theory of epistemology is based on ap language essays 2014, his belief that humans are naturally aware of God. He also asserts two fundamental . knowledges- God and what is cover letter for resume, self- and he elaborates upon essays, the relationship between the essay writing two. I. Biography of ap language and composition essays 2014 John Calvin A. Thesis Statement For Videogames And Violence! Birth and childhood B. Ap Language And Composition Essays 2014! Schooling and further education C. Early works and accomplishments II.
How is it possible to know anything? III. John Calvin A. brief introduction of the Institutes B. Calvin’s theory of epistemology 1. Paper! Humans have a natural. Calvinism , Church Fathers , Jesus 1649 Words | 5 Pages. an integral part in his metaphysics and philosophy of being. Aquinas is ap language essays, not interested in phd english dissertations the problem of objective as we have it in modern . thinking and today rather, he is much more interested in how we acquire our knowledge and put them to use. Simply put, he investigates the process of knowledge. He identified three levels of acquiring knowledge namely: sense-experience, imaginations or ideations and intellection.
Aquinas thus made an ap language and composition essays 2014 important contribution to epistemology , recognising the essay on poverty of all crimes central. Belief , Epistemology , Logic 1470 Words | 4 Pages. Education Philosophy and Rationale. able to find their own way of ap language essays 2014 understanding their own strategy to improve their learning knowledge. This type of sources writing philosophy in teaching makes me . Metaphysics and an Axiology as my ways of teaching. My philosophy do not include much of Epistemology and Logic . Not because I don’t believe in it, but I see myself more as Metaphysics and an Axiology . Epistemology are often use in classes because teacher are suppose to teach student the ways to succeed in life. Student starts learning from the teacher body. Education , History of education , Learning 1275 Words | 4 Pages. Final Paper Roni Daniel December 10, 2012 Dr. Essays! Kathy Downey University of Phoenix PHL/716 Epistemology , or the study of mother crimes knowledge, . requires the scholar analyze the what, how, and why’s of their own knowledge.
Asking these questions of ap language and composition essays themselves is essentially applying that which they have learned. There are different origins of knowledge as conceptualized by philosophers, educators, and scientists. Statement! Early philosophers defined knowledge as “justified true belief” (Cooper, pg. Essays! 23). In order. Data , Education , Epistemology 1742 Words | 5 Pages. Epistemology ------------------------------------------------- Carefully explain Descartes’ cogito and his attempt to build his knowledge . Thesis! structure from the ap language 2014 ground up. (Be as succinct as possible.) Does Descartes succeed or fail in what is cover for resume that attempt? Justify your answer in full. Descartes’ Epistemology This essay attempts to explain Descartes’ epistemology of his knowledge, his “Cogito, Ergo Sum” concept (found in the Meditations), and and composition 2014, why he used it [the cogito concept] as a foundation when building. A priori and a posteriori , Concepts in metaphysics , Epistemology 1710 Words | 5 Pages. Epistemology is the study of our right to is cover letter for resume the beliefs we have.
More generally, we start from what we might call our cognitive stances, and ask . whether we do well to 2014 have those stances. Cognitive stances include both our beliefs and (what we take to essay writing be) our knowings; and in another dimension they include our attitudes towards the various strategies and methods we use to essays 2014 get new beliefs and filter out old ones, as well as the products of those strategies and methods. Epistemology , on statement for videogames and violence, this showing. Belief , Coherentism , Epistemology 1319 Words | 3 Pages. describe either Plato or Aristotle’s ideas about metaphysics or epistemology . As for ap language and composition Plato, Aristotle’s . metaphysics and epistemology are closely bound together. Writing! The nature of essays 2014 what we know is writing research paper, tightly bound up with what it is we know. Like Plato, Aristotle takes his cue from language, though, again like Plato, the objects of ap language essays his enquiry are not linguistic items, but ontological ones.
The classification of categories is mother, of things, not terms. metaphysics is not interested so much in making a huge. Ancient Rome , Aristotle , Classical antiquity 1004 Words | 4 Pages. Logic can be defined as the subject that teaches the rules for correct and ap language and composition 2014, proper reasoning or in thesis statement simpler terms, it can be best described as . common sense. Some refer to the science of logic but logic is ap language, really more than just a science. The science part is the knowledge of the principles, laws, and methods of logic itself. (Dolhenty, J; 2002). Logic must be put into sources essay, action or else the knowledge provided within the science of ap language and composition logic is of little use.
We can, therefore, also speak of the art of. Critical thinking , Epistemology , Informal logic 978 Words | 3 Pages. central and necessary in Hegel’s logic . Ralph Waldo Emerson An American Developed a variety of idealism known as transcendentalism . Friedrich Froebel based on kindergarten theory of idealism A Systematic Synthesis of the Philosophy of Idealism 1. THE METAPHYSICS OF IDEALISM Idealist believe that only the mental or spiritual is ultimately real. The reality of the self, the idealists takes as their starting point the fact of self-consciousness. 2. THE EPISTEMOLOGY OF IDEALISM Knowing is the. Epistemology , Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel , Idealism 596 Words | 2 Pages. Introduction to Logic . Points Received: 1 of 1 Comments: 2. Question : Karl Popper advocates, as a more efficient way to . examine a scientific hypothesis, which of the following? Student Answer: Gather as much data as possible supporting the hypothesis Fake the data Try to letter show the hypothesis is false Meditate on ap language, what the hypothesis really means Instructor Explanation: The answer can be found in statement for videogames and violence Chapter Five of An Introduction to Logic . Points. Argument form , Empiricism , Falsifiability 576 Words | 5 Pages. theories will be discussed along with identification and and composition 2014, description of his contributions to the field of philosophy will also be offered. Phd English Dissertations! Lastly, further . Ap Language And Composition Essays! discussion will focus on on occupational and safety, how the culture and the time period influenced his ideology.
Metaphysics Metaphysics is a branch philosophy concerned with explaining the fundamental nature of being. It is considered to be one of the greatest philosophical works. It kind of piggy backs off of Plato’s theory of forms. Plato believed that the nature of things. Aristotle , Causality , Epistemology 1865 Words | 6 Pages. concerning matters such as existence, knowledge, values, reason, mind, and ap language and composition, language. Metaphysics is a branch of philosophy concerned with . explaining the fundamental nature of being and essay on poverty is the crimes, the world. Epistemology or theory of knowledge is the branch of philosophy concerned with the nature and scope of knowledge. Axiology is the philosophical study of value.
It is either the collective term for ethics and aesthetics. And Logic is the study of arguments. When I thought about and composition 2014 my own personal views for educational. Education , Epistemology , Intelligence 1235 Words | 4 Pages. What Did Aristotle Contribute to the Discipline of Logic. PHIL1010:901 Introduction to Logic 20111:1 “What did Aristotle contribute to the discipline of Logic ?” Aristotle was a . Thesis Statement! Greek philosopher that lived from 384 BC to 322 BC.
Aristotle was born in and composition essays 2014 Stagira in northern Greece and statement for videogames, he was the son of Nichomachus. Ap Language And Composition Essays 2014! In 367 he was sent to Athens to study philosophy with a great Greek philosopher named Plato. Some years later he traveled to Macedonia to tutor Alexander the Great. Aristotle returned to Athens and is cover for resume, set up a school of his own following his success. Aristotle , Ethics , Immanuel Kant 444 Words | 2 Pages.
?A logic gate is an elementary building block of a digital circuit. Most logic gates have two inputs and ap language 2014, one output. At any given . moment, every terminal is in one of the two binaryconditions low (0) or high (1), represented by different voltage levels. Of All Crimes! The logic state of a terminal can, and generally does, change often, as the circuit processes data. Ap Language Essays! In most logic gates, the low state is approximately zero volts (0 V), while the thesis high state is approximately five volts positive (+5 V). There are seven. AND gate , Logic gate , Logic gates 533 Words | 5 Pages. Epistemology Vocabulary Epistemology.
Epistemology Vocabulary Epistemology : The branch of ap language and composition essays philosophy that investigates the nature, sources, limitations, and sources writing, . validity of knowledge. Rationalism: The position that reason alone, without the aid of sensory info, is capable of arriving at ap language and composition essays, some knowledge, at what is cover letter, some undeniable truths. Empiricism: the position that knowledge has its origins in and derives all of its content from experience. Ap Language And Composition! Idealism: in phd english dissertations metaphysics , the position that reality is ultimately non matter; in EPISTEMOLOGY , the. Empiricism , Epistemology , Immanuel Kant 473 Words | 2 Pages. Of all the plays by William Shakespeare, Hamlet deals the ap language and composition essays most with what lies beyond this terrestrial sphere. In the words of Michael Neil, Hamlet [is] a . prolonged meditation on what is cover letter for resume, death. It is a study of life beyond death, in the metaphysics of the eternal soul, the afterlife, and ap language and composition 2014, the eternal consequences of temporal causes. Characters in the play are obsessed by the afterlife. Hamlet's fixation on suicide is what letter, possibly the most obvious example of this. In one of his soliloquies, he confesses his.
Characters in Hamlet , Death , Ghost 1387 Words | 4 Pages. theory that I do not agree that it is the right way to understand colour. At this point, I do not feel that there are any theories which can adequately . explain colour as either objective, or subjective. Bibliography: Course lecture. The Metaphysics of Colour.5th March 2007. Gallilei, G. (1954). Two Kinds of Properties. Introduction to Contemporary Civilisation in the West. (A.C. Danto, Trans.). (2nd ed.; New York: Columbia University Press) vol, 1, pp. 719-24. (Original 1623 in Il Saggitore) . Color , Color theory , Object 2045 Words | 6 Pages.
Mathematical logic is and composition 2014, something that has been around for a very long time. Centuries Ago Greek and other logicians tried to make sense out of . mathematical proofs. As time went on other people tried to on occupational health and safety do the same thing but using only symbols and variables. But I will get into detail about that a little later. There is also something called set theory, which is related with this. In mathematical logic a lot of terms are used such as axiom and proofs. Essays! A lot of things in math can be proven, but there. Axiom , Infinity , Logic 790 Words | 3 Pages. Logic and reasoning Assignment Name: Henok Meshesha I.D. 0670/05 Techno.
Sec. 02 Source: . Internet, References from library and Personal ideas. The relevant of logic Introduction The term “ logic ” is phd english dissertations, used quite a lot, but not always in its technical sense. Logic , strictly speaking, is the science or study of how to evaluate arguments and reasoning. Logic is what allows us to distinguish correct reasoning from poor reasoning. Logic is and composition 2014, important. Argument , Argumentation theory , Critical thinking 2656 Words | 7 Pages. Religion and Logic Make Human Being Instead of being incompatible with each other, religion, referring to human being’s thought about essay what a . human being is and why, provides some perceptual knowledge to us while logic , referring to both the study of modes of reasoning (which are valid and and composition essays, which are fallacious) and the use of is the valid reasoning, gives us rational view about what a human being is, thus, helping us to ap language essays 2014 become more human being.
Religion and logic are not incompatible. Analytically. Africa , Faith , Human 972 Words | 3 Pages. Historical Antecedents, Their Effects on Education from the sources Philosophical Points of View. beings, in the universe. ? MAIN BRANCHES OF PHILOSOPHY 1. METAPHYSICS ? Deals with the first principles, the origin and essence of things, . the causes and ap language, end of statement things.
2. EPISTEMOLOGY ? Deals with the knowledge and with ways of knowing. Kinds of knowledge: a. Conceptual (ideas formed in mind) b. Perceptual (knowledge gained through the ap language 2014 senses) c. Intuitive (cognition of a thing independent of reason, inference, or cause) 3. AXIOLOGY ? Is teleology which deals with purposes and values INCLUDES: . Epistemology , Human , Life 1076 Words | 4 Pages. Everything You Wanted to a professional Know About Logic Models But Were Afraid to ap language and composition 2014 Ask This paper addresses situations where a private foundation designs . an initiative and awards grants to essay on poverty is the of all a number of sites to participate in and composition 2014 the initiative in their local setting. The basic ideas are applicable to other situations. What is a Logic Model? The term logic model comes from the evaluation field, but these models don’t just belong to writing evaluators or the evaluation plan. As the term suggests, they are a basic.
Logic , Logic model , Lowenheim–Skolem theorem 1480 Words | 5 Pages. to define itself and the other. In old times, philosophers were also the ap language and composition 2014 forerunners of science (Plato, etc.) Gradually, different departments of science . separated itself from philosophy. Newton: Physics vs. metaphysics Darwin: Biology vs. philosophy and statement for videogames, theology 20th century: Logic and computer science vs. philosophy However, all scientific departments still left certain problems to philosophy to answer (e.g. what is a number, what is time, what is and composition, a point). Science takes some questions. Aristotle , Epistemology , Logic 488 Words | 3 Pages.
Watts Introduction to Philosophy Essay 2: Use of Logic Logic plays a big role in our society today. In fact . logic has played a big role in on occupational the advancement of ap language and composition civilization. Essay On Occupational! There are many forms of logic and many different applications that go along with them. Logic seeks out the truth in statements through deduction and reasoning. Using logic one can test the validity of a statement just by understanding the format and the content of an argument. Logic is considered to be the science of reasoning and. Aristotle , Critical thinking , Deductive reasoning 927 Words | 3 Pages. Introduction LOGIC GATES • Basic Logic Gates • Truth Tables • Logical Functions Truth Tables Logical Expression . Essays 2014! Graphical Form G hi l F Most Difficult Reading Topics • Logic gates and what is cover, figuring out how to read them th • Logical Circuit Equivalence • NAND NOR and and composition, XOR truth tables • Using the rules to create and read the logic gates using 0's and 1's • Transistor implementation • Difference between positive logic and negative logic Logic • Formal logic is research, a branch of mathematics that. AND gate , Logic , Logic gate 950 Words | 5 Pages. Logic Effort- The method of logical effort is a term coined by Ivan Sutherland and Bob Sproull in 1991, is a straightforward technique used . to estimate delay in a CMOS circuit. Ap Language And Composition 2014! Used properly, it can aid in selection of gates for a given function (including the number of stages necessary) and sizing gates to achieve the minimum delay possible for a circuit.
Each logic gate is phd english dissertations, characterized by two quantities: its logical effort and its parasitic delay. These parameters may be determined in three. CMOS , Integrated circuit , Logic gate 1599 Words | 5 Pages. Metaphysics shares a breadth of problems concerning ‘universals’. One view that addresses these problems is nominalism. Nominalism is . the position that universals do not exist outside the mind. There are different sects of nominalism that expresses various stances about the problem at hand. Austere nominalism, metalinguistic nominalism, and trope theory are the various types of nominalism that refute the claim of realism. Each of these types of nominalism contain their own respective. Abstract object , Conceptualism , Metaphysics 1134 Words | 4 Pages.
Activity 6.3.2 Logic Gates Introduction A two-valued number system is the basis for all of the powerful computers and and composition 2014, electronic devices in the . world. Those two values are 0 and on occupational and safety, 1. Everything in the digital world is based on this binary system. While it seems very simple, the binary system is used to and composition create the logic that dictates the actions of complex and simpler digital systems. But how do processors know what to do with all of those 0s and 1s Gates are used. Thesis For Videogames And Violence! Gates process the 0s and ap language essays, 1s and react. AND gate , Logic gate , Logic gates 1375 Words | 4 Pages.
Personal Epistemology Paper Yolonda Carney . September 10, 2012 SOCW-5304 Social Work Generalist Macro Practice The University Texas Arlington Prof. Jose Carbajal , LCSW . International Federation of Social Workers , Social change , Social justice 2182 Words | 6 Pages.
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The Responsibility of Intellectuals. TWENTY-YEARS AGO, Dwight Macdonald published a series of articles in Politics on the responsibility of peoples and, specifically, the responsibility of intellectuals. I read them as an undergraduate, in the years just after the war, and had occasion to read them again a few months ago. They seem to me to have lost none of their power or persuasiveness. And Composition Essays! Macdonald is concerned with the question of war guilt. He asks the writing question: To what extent were the German or Japanese people responsible for the atrocities committed by their governments? And, quite properly, he turns the ap language and composition essays 2014 question back to sources writing us: To what extent are the ap language and composition 2014 British or American people responsible for the vicious terror bombings of civilians, perfected as a technique of warfare by the Western democracies and reaching their culmination in Hiroshima and on poverty, Nagasaki, surely among the 2014 most unspeakable crimes in history. To an undergraduate in 1945-46—to anyone whose political and moral consciousness had been formed by the horrors of the 1930s, by phd english the war in Ethiopia, the ap language essays 2014 Russian purge, the “China Incident,” the Spanish Civil War, the Nazi atrocities, the Western reaction to is the mother crimes these events and, in part, complicity in them—these questions had particular significance and poignancy. With respect to the responsibility of intellectuals, there are still other, equally disturbing questions.
Intellectuals are in a position to and composition essays 2014 expose the lies of and violence, governments, to analyze actions according to and composition 2014 their causes and motives and often hidden intentions. In the dissertations Western world, at least, they have the power that comes from political liberty, from access to information and freedom of expression. Ap Language And Composition! For a privileged minority, Western democracy provides the leisure, the facilities, and the training to writing a professional paper seek the truth lying hidden behind the veil of distortion and misrepresentation, ideology and class interest, through which the and composition events of current history are presented to us. Is The Of All Crimes! The responsibilities of intellectuals, then, are much deeper than what Macdonald calls the “responsibility of people,” given the unique privileges that intellectuals enjoy. The issues that Macdonald raised are as pertinent today as they were twenty years ago.
We can hardly avoid asking ourselves to what extent the American people bear responsibility for the savage American assault on a largely helpless rural population in Vietnam, still another atrocity in what Asians see as the “Vasco da Gama era” of world history. As for those of us who stood by in silence and apathy as this catastrophe slowly took shape over the past dozen years—on what page of history do we find our proper place? Only the most insensible can escape these questions. I want to return to them, later on, after a few scattered remarks about the responsibility of intellectuals and how, in practice, they go about meeting this responsibility in the mid-1960s. IT IS THE RESPONSIBILITY of intellectuals to speak the truth and to expose lies. Essays! This, at least, may seem enough of what is cover, a truism to pass over without comment. Not so, however. For the modern intellectual, it is not at ap language and composition 2014, all obvious. On Occupational Health! Thus we have Martin Heidegger writing, in a pro-Hitler declaration of 1933, that “truth is the revelation of that which makes a people certain, clear, and strong in its action and knowledge”; it is ap language essays 2014 only this kind of phd english dissertations, “truth” that one has a responsibility to speak. Americans tend to be more forthright.
When Arthur Schlesinger was asked by The New York Times in November, 1965, to explain the contradiction between his published account of the Bay of Pigs incident and the story he had given the press at the time of the attack, he simply remarked that he had lied; and a few days later, he went on to compliment the Times for also having suppressed information on and composition 2014 the planned invasion, in “the national interest,” as this term was defined by on occupational and safety the group of arrogant and deluded men of whom Schlesinger gives such a flattering portrait in his recent account of the Kennedy Administration. Ap Language! It is essay on poverty of all crimes of no particular interest that one man is quite happy to lie in behalf of a cause which he knows to be unjust; but it is significant that such events provoke so little response in the intellectual community—for example, no one has said that there is something strange in ap language and composition 2014, the offer of a major chair in the humanities to a historian who feels it to be his duty to on occupational health and safety persuade the world that an American-sponsored invasion of a nearby country is nothing of the sort. And what of the ap language and composition essays 2014 incredible sequence of lies on writing a professional research the part of and composition essays 2014, our government and its spokesmen concerning such matters as negotiations in Vietnam? The facts are known to all who care to know. The press, foreign and domestic, has presented documentation to refute each falsehood as it appears. But the power of the government’s propaganda apparatus is such that the citizen who does not undertake a research project on sources the subject can hardly hope to confront government pronouncements with fact.  The deceit and distortion surrounding the American invasion of Vietnam is by now so familiar that it has lost its power to and composition 2014 shock.
It is therefore useful to recall that although new levels of cynicism are constantly being reached, their clear antecedents were accepted at home with quiet toleration. It is a useful exercise to compare Government statements at the time of the invasion of Guatemala in 1954 with Eisenhower’s admission—to be more accurate, his boast—a decade later that American planes were sent “to help the invaders” ( New York Times , October 14, 1965). Nor is it only in moments of crisis that duplicity is considered perfectly in order. “New Frontiersmen,” for example, have scarcely distinguished themselves by a passionate concern for historical accuracy, even when they are not being called upon to provide a “propaganda cover” for ongoing actions. For example, Arthur Schlesinger ( New York Times , February 6, 1966) describes the bombing of North Vietnam and the massive escalation of military commitment in early 1965 as based on a “perfectly rational argument”: so long as the Vietcong thought they were going to win the war, they obviously would not be interested in any kind of negotiated settlement. The date is important. Had this statement been made six months earlier, one could attribute it to ignorance. But this statement appeared after the UN, North Vietnamese, and Soviet initiatives had been front-page news for months. Thesis And Violence! It was already public knowledge that these initiatives had preceeded the escalation of February 1965 and, in fact, continued for several weeks after the essays 2014 bombing began.
Correspondents in Washington tried desperately to find some explanation for the startling deception that had been revealed. Chalmers Roberts, for essay writing, example, wrote in the Boston Globe on November 19 with unconscious irony: [late February, 1965] hardly seemed to Washington to be a propitious moment for negotiations [since] Mr. Johnson…had just ordered the first bombing of ap language and composition, North Vietnam in an effort to bring Hanoi to a conference table where the bargaining chips on both sides would be more closely matched. Coming at that moment, Schlesinger’s statement is less an paper, example of deceit than of essays 2014, contempt—contempt for dissertations, an audience that can be expected to tolerate such behavior with silence, if not approval.  TO TURN TO SOMEONE closer to the actual formation and implementation of policy, consider some of the reflections of Walt Rostow, a man who, according to Schlesinger, brought a “spacious historical view” to the conduct of foreign affairs in ap language and composition, the Kennedy administration.  According to his analysis, the guerrilla warfare in Indo-China in a professional research paper, 1946 was launched by Stalin,  and Hanoi initiated the guerrilla war against South Vietnam in 1958 ( The View from the Seventh Floor pp. 39 and ap language 2014, 152). Similarly, the Communist planners probed the “free world spectrum of defense” in Northern Azerbaijan and Greece (where Stalin “supported substantial guerrilla warfare”— ibid ., pp. What Is Cover Letter! 36 and 148), operating from plans carefully laid in 1945.
And in Central Europe, the Soviet Union was not “prepared to and composition essays 2014 accept a solution which would remove the dangerous tensions from Central Europe at the risk of even slowly staged corrosion of what is cover for resume, Communism in East Germany” ( ibid ., p. 156). It is interesting to 2014 compare these observations with studies by scholars actually concerned with historical events. Crimes! The remark about Stalin’s initiating the first Vietnamese war in 1946 does not even merit refutation. As to Hanoi’s purported initiative of 1958, the situation is more clouded. But even government sources  concede that in 1959 Hanoi received the first direct reports of what Diem referred to  as his own Algerian war and essays 2014, that only statement for videogames and violence after this did they lay their plans to involve themselves in ap language and composition 2014, this struggle. In fact, in December, 1958, Hanoi made another of its many attempts—rebuffed once again by Saigon and the United States—to establish diplomatic and commercial relations with the Saigon government on the basis of the status quo. Writing A Professional Paper!  Rostow offers no evidence of ap language, Stalin’s support for the Greek guerrillas; in fact, though the essay mother crimes historical record is far from clear, it seems that Stalin was by no means pleased with the adventurism of the Greek guerrillas, who, from his point of view, were upsetting the satisfactory post-war imperialist settlement.  Rostow’s remarks about Germany are more interesting still. He does not see fit to mention, for example, the Russian notes of March-April, 1952, which proposed unification of Germany under internationally supervised elections, with withdrawal of all troops within a year, if there was a guarantee that a reunified Germany would not be permitted to join a Western military alliance.  And he has also momentarily forgotten his own characterization of the strategy of the and composition Truman and Eisenhower administrations: “to avoid any serious negotiation with the Soviet Union until the West could confront Moscow with German rearmament within an organized European framework, as a fait accompli “  —to be sure, in defiance of the Potsdam agreements. But most interesting of all is for resume Rostow’s reference to Iran.
The facts are that there was a Russian attempt to impose by force a pro-Soviet government in essays, Northern Azerbaijan that would grant the Soviet Union access to Iranian oil. Statement For Videogames And Violence! This was rebuffed by ap language and composition 2014 superior Anglo-American force in writing a professional research paper, 1946, at which point the more powerful imperialism obtained full rights to essays 2014 Iranian oil for itself, with the installation of a pro-Western government. We recall what happened when, for a brief period in writing, the early 1950s, the 2014 only Iranian government with something of a popular base experimented with the curious idea that Iranian oil should belong to the Iranians. What is interesting, however, is the description of thesis statement, Northern Azerbaijan as part of “the free world spectrum of defense.” It is ap language essays 2014 pointless, by now, to comment on the debasement of the thesis for videogames and violence phrase “free world.” But by what law of nature does Iran, with its resources, fall within Western dominion? The bland assumption that it does is most revealing of deep-seated attitudes toward the conduct of foreign affairs. IN ADDITION to ap language and composition essays this growing lack of concern for truth, we find, in recent published statements, a real or feigned naivete about American actions that reaches startling proportions.
For example, Arthur Schlesinger, according to the Times , February 6, 1966, characterized our Vietnamese policies of 1954 as “part of our general program of international goodwill.” Unless intended as irony, this remark shows either a colossal cynicism, or the inability, on a scale that defies measurement, to comprehend elementary phenomena of contemporary history. Similarly, what is one to make of the testimony of Thomas Schelling before the mother crimes House Foreign Affairs Committee, January 27, 1965, in which he discusses two great dangers if all Asia “goes Communist”?  First, this would exclude “the United States and ap language and composition, what we call Western civilization from a large part of the world that is poor and is the mother, colored and potentially hostile.” Second, “a country like the United States probably cannot maintain self-confidence if just about the ap language and composition essays greatest thing it ever attempted, namely to create the basis for decency and prosperity and democratic government in the underdeveloped world, had to be acknowledged as a failure or as an attempt that we wouldn’t try again.” It surpasses belief that a person with even a minimal acquaintance with the writing research record of American foreign policy could produce such statements. It surpasses belief, that is, unless we look at the matter from a more historical point of view, and place such statements in the context of the hypocritical moralism of the past; for example, of ap language and composition, Woodrow Wilson, who was going to teach the Latin Americans the art of good government, and who wrote (1902) that it is “our peculiar duty” to teach colonial peoples “order and self-control…[and]…the drill and habit of what letter for resume, law and obedience….” Or of the and composition essays missionaries of the 1840s, who described the essay hideous and degrading opium wars as “the result of a great design of Providence to make the wickedness of men subserve his purposes of mercy toward China, in essays, breaking through her wall of exclusion, and bringing the empire into more immediate contact with western and essay mother of all, Christian nations.” Or, to approach the present, of ap language 2014, A.A. Berle, who, in commenting on the Dominican intervention, has the essay mother of all impertinence to attribute the problems of the Caribbean countries to and composition imperialism— Russian imperialism.  AS A FINAL EXAMPLE of statement for videogames and violence, this failure of skepticism, consider the remarks of Henry Kissinger in and composition, his concluding remarks at the Harvard-Oxford television debate on America’s Vietnam policies. He observed, rather sadly, that what disturbs him most is that others question not our judgment, but our motives—a remarkable comment by a man whose professional concern is political analysis, that is, analysis of the actions of research, governments in terms of motives that are unexpressed in official propaganda and perhaps only dimly perceived by those whose acts they govern. Essays 2014! No one would be disturbed by an analysis of the political behavior of the Russians, French, or Tanzanians questioning their motives and interpreting their actions by the long-range interests concealed behind their official rhetoric.
But it is an article of faith that American motives are pure, and not subject to analysis (see note 1 ). Although it is nothing new in American intellectual history—or, for writing, that matter, in the general history of imperialist apologia—this innocence becomes increasingly distasteful as the power it serves grows more dominant in world affairs, and more capable, therefore, of the unconstrained viciousness that the mass media present to us each day. We are hardly the essays 2014 first power in history to combine material interests, great technological capacity, and an utter disregard for the suffering and sources writing, misery of the lower orders. The long tradition of naivete and and composition, self-righteousness that disfigures our intellectual history, however, must serve as a warning to the third world, if such a warning is needed, as to how our protestations of sincerity and benign intent are to be interpreted. The basic assumptions of the “New Frontiersmen” should be pondered carefully by those who look forward to the involvement of academic intellectuals in politics. For example, I have referred above to Arthur Schlesinger’s objections to what letter for resume the Bay of Pigs invasion, but the reference was imprecise. True, he felt that it was a “terrible idea,” but “not because the notion of sponsoring an exile attempt to overthrow Castro seemed intolerable in itself.” Such a reaction would be the merest sentimentality, unthinkable to a tough-minded realist. The difficulty, rather, was that it seemed unlikely that the deception could succeed. The operation, in and composition essays, his view, was ill-conceived but not otherwise objectionable.  In a similar vein, Schlesinger quotes with approval Kennedy’s “realistic” assessment of the situation resulting from Trujillo’s assassination:
There are three possibilities in descending order of preference: a decent democratic regime, a continuation of the Trujillo regime or a Castro regime. We ought to aim at the first, but we really can’t renounce the second until we are sure that we can avoid the third [p. 769]. The reason why the third possibility is so intolerable is explained a few pages later (p. 774): “Communist success in Latin America would deal a much harder blow to the power and influence of the statement for videogames United States.” Of course, we can never really be sure of avoiding the third possibility; therefore, in ap language essays 2014, practice, we will always settle for the second, as we are now doing in Brazil and Argentina, for example.  Or consider Walt Rostow’s views on American policy in Asia.  The basis on which we must build this policy is that “we are openly threatened and we feel menaced by Communist China.” To prove that we are menaced is of course unnecessary, and the matter receives no attention; it is enough that we feel menaced. Our policy must be based on our national heritage and our national interests. Our national heritage is phd english dissertations briefly outlined in the following terms: “Throughout the nineteenth century, in and composition 2014, good conscience Americans could devote themselves to the extension of both their principles and their power on this continent,” making use of “the somewhat elastic concept of the Monroe doctrine” and, of a professional paper, course, extending “the American interest to Alaska and the mid-Pacific islands…. Both our insistence on unconditional surrender and the idea of post-war occupation…represented the formulation of American security interests in Europe and Asia.” So much for ap language 2014, our heritage. As to a professional paper our interests, the matter is equally simple. Ap Language Essays 2014! Fundamental is our “profound interest that societies abroad develop and strengthen those elements in their respective cultures that elevate and protect the dignity of the individual against the state.” At the same time, we must counter the “ideological threat,” namely “the possibility that the Chinese Communists can prove to Asians by progress in essay on occupational health, China that Communist methods are better and faster than democratic methods.” Nothing is ap language essays 2014 said about those people in Asian cultures to whom our “conception of the proper relation of the individual to the state” may not be the uniquely important value, people who might, for example, be concerned with preserving the “dignity of the individual” against concentrations of foreign or domestic capital, or against semi-feudal structures (such as Trujillo-type dictatorships) introduced or kept in power by American arms.
All of this is flavored with allusions to on occupational health and safety “our religious and ethical value systems” and to our “diffuse and complex concepts” which are to the Asian mind “so much more difficult to grasp” than Marxist dogma, and are so “disturbing to and composition some Asians” because of “their very lack of dogmatism.” Such intellectual contributions as these suggest the need for a correction to De Gaulle’s remark, in his Memoirs , about the American “will to power, cloaking itself in idealism.” By now, this will to power is not so much cloaked in writing a professional, idealism as it is drowned in fatuity. And academic intellectuals have made their unique contribution to this sorry picture. LET US, HOWEVER, RETURN to the war in 2014, Vietnam and the response that it has aroused among American intellectuals. For Videogames! A striking feature of the recent debate on Southeast Asian policy has been the ap language essays 2014 distinction that is writing commonly drawn between “responsible criticism,” on the one hand, and “sentimental,” or “emotional,” or “hysterical” criticism, on the other. There is much to be learned from a careful study of the terms in which this distinction is drawn. The “hysterical critics” are to be identified, apparently, by their irrational refusal to accept one fundamental political axiom, namely that the United States has the right to extend its power and control without limit, insofar as is feasible. Responsible criticism does not challenge this assumption, but argues, rather, that we probably can’t “get away with it” at this particular time and and composition essays, place. A distinction of this sort seems to be what Irving Kristol, for example, has in sources essay, mind in his analysis of the protest over Vietnam policy ( Encounter , August, 1965). He contrasts the responsible critics, such as Walter Lippmann, the Times , and Senator Fulbright, with the “teach-in movement.” “Unlike the university protesters,” he points out, “Mr.
Lippmann engages in no presumptuous suppositions as to ‘what the Vietnamese people really want’—he obviously doesn’t much care—or in legalistic exegesis as to whether, or to what extent, there is ‘aggression’ or ‘revolution’ in South Vietnam. His is 2014 a realpolitik point of view; and he will apparently even contemplate the possibility of sources essay writing, a nuclear war against essays 2014, China in on occupational health and safety, extreme circumstances.” This is commendable, and contrasts favorably, for Kristol, with the ap language 2014 talk of the phd english dissertations “unreasonable, ideological types” in the teach-in movement, who often seem to be motivated by such absurdities as “simple, virtuous ‘anti-imperialism,’ “who deliver “harangues on ‘the power structure,’ ” and ap language and composition, who even sometimes stoop so low as to essay health read “articles and ap language and composition essays, reports from the foreign press on the American presence in essay on occupational health and safety, Vietnam.” Furthermore, these nasty types are often psychologists, mathematicians, chemists, or philosophers (just as, incidentally, those most vocal in protest in the Soviet Union are generally physicists, literary intellectuals, and others remote from the ap language essays exercise of power), rather than people with Washington contacts, who, of course, realize that “had they a new, good idea about Vietnam, they would get a prompt and respectful hearing” in sources writing, Washington. I am not interested here in ap language and composition 2014, whether Kristol’s characterization of protest and dissent is accurate, but rather in the assumptions on which it rests. Is the purity of American motives a matter that is beyond discussion, or that is irrelevant to discussion? Should decisions be left to “experts” with Washington contacts—even if we assume that they command the essay writing necessary knowledge and principles to make the “best” decision, will they invariably do so?
And, a logically prior question, is “expertise” applicable—that is, is there a body of theory and of relevant information, not in the public domain, that can be applied to the analysis of 2014, foreign policy or that demonstrates the correctness of present actions in some way that psychologists, mathematicians, chemists, and philosophers are incapable of comprehending? Although Kristol does not examine these questions directly, his attitude presupposes answers, answers which are wrong in all cases. American aggressiveness, however it may be masked in pious rhetoric, is a dominant force in world affairs and must be analyzed in terms of its causes and is the, motives. There is no body of theory or significant body of relevant information, beyond the ap language essays 2014 comprehension of the layman, which makes policy immune from criticism. To the on poverty is the extent that “expert knowledge” is applied to world affairs, it is surely appropriate—for a person of essays, any integrity, quite necessary—to question its quality and essay health and safety, the goals it serves. These facts seem too obvious to ap language and composition 2014 require extended discussion. A CORRECTIVE to Kristol’s curious belief in the Administration’s openness to new thinking about Vietnam is provided by McGeorge Bundy in a recent issue of Foreign Affairs (January, 1967). As Bundy correctly observes, “on the main stage…the argument on Viet Nam turns on tactics, not fundamentals,” although, he adds, “there are wild men in the wings.” On stage center are, of course, the what letter for resume President (who in his recent trip to Asia had just “magisterially reaffirmed” our interest “in the progress of the people across the Pacific”) and his advisers, who deserve “the understanding support of those who want restraint.” It is these men who deserve the ap language and composition 2014 credit for the fact that “the bombing of the North has been the most accurate and the most restrained in modern warfare”—a solicitude which will be appreciated by sources the inhabitants, or former inhabitants of Nam Dinh and Phu Ly and and composition essays, Vinh.
It is these men, too, who deserve the credit for what was reported by Malcolm Browne as long ago as May, 1965: In the phd english South, huge sectors of the nation have been declared “free bombing zones,” in which anything that moves is a legitimate target. Tens of thousands of tons of bombs, rockets, napalm and cannon fire are poured into these vast areas each week. If only by ap language and composition essays 2014 the laws of research paper, chance, bloodshed is essays believed to be heavy in these raids. Fortunately for the developing countries, Bundy assures us, “American democracy has no taste for imperialism,” and “taken as a whole, the stock of American experience, understanding, sympathy and simple knowledge is what letter now much the most impressive in the world.” It is true that “four-fifths of all the ap language and composition foreign investing in thesis statement for videogames and violence, the world is now done by Americans” and that “the most admired plans and policies…are no better than their demonstrable relation to the American interest”—just as it is true, so we read in the same issue of Foreign Affairs , that the plans for armed action against Cuba were put into motion a few weeks after Mikoyan visited Havana, “invading what had so long been an almost exclusively American sphere of influence.” Unfortunately, such facts as these are often taken by unsophisticated Asian intellectuals as indicating a “taste for imperialism.” For example, a number of Indians have expressed their “near exasperation” at the fact that “we have done everything we can to attract foreign capital for fertilizer plants, but the American and the other Western private companies know we are over a barrel, so they demand stringent terms which we just cannot meet” ( Christian Science Monitor , November 26), while “Washington…doggedly insists that deals be made in the private sector with private enterprise” ( ibid ., December 5).  But this reaction, no doubt, simply reveals, once again, how the Asian mind fails to comprehend the ap language and composition essays “diffuse and complex concepts” of Western thought.
IT MAY BE USEFUL to study carefully the essay writing “new, good ideas about Vietnam” that are receiving a “prompt and respectful hearing” in Washington these days. The US Government Printing Office is an endless source of insight into ap language the moral and intellectual level of this expert advice. In its publications one can read, for example, the testimony of Professor David N. Rowe, Director of on occupational health and safety, Graduate Studies in International Relations at Yale University, before the and composition 2014 House Committee on Foreign Affairs (see note 11 ). A Professional! Professor Rowe proposes (p. 266) that the United States buy all surplus Canadian and Australian wheat, so that there will be mass starvation in China. These are his words: Mind you, I am not talking about this as a weapon against ap language, the Chinese people. It will be. But that is only incidental. Mother! The weapon will be a weapon against the Government because the internal stability of that country cannot be sustained by an unfriendly Government in the face of and composition, general starvation. Professor Rowe will have none of the sentimental moralism that might lead one to compare this suggestion with, say, the sources writing Ostpolitik of Hitler’s Germany. Ap Language!  Nor does he fear the impact of such policies on other Asian nations, for example, Japan. He assures us, from his “very long acquaintance with Japanese questions,” that “the Japanese above all are people who respect power and determination.” Hence “they will not be so much alarmed by American policy in Vietnam that takes off from a position of power and intends to seek a solution based upon the imposition of our power upon local people that we are in opposition to.” What would disturb the Japanese is “a policy of indecision, a policy of refusal to face up to the problems [in China and Vietnam] and to meet our responsibilities there in a positive way,” such as the way just cited.
A conviction that we were “unwilling to for resume use the power that they know we have” might “alarm the ap language essays 2014 Japanese people very intensely and shake the degree of their friendly relations with us.” In fact, a full use of American power would be particularly reassuring to the Japanese, because they have had a demonstration “of the on poverty is the tremendous power in action of the United States…because they have felt our power directly.” This is surely a prime example of the healthy, “ realpolitik point of view” that Irving Kristol so much admires. But, one may ask, why restrict ourselves to such indirect means as mass starvation? Why not bombing? No doubt this message is implicit in the remarks to the same committee of the Reverend R.J. de Jaegher, Regent of the Institute of Far Eastern Studies, Seton Hall University, who explains that like all people who have lived under Communism, the North Vietnamese “would be perfectly happy to be bombed to be free” (p. 345). Of course, there must be those who support the Communists. But this is really a matter of essays, small concern, as the Hon Walter Robertson, Assistant Secretary of State for Far Eastern Affairs from 1953-59, points out in his testimony before the same committee. He assures us that “The Peiping regime…represents something less than 3 per cent of the population” (p. 402). Consider, then, how fortunate the Chinese Communist leaders are, compared to and safety the leaders of the and composition essays 2014 Vietcong, who, according to Arthur Goldberg ( New York Times , February 6, 1966), represent about “one-half of sources writing, one percent of the population of South Vietnam,” that is, about one-half the number of new Southern recruits for the Vietcong during 1965, if we can credit Pentagon statistics. And Composition Essays!  In the face of such experts as these, the scientists and philosophers of essay on occupational health and safety, whom Kristol speaks would clearly do well to continue to draw their circles in the sand.
HAVING SETTLED THE ISSUE of the political irrelevance of the and composition 2014 protest movement, Kristol turns to the question of what motivates it—more generally, what has made students and junior faculty “go left,” as he sees it, amid general prosperity and under liberal, Welfare State administrations. This, he notes, “is a riddle to which no sociologist has as yet come up with an answer.” Since these young people are well-off, have good futures, etc., their protest must be irrational. It must be the thesis statement and violence result of boredom, of too much security, or something of this sort. Other possibilities come to mind. Ap Language And Composition Essays 2014! It may be, for example, that as honest men the students and junior faculty are attempting to sources writing find out the truth for and composition essays, themselves rather than ceding the responsibility to “experts” or to government; and it may be that they react with indignation to what they discover. These possibilities Kristol does not reject.
They are simply unthinkable, unworthy of consideration. More accurately, these possibilities are inexpressible; the categories in which they are formulated (honesty, indignation) simply do not exist for on occupational and safety, the tough-minded social scientist. IN THIS IMPLICIT DISPARAGEMENT of traditional intellectual values, Kristol reflects attitudes that are fairly widespread in ap language, academic circles. I do not doubt that these attitudes are in on poverty is the of all, part a consequence of the desperate attempt of the social and behavioral sciences to imitate the surface features of sciences that really have significant intellectual content. But they have other sources as well. Anyone can be a moral individual, concerned with human rights and problems; but only a college professor, a trained expert, can solve technical problems by “sophisticated” methods. Ergo, it is ap language essays only problems of the latter sort that are important or real. Responsible, non-ideological experts will give advice on tactical questions; irresponsible, “ideological types” will “harangue” about principle and trouble themselves over moral issues and phd english, human rights, or over the traditional problems of man and and composition 2014, society, concerning which “social and behavioral science” has nothing to offer beyond trivalities. Obviously, these emotional, ideological types are irrational, since, being well-off and what is cover letter for resume, having power in their grasp, they shouldn’t worry about such matters.
At times this pseudo-scientific posing reaches levels that are almost pathological. Consider the phenomenon of Herman Kahn, for example. Kahn has been both denounced as immoral and lauded for his courage. By people who should know better, his On Thermonuclear War has been described “without qualification…[as]…one of the great works of our time” (Stuart Hughes). The fact of the matter is that this is surely one of the emptiest works of our time, as can be seen by applying to it the intellectual standards of any existing discipline, by tracing some of its “well-documented conclusions” to the “objective studies” from which they derive, and by ap language and composition essays following the line of argument, where detectable. On Occupational Health! Kahn proposes no theories, no explanations, no factual assumptions that can be tested against their consequences, as do the sciences he is attempting to mimic.
He simply suggests a terminology and provides a facade of rationality. When particular policy conclusions are drawn, they are supported only by ex cathedra remarks for which no support is even suggested (e.g., “The civil defense line probably should be drawn somewhere below $5 billion annually” to keep from provoking the Russians—why not $50 billion, or $5.00?). What is essays more, Kahn is quite aware of this vacuity; in his more judicious moments he claims only that “there is no reason to believe that relatively sophisticated models are more likely to be misleading than the simpler models and analogies frequently used as an research, aid to judgment.” For those whose humor tends towards the macabre, it is easy to play the game of “strategic thinking” a la Kahn, and to prove what one wishes. For example, one of Kahn’s basic assumptions is that. an all-out surprise attack in which all resources are devoted to counter-value targets would be so irrational that, barring an incredible lack of sophistication or actual insanity among Soviet decision makers, such an ap language, attack is what is cover for resume highly unlikely. A simple argument proves the opposite. Premise 1: American decision-makers think along the lines outlined by Herman Kahn. Premise 2 : Kahn thinks it would be better for ap language and composition, everyone to writing research be red than for essays, everyone to be dead. Premise 3 : if the Americans were to respond to an all-out countervalue attack, then everyone would be dead. Essay On Poverty Mother Of All! Conclusion : the Americans will not respond to an all-out countervalue attack, and therefore it should be launched without delay. Of course, one can carry the argument a step further.
Fact : the Russians have not carried out an all-out countervalue attack. It follows that they are not rational. If they are not rational, there is and composition no point in “strategic thinking.” Therefore,…. Of course this is all nonsense, but nonsense that differs from essay writing Kahn’s only in the respect that the argument is ap language and composition 2014 of slightly greater complexity than anything to be discovered in his work. What is remarkable is that serious people actually pay attention to these absurdities, no doubt because of the facade of tough-mindedness and pseudo-science. IT IS A CURIOUS and depressing fact that the “anti-war movement” falls prey all too often to similar confusions. In the fall of 1965, for example, there was an International Conference on Alternative Perspectives on Vietnam, which circulated a pamphlet to potential participants stating its assumptions. The plan was to set up study groups in which three “types of sources essay writing, intellectual tradition” will be represented: (1) area specialists; (2) “social theory, with special emphasis on theories of the international system, of social change and development, of conflict and conflict resolution, or of 2014, revolution”; (3) “the analysis of public policy in terms of basic human values, rooted in various theological, philosophical and humanist traditions.” The second intellectual tradition will provide “general propositions, derived from social theory and tested against historical, comparative, or experimental data”; the third “will provide the framework out of which fundamental value questions can be raised and in terms of which the on poverty moral implications of societal actions can be analyzed.” The hope was that “by approaching the questions [of Vietnam policy] from the moral perspectives of all great religions and ap language essays 2014, philosophical systems, we may find solutions that are more consistent with fundamental human values than current American policy in essay is the mother of all, Vietnam has turned out to be.” In short, the experts on values (i.e., spokesmen for the great religions and philosophical systems) will provide fundamental insights on ap language and composition 2014 moral perspectives, and the experts on social theory will provide general empirically validated propositions and on occupational health, “general models of conflict.” From this interplay, new policies will emerge, presumably from application of the canons of scientific method.
The only debatable issue, it seems to me, is essays 2014 whether it is is the crimes more ridiculous to essays turn to experts in social theory for is cover, general well-confirmed propositions, or to the specialists in the great religions and ap language 2014, philosophical systems for insights into sources essay fundamental human values. There is much more that can be said about this topic, but, without continuing, I would simply like to emphasize that, as is no doubt obvious, the essays cult of the dissertations experts is both self-serving, for those who propound it, and fraudulent. Obviously, one must learn from social and behavioral science whatever one can; obviously, these fields should be pursued as seriously as possible. But it will be quite unfortunate, and highly dangerous, if they are not accepted and judged on their merits and according to their actual, not pretended, accomplishments. In particular, if there is a body of theory, well-tested and verified, that applies to the conduct of foreign affairs or the resolution of domestic or international conflict, its existence has been kept a well-guarded secret. In the case of Vietnam, if those who feel themselves to and composition essays be experts have access to thesis statement for videogames principles or information that would justify what the American government is essays 2014 doing in that unfortunate country, they have been singularly ineffective in making this fact known. To anyone who has any familiarity with the social and behavioral sciences (or the “policy sciences”), the claim that there are certain considerations and principles too deep for the outsider to comprehend is simply an absurdity, unworthy of comment. WHEN WE CONSIDER the responsibility of phd english dissertations, intellectuals, our basic concern must be their role in the creation and 2014, analysis of writing paper, ideology. And Composition 2014! And, in fact, Kristol’s contrast between the statement for videogames and violence unreasonable ideological types and 2014, the responsible experts is formulated in terms that immediately bring to thesis statement for videogames mind Daniel Bell’s interesting and influential “The End of Ideology,” an essay which is as important for what it leaves unsaid as for its actual content.  Bell presents and ap language and composition essays, discusses the phd english Marxist analysis of ideology as a mask for essays, class interest, quoting Marx’s well-known description of the belief of the bourgeoisie “that the special conditions of its emancipation are the general conditions through which alone modern society can be saved and the class struggle avoided.” He then argues that the age of ideology is ended, supplanted, at least in the West, by a general agreement that each issue must be settled in its own terms, within the framework of a Welfare State in which, presumably, experts in the conduct of public affairs will have a prominent role.
Bell is is cover letter for resume quite careful, however, to characterize the precise sense of “ideology” in which “ideologies are exhausted.” He is ap language and composition essays referring to ideology only as “the conversion of ideas into social levers,” to ideology as “a set of beliefs, infused with passion,…[which] …seeks to thesis for videogames transform the whole of a way of life.” The crucial words are “transform” and “convert into social levers.” Intellectuals in the West, he argues, have lost interest in converting ideas into social levers for the radical transformation of society. Now that we have achieved the pluralistic society of the Welfare State, they see no further need for a radical transformation of society; we may tinker with our way of life here and there, but it would be wrong to try to modify it in any significant way. With this consensus of intellectuals, ideology is dead. There are several striking facts about Bell’s essay. First, he does not point out the extent to which this consensus of the intellectuals is self-serving. Ap Language And Composition Essays! He does not relate his observation that, by and large, intellectuals have lost interest in “transforming the whole of a way of life” to the fact that they play an increasingly prominent role in running the Welfare State; he does not relate their general satisfaction with the Welfare State to the fact that, as he observes elsewhere, “America has become an affluent society, offering place…and prestige…to the onetime radicals.” Secondly, he offers no serious argument to essay of all crimes show that intellectuals are somehow “right” or “objectively justified” in essays, reaching the consensus to which he alludes, with its rejection of the notion that society should be transformed. Indeed, although Bell is fairly sharp about the empty rhetoric of the “new left,” he seems to have a quite utopian faith that technical experts will be able to cope with the few problems that still remain; for example, the fact that labor is treated as a commodity, and the problems of “alienation.” It seems fairly obvious that the classical problems are very much with us; one might plausibly argue that they have even been enhanced in severity and scale. For example, the classical paradox of poverty in the midst of plenty is now an ever-increasing problem on an international scale. Sources Essay Writing! Whereas one might conceive, at least in principle, of a solution within national boundaries, a sensible idea of transforming international society to cope with vast and perhaps increasing human misery is and composition essays hardly likely to develop within the framework of the intellectual consensus that Bell describes.
THUS IT WOULD SEEM NATURAL to describe the consensus of Bell’s intellectuals in somewhat different terms from his. Using the terminology of the first part of his essay, we might say that the Welfare State technician finds justification for his special and prominent social status in his “science,” specifically, in the claim that social science can support a technology of social tinkering on thesis statement a domestic or international scale. He then takes a further step, ascribing in ap language and composition 2014, a familiar way a universal validity to what is in fact a class interest: he argues that the special conditions on which his claim to health power and authority are based are, in fact, the ap language and composition 2014 only general conditions by essay health and safety which modern society can be saved; that social tinkering within a Welfare State framework must replace the ap language essays 2014 commitment to the “total ideologies” of the past, ideologies which were concerned with a transformation of society. Having found his position of a professional research, power, having achieved security and essays 2014, affluence, he has no further need for what letter for resume, ideologies that look to radical change. And Composition! The scholar-expert replaces the “free-floating intellectual” who “felt that the wrong values were being honored, and rejected the society,” and who has now lost his political role (now, that is, that the right values are being honored). Conceivably, it is essay and safety correct that the technical experts who will (or hope to) manage the “industrial society” will be able to cope with the classical problems without a radical transformation of society. It is conceivably true that the ap language essays bourgeoisie was right in regarding the special conditions of its emancipation as the only general conditions by which modern society would be saved. In either case, an argument is in order, and skepticism is justified when none appears. Within the same framework of general utopianism, Bell goes on to pose the issue between Welfare State scholar-experts and third-world ideologists in a rather curious way. He points out, quite correctly, that there is no issue of Communism, the content of that doctrine having been “long forgotten by friends and essay, foes alike.” Rather, he says,
the question is an and composition, older one: whether new societies can grow by building democratic institutions and allowing people to make choices—and sacrifices—voluntarily, or whether the what is cover letter for resume new elites, heady with power, will impose totalitarian means to transform their societies. THE QUESTION is an and composition essays 2014, interesting one. It is essay on poverty mother odd, however, to see it referred to ap language 2014 as “an older one.” Surely he cannot be suggesting that the West chose the democratic way—for example, that in England during the industrial revolution, the farmers voluntarily made the choice of leaving the land, giving up cottage industry, becoming an industrial proletariat, and voluntarily decided, within the framework of the existing democratic institutions, to make the sacrifices that are graphically described in the classic literature on nineteenth-century industrial society. One may debate the question whether authoritarian control is necessary to permit capital accumulation in the underdeveloped world, but the research paper Western model of development is hardly one that we can point to with any pride. It is perhaps not surprising to and composition essays 2014 find Walt Rostow referring to “the more humane processes [of industrialization] that Western values would suggest” ( An American Policy in Asia ). Those who have a serious concern for the problems that face backward countries, and for the role that advanced industrial societies might, in principle, play in development and modernization, must use somewhat more care in interpreting the and safety significance of the Western experience. Returning to the quite appropriate question, whether “new societies can grow by building democratic institutions” or only by totalitarian means, I think that honesty requires us to recognize that this question must be directed more to essays American intellectuals than to third-world ideologists. The backward countries have incredible, perhaps insurmountable problems, and few available options; the United States has a wide range of what letter for resume, options, and has the economic and technological resources, though, evidently, neither the intellectual nor moral resources, to confront at least some of these problems. It is easy for an American intellectual to deliver homilies on the virtues of freedom and liberty, but if he is essays really concerned about, say, Chinese totalitarianism or the burdens imposed on the Chinese peasantry in forced industrialization, then he should face a task that is infinitely more important and challenging—the task of creating, in the United States, the essay intellectual and moral climate, as well as the social and essays, economic conditions, that would permit this country to is the mother participate in modernization and development in a way commensurate with its material wealth and technical capacity. Large capital gifts to Cuba and China might not succeed in ap language, alleviating the authoritarianism and terror that tend to thesis statement for videogames and violence accompany early stages of ap language essays 2014, capital accumulation, but they are far more likely to have this effect than lectures on democratic values. It is a professional paper possible that even without “capitalist encirclement” in its various manifestations, the truly democratic elements in and composition 2014, revolutionary movements—in some instances, soviets and collectives—might be undermined by is cover letter for resume an “elite” of bureaucrats and technical intelligentsia.
But it is essays 2014 almost certain that capitalist encirclement itself, which all revolutionary movements now have to face, will guarantee this result. The lesson, for those who are concerned to strengthen the democratic, spontaneous, and thesis for videogames and violence, popular elements in developing societies, is quite clear. Lectures on the two-party system, or even on the really substantial democratic values that have been in and composition, part realized in Western society, are a monstrous irrelevance, given the effort required to raise the level of dissertations, culture in Western society to the point where it can provide a “social lever” for both economic development and the development of true democratic institutions in ap language and composition 2014, the third world—and, for that matter, at home. A GOOD CASE CAN BE MADE for the conclusion that there is health and safety indeed something of a consensus among intellectuals who have already achieved power and affluence, or who sense that they can achieve them by “accepting society” as it is and promoting the ap language and composition essays values that are “being honored” in this society. It is also true that this consensus is most noticeable among the scholar-experts who are replacing the free-floating intellectuals of the past. In the university, these scholar-experts construct a “value-free technology” for the solution of technical problems that arise in contemporary society,  taking a “responsible stance” towards these problems, in the sense noted earlier. This consensus among the responsible scholar-experts is the on occupational health and safety domestic analogue to that proposed, internationally, by those who justify the application of American power in Asia, whatever the human cost, on ap language and composition essays the grounds that it is necessary to contain the “expansion of China” (an “expansion” which is, to be sure, hypothetical for the time being)  —that is, to translate from State Department Newspeak, on the grounds that it is essential to what is cover letter reverse the Asian nationalist revolutions or, at least, to prevent them from spreading. The analogy becomes clear when we look carefully at the ways in which this proposal is ap language and composition essays 2014 formulated. On Occupational And Safety! With his usual lucidity, Churchill outlined the general position in ap language and composition essays, a remark to his colleague of the moment, Joseph Stalin, at Teheran in 1943: The government of the world must be entrusted to satisfied nations, who wished nothing more for themselves than what they had. If the world-government were in the hands of hungry nations there would always be danger.
But none of us had any reason to phd english dissertations seek for anything more…. Our power placed us above the rest. We were like the rich men dwelling at essays 2014, peace within their habitations. For a translation of Churchill’s biblical rhetoric into the jargon of contemporary social science, one may turn to the testimony of Charles Wolf, Senior Economist of the Rand Corporation, at essay, the Congressional Committee Hearings cited earlier: I am dubious that China’s fears of essays 2014, encirclement are going to writing paper be abated, eased, relaxed in the long-term future. But I would hope that what we do in Southeast Asia would help to develop within the Chinese body politic more of a realism and willingness to and composition essays live with this fear than to indulge it by support for liberation movements, which admittedly depend on a great deal more than external support…the operational question for American foreign policy is not whether that fear can be eliminated or substantially alleviated, but whether China can be faced with a structure of incentives, of penalties and rewards, of thesis, inducements that will make it willing to live with this fear.
The point is further clarified by Thomas Schelling: “There is growing experience, which the Chinese can profit from, that although the United States may be interested in encircling them, may be interested in defending nearby areas from them, it is, nevertheless, prepared to behave peaceably if they are.” In short, we are prepared to live peaceably in our—to be sure, rather extensive—habitations. And, quite naturally, we are offended by the undignified noises from the servants’ quarters. If, let us say, a peasant-based revolutionary movement tries to achieve independence from foreign powers and the domestic structures they support, or if the Chinese irrationally refuse to respond properly to the schedule of reinforcement that we have prepared for them—if they object to being encircled by the benign and 2014, peace-loving “rich men” who control the territories on their borders as a natural right—then, evidently, we must respond to this belligerence with appropriate force. IT IS THIS MENTALITY that explains the frankness with which the United States Government and its academic apologists defend the American refusal to permit a political settlement in Vietnam at a local level, a settlement based on the actual distribution of political forces. Even government experts freely admit that the NLF is the essay only “truly mass-based political party in ap language essays 2014, South Vietnam”  ; that the NLF had “made a conscious and massive effort to extend political participation, even if it was manipulated, on the local level so as to involve the people in a self-contained, self-supporting revolution” (p. 374); and that this effort had been so successful that no political groups, “with the possible exception of the Buddhists, thought themselves equal in size and power to risk entering into a coalition, fearing that if they did the whale would swallow the minnow” (p. 362). Moreover, they concede that until the introduction of overwhelming American force, the NLF had insisted that the struggle “should be fought out at the political level and that the use of dissertations, massed military might was in ap language and composition essays 2014, itself illegitimate….
The battleground was to be the sources essay writing minds and ap language 2014, loyalties of the rural Vietnamese, the weapons were to be ideas” (pp. 91-92; cf. also pp. Essay On Occupational And Safety! 93, 99-108, 155f.); and, correspondingly, that until mid-1964, aid from Hanoi “was largely confined to and composition essays two areas—doctrinal know-how and leadership personnel” (p. 321). Captured NLF documents contrast the what is cover letter for resume enemy’s “military superiority” with their own “political superiority” (p. Ap Language And Composition Essays! 106), thus fully confirming the research analysis of American military spokesmen who define our problem as how, “with considerable armed force but little political power, [to] contain an adversary who has enormous political force but only modest military power.”  Similarly, the essays most striking outcome of both the Honolulu conference in letter, February and ap language and composition 2014, the Manila conference in October was the frank admission by essay on occupational high officials of the Saigon government that “they could not survive a ‘peaceful settlement’ that left the Vietcong political structure in ap language and composition, place even if the Vietcong guerilla units were disbanded,” that “they are not able to compete politically with the Vietnamese Communists” (Charles Mohr, New York Times , February 11, 1966, italics mine). Sources Essay Writing! Thus, Mohr continues, the ap language 2014 Vietnamese demand a “pacification program” which will have as “its core…the destruction of the clandestine Vietcong political structure and the creation of an iron-like system of government political control over phd english dissertations the population.” And from ap language Manila, the same correspondent, on October 23, quotes a high South Vietnamese official as saying that: Frankly, we are not strong enough now to writing a professional paper compete with the Communists on a purely political basis. Ap Language And Composition Essays 2014! They are organized and disciplined. The non-Communist nationalists are not—we do not have any large, well-organized political parties and we do not yet have unity.
We cannot leave the Vietcong in existence. Officials in Washington understand the situation very well. Essay Of All! Thus Secretary Rusk has pointed out that “if the Vietcong come to the conference table as full partners they will, in a sense, have been victorious in the very aims that South Vietnam and the United States are pledged to prevent” (January 28, 1966). Max Frankel reported from Washington in the Times on February 18, 1966, that. Compromise has had no appeal here because the Administration concluded long ago that the ap language and composition 2014 non-Communist forces of South Vietnam could not long survive in a Saigon coalition with Communists. It is for that reason—and not because of an excessively rigid sense of protocol—that Washington has steadfastly refused to deal with the Vietcong or recognize them as an writing, independent political force.
In short, we will—magnanimously—permit Vietcong representatives to attend negotiations only if they will agree to ap language identify themselves as agents of a foreign power and on occupational health, thus forfeit the right to participate in a coalition government, a right which they have now been demanding for a half-dozen years. We well know that in and composition 2014, any representative coalition, our chosen delegates could not last a day without the support of American arms. Therefore, we must increase American force and resist meaningful negotiations, until the day when a client government can exert both military and political control over its own population—a day which may never dawn, for as William Bundy has pointed out, we could never be sure of the security of a Southeast Asia “from which the Western presence was effectively withdrawn.” Thus if we were to statement for videogames “negotiate in ap language 2014, the direction of solutions that are put under the writing label of essays, neutralization,” this would amount to and safety capitulation to the Communists. Ap Language!  According to this reasoning, then, South Vietnam must remain, permanently, an American military base. All of writing a professional paper, this is, of course, reasonable, so long as we accept the fundamental political axiom that the United States, with its traditional concern for the rights of the weak and downtrodden, and and composition essays 2014, with its unique insight into the proper mode of development for backward countries, must have the courage and the persistence to impose its will by force until such time as other nations are prepared to accept these truths—or simply, to what is cover for resume abandon hope. IF IT IS THE RESPONSIBILITY of the and composition essays 2014 intellectual to essay health and safety insist upon the truth, it is ap language and composition 2014 also his duty to see events in their historical perspective. Thus one must applaud the insistence of the Secretary of State on the importance of historical analogies, the Munich analogy, for example. As Munich showed, a powerful and phd english, aggressive nation with a fanatic belief in its manifest destiny will regard each victory, each extension of its power and authority, as a prelude to the next step.
The matter was very well put by Adlai Stevenson, when he spoke of “the old, old route whereby expansive powers push at more and more doors, believing they will open until, at the ultimate door, resistance is unavoidable and major war breaks out.” Herein lies the and composition essays 2014 danger of appeasement, as the Chinese tirelessly point out to the Soviet Union—which, they claim, is playing Chamberlain to our Hitler in Vietnam. Of course, the aggressiveness of liberal imperialism is not that of Nazi Germany, though the distinction may seem academic to a Vietnamese peasant who is being gassed or incinerated. We do not want to occupy Asia; we merely wish, to phd english dissertations return to Mr. Wolf, “to help the Asian countries progress toward economic modernization, as relatively ‘open’ and stable societies, to which our access, as a country and as individual citizens, is ap language 2014 free and comfortable.” The formulation is appropriate. Sources Essay! Recent history shows that it makes little difference to us what form of government a country has so long as it remains an “open society,” in our peculiar sense of this term—that is, a society that remains open to American economic penetration or political control.
If it is necessary to approach genocide in Vietnam to achieve this objective, than this is the price we must pay in defense of freedom and the rights of man. In pursuing the aim of helping other countries to progress toward open societies, with no thought of and composition essays 2014, territorial aggrandizement, we are breaking no new ground. Writing! In the Congressional Hearings that I cited earlier, Hans Morgenthau aptly describes our traditional policy towards China as one which favors “what you might call freedom of competition with regard to the exploitation of China” ( op. cit ., p. Ap Language And Composition Essays 2014! 128). In fact, few imperialist powers have had explicit territorial ambitions. Thus in 1784, the British Parliament announced: “To pursue schemes of conquest and extension of writing, dominion in India are measures repugnant to the wish, honor, and policy of ap language, this nation.” Shortly after this, the essay on poverty mother of all crimes conquest of and composition essays, India was in full swing. Writing! A century later, Britain announced its intentions in Egypt under the slogan “intervention, reform, withdrawal.” It is obvious which parts of 2014, this promise were fulfilled within the next half-century. Essay Writing! In 1936, on and composition essays 2014 the eve of hostilities in North China, the Japanese stated their Basic Principles of essay, National Policy. 2014! These included the use of and violence, moderate and 2014, peaceful means to extend her strength, to promote social and economic development, to writing eradicate the menace of Communism, to ap language and composition essays correct the aggressive policies of the great powers, and to secure her position as the stabilizing power in East Asia. Even in 1937, the Japanese government had “no territorial designs upon China.” In short, we follow a well-trodden path. It is useful to writing a professional research remember, incidentally, that the and composition essays US was apparently quite willing, as late as 1939, to negotiate a commercial treaty with Japan and arrive at a modus vivendi if Japan would “change her attitude and practice towards our rights and interests in China,” as Secretary Hull put it.
The bombing of Chungking and the rape of Nanking were unpleasant, it is thesis statement true, but what was really important was our rights and ap language and composition essays 2014, interests in China, as the responsible, unhysterical men of the day saw quite clearly. It was the closing of the open door by what Japan that led inevitably to the Pacific war, just as it is the closing of the ap language essays 2014 open door by “Communist” China itself that may very well lead to the next, and no doubt last, Pacific war. QUITE OFTEN, THE STATEMENTS of sincere and devoted technical experts give surprising insight into the intellectual attitudes that lie in the background of the latest savagery. Consider, for example, the following comment by a professional paper the economist Richard Lindholm, in ap language and composition essays 2014, 1959, expressing his frustration over the failure of economic development in “free Vietnam”: …the use of American aid is thesis statement and violence determined by how the Vietnamese use their incomes and their savings. The fact that a large portion of the Vietnamese imports financed with American aid are either consumer goods or raw materials used rather directly to meet consumer demands is an indication that the Vietnamese people desire these goods. for they have shown their desire by and composition their willingness to use their piasters to purchase them.  In short, the Vietnamese people desire Buicks and air-conditioners, rather than sugar refining equipment or road-building machinery, as they have shown by their behavior in a free market. And however much we may deplore their free choice, we must allow the people to have their way. Of course, there are also those two-legged beasts of burden that one stumbles on thesis for videogames and violence in the countryside, but as any graduate student of political science can explain, they are not part of a responsible modernizing elite, and essays 2014, therefore have only a superficial biological resemblance to the human race.
In no small measure, it is attitudes like this that lie behind the butchery in Vietnam, and we had better face up to them with candor, or we will find our government leading us towards a “final solution” in Vietnam, and in the many Vietnams that inevitably lie ahead. Let me finally return to Dwight Macdonald and the responsibility of intellectuals. Macdonald quotes an interview with a death-camp paymaster who burst into tears when told that the Russians would hang him. “Why should they? What have I done?” he asked. Macdonald concludes: “Only those who are willing to resist authority themselves when it conflicts too intolerably with their personal moral code, only they have the right to condemn the phd english dissertations death-camp paymaster.” The question, “What have I done?” is one that we may well ask ourselves, as we read each day of fresh atrocities in Vietnam—as we create, or mouth, or tolerate the deceptions that will be used to justify the next defense of freedom.
 Such a research project has now been undertaken and and composition essays 2014, published as a “Citizens’ White Paper”: F. Schurmann, P. D. Essay On Occupational Health And Safety! Scott, R. Ap Language! Zelnik, The Politics of Escalation in Vietnam , Fawcett World Library, and Beacon Press, 1966. For further evidence of American rejection of UN initiatives for diplomatic settlement, just prior to the major escalation of February, 1965, see Mario Rossi, “The US Rebuff to U Thant,” NYR , November 17, 1966. There is further documentary evidence of NLF attempts to establish a coalition government and to neutralize the area, all rejected by the United States and its Saigon ally, in Douglas Pike, Viet Cong , M.I.T. Press, 1966. In reading material of this latter sort one must be especially careful to essay on poverty is the mother distinguish between the evidence presented and the “conclusions” that are asserted, for and composition essays, reasons noted briefly below (see note 22 ). It is on occupational and safety interesting to see the first, somewhat oblique, published reactions to ap language and composition essays 2014 The Politics of Escalation , by those who defend our right to conquer South Vietnam and institute a government of our choice. For example, Robert Scalapino ( New York Times Magazine , December 11, 1966) argues that the thesis of the on occupational health and safety book implies that our leaders are “diabolical.” Since no right-thinking person can believe this, the thesis is refuted. To assume otherwise would betray “irresponsibility,” in a unique sense of ap language and composition essays 2014, this term—a sense that gives an ironic twist to the title of this essay.
He goes on to point out the alleged central weakness in the argument of the book, namely, the failure to perceive that a serious attempt on our part to pursue the possibilities for a diplomatic settlement would have been interpreted by our adversaries as a sign of weakness.  At other times, Schlesinger does indeed display admirable scholarly caution. For example, in his Introduction to The Politics of Escalation he admits that there may have been “flickers of interest in negotiations” on the part of phd english dissertations, Hanoi. As to the Administration’s lies about negotiations and its repeated actions undercutting tentative initiatives towards negotiations, he comments only that the authors may have underestimated military necessity and that future historians may prove them wrong. This caution and detachment must be compared with Schlesinger’s attitude toward renewed study of the origins of the cold war: in a letter to the New York Review of Books , October 20, 1966, he remarks that it is time to and composition “blow the whistle” on revisionist attempts to health and safety show that the ap language essays cold war may have been the consequence of something more than mere Communist belligerence. We are to believe, then, that the relatively straight-forward matter of the thesis for videogames origins of the 2014 cold war is settled beyond discussion, whereas the much more complex issue of why the United States shies away from a negotiated settlement in Vietnam must be left to future historians to ponder. It is useful to on occupational and safety bear in mind that the United States Government itself is on occasion much less diffident in explaining why it refuses to contemplate a meaningful negotiated settlement. As is freely admitted, this solution would leave it without power to control the essays 2014 situation.
See, for example note 26 .  Arthur M. Schlesinger, Jr., A Thousand Days; John F. Kennedy in the White House , 1965, p. 421.  The View from the Seventh Floor , Harper and writing, Row, 1964, p. 149. See also his United States in the World Arena , Harper and Row, 1960, p. 244: “Stalin, exploiting the disruption and essays 2014, weakness of the postwar world, pressed out from the expanded base he had won during the second World War in an effort to gain the and violence balance of power in Eurasia…turning to the East, to ap language and composition 2014 back Mao and to enflame the essay health and safety North Korean and ap language essays, Indochinese Communists…”  For example, the article by cia analyst George Carver placed in Foreign Affairs , April, 1966. Is Cover For Resume! See also note 22 .  Cf. Jean Lacouture, Vietnam between Two Truces , Random House, 1966, p. 21. Diem’s analysis of the ap language essays situation was shared by Western observers at the time.
See, for example, the comments of William Henderson, Far Eastern specialist and executive, Council on Foreign Relations, in on occupational, R. W. Lindholm, ed., Vietnam: The First Five Years , Michigan State, 1959. He notes “the growing alienation of the intelligentsia,” “the renewal of armed dissidence in ap language and composition 2014, the South,” the fact that “security has noticeably deteriorated in the last two years,” all as a result of Diem’s “grim dictatorship,” and predicts “a steady worsening of the political climate in essay on poverty is the, free Vietnam, culminating in unforeseen disasters.”  See Bernard Fall, “Vietnam in the Balance,” Foreign Affairs , October, 1966.  Stalin was neither pleased by the Titoist tendencies inside the Greek Communist party, nor by the possibility that a Balkan federation might develop under Titoist leadership. It is, nevertheless, conceivable that Stalin supported the Greek guerrillas at some stage of the rebellion, in spite of the difficulty of obtaining firm documentary evidence.
Needless to ap language essays 2014 say, no elaborate study is necessary to document the British or American role in this civil conflict, from late 1944. See D. G. Kousoulas, The Price of Freedom , Syracuse, 1953; Revolution and Defeat , Oxford, 1965, for serious study of these events from a strongly anti-Communist point of view.  For a detailed account, see James Warburg, Germany: Key to Peace , Harvard, 1953, p. 189f. Warburg concludes that apparently “the Kremlin was now prepared to accept the is cover for resume creation of an ap language and composition, All-German democracy in essay, the Western sense of that word,” whereas the ap language Western powers, in essay, their response, “frankly admitted their plan ‘to secure the participation of Germany in a purely defensive European community’ ” (i.e., nato).  United States and the World Arena , pp. 344-45.
Incidentally, those who quite rightly deplore the brutal suppression of the East German and Hungarian revolutions would do well to remember that these scandalous events might have been avoided had the ap language 2014 United States been willing to consider proposals for neutralization of Central Europe. Some of George Kennan’s recent statements provide interesting commentary on what letter this matter, for example, his comments on the falsity. Essays 2014! from the outset, of the thesis and violence assumption that the USSR intended to attack or intimidate by and composition 2014 force the Western half of the continent and that it was deterred by American force, and his remarks on thesis for videogames the sterility and general absurdity of the demand for unilateral Soviet withdrawal from ap language 2014 Eastern Germany together with “the inclusion of a united Germany as as a major component in a Western defense system based primarily on what is cover letter for resume nuclear weaponry” ( Pacem in Terris , E. Reed, ed., Pocket Books, 1965). It is worth noting that historical fantasy of the sort illustrated in and composition essays 2014, Rostow’s remarks has become a regular State Department specially. Thus we have Thomas Mann justifying our Dominican intervention as a response to letter for resume actions of the “Sino-Soviet military bloc.” Or, to take a more considered statement, we have William Bundy’s analysis of stages of development of Communist ideology in his Pomona College address, February 12, 1966, in which he characterizes the Soviet Union in the 1920s and early 1930s as “in a highly militant and aggressive phase.” What is frightening about fantasy, as distinct from outright falsification, is the possibility that it may be sincere and may actually serve as the and composition basis for formation of policy.  United States Policy Toward Asia , Hearings before the subcommittee on the Far East and and violence, the Pacific of the Committee on Foreign Affairs, House of Representatives, US Government Printing Office, 1966.  New York Times Book Review , November 20, 1966. Such comments call to ap language mind the thesis remarkable spectacle of President Kennedy counseling Cheddi Jagan on and composition 2014 the dangers of entering into a trading relationship “which brought a country into a condition of essay on occupational health and safety, economic dependence.” The reference, of course, is to the dangers in commercial relations with the Soviet Union. See Schlesinger, A Thousand Days , p. 776.  Though this too is imprecise. One must recall the real character of the Trujillo regime to appreciate the full cynicism of Kennedy’s “realistic” analysis.
 W. W. Rostow and R. W. Hatch, An American Policy in Asia , Technology Press and John Wiley, 1955.  American private enterprise, of course, has its own ideas as to how India’s problems are to be met. And Composition! The Monitor reports the insistence of American entrepeneurs “on importing all equipment and machinery when India has a tested capacity to meet some of their requirements. What! They have insisted on importing liquid ammonia, a basic raw material, rather than using indigenous naptha which is abundantly available. They have laid down restrictions about pricing, distribution, profits, and ap language and composition 2014, management control.” A major post-war scandal is developing in India, as the United States, cynically capitalizing on India’s current torture, applies its economic power to implement what The New York Times calls India’s “drift from socialism towards pragmatism” (April 28, 1965).
 Although, to maintain perspective, we should recall that in his wildest moments, Alfred Rosenberg spoke of the essay on poverty of all crimes elimination of thirty million Slavs, not the imposition of mass starvation on a quarter of the human race. Incidentally, the analogy drawn here is highly “irresponsible,” in the technical sense of ap language essays, this neologism discussed earlier. That is, it is based on the assumption that statements and actions of Americans are subject to the same standards and open to the same interpretations as those of anyone else.  The New York Times , February 6, 1966. Goldberg continues, the United States is not certain that all of thesis for videogames, these are voluntary adherents. This is not the first such demonstration of Communist duplicity. Another example was seen in the year 1962, when according to essays US Government sources 15,000 guerrillas suffered 30,000 casualties. Essay On Poverty Mother! See Arthur Schlesinger, A Thousand Days , p. 982.  Reprinted in ap language and composition essays, a collection of essays, The End of essay on occupational health, Ideology: on the Exhaustion of Political Ideas in the Fifties , Free Press, 1960.
I have no intention here of entering into the full range of issues that have been raised in ap language and composition essays, the discussion of “end of ideology” for paper, the past dozen years. It is difficult to see how a rational person could quarrel with many of the 2014 theses that have been put forth, e.g., that at a certain historical moment the “politics of civility” is appropriate and, perhaps, efficacious; that one who advocates action (or inaction) has a responsibility to assess its social cost; that dogmatic fanaticism and “secular religions” should be combated (or if possible, ignored); that technical solutions to problems should be implemented, where possible; that “ le dogmatisme ideologique devait disparaitre pour que les idees reprissent vie ” (Aron), and so on. Since this is sometimes taken to be an expression of an “anti-Marxist” position, it is essay worth keeping in ap language 2014, mind that such sentiments as these have no bearing on non-Bolshevik Marxism, as represented, for example, by such figures as Luxemburg, Pannekoek, Korsch, Arthur Rosenberg, and others.  The extent to which this “technology” is value-free is hardly very important, given the clear commitments of those who apply it. Writing! The problems with which research is concerned are those posed by the Pentagon or the great corporations, not, say, by the revolutionaries of Northeast Brazil or by SNCC. Nor am I aware of a research project devoted to the problem of how poorly armed guerrillas might more effectively resist a brutal and devastating military technology—surely the kind of problem that would have interested the ap language and composition 2014 free-floating intellectual who is now hopelessly out of date.  In view of the unremitting propaganda barrage on writing “Chinese expansion,” perhaps a word of essays, comment is in order. Typical of American propaganda on this subject is Adlai Stevenson’s assessment, shortly before his death (cf. The New York Times Magazine , March 13, 1966): “So far, the new Communist ‘dynasty’ has been very aggressive. Tibet was swallowed, India attacked, the Malays had to fight 12 years to resist a ‘national liberation’ they could receive from the British by a more peaceful route.
Today, the on occupational health and safety apparatus of infiltration and 2014, aggression is already at dissertations, work in North Thailand.” As to Malaya, Stevenson is probably confusing ethnic Chinese with the government of China. Those concerned with the actual events would agree with Harry Miller (in Communist Menace in Malaya , Praeger, 1954) that “Communist China continues to show little interest in the Malayan affair beyond its usual fulminations via Peking Radio…” There are various harsh things that one might say about Chinese behavior in what the Sino-Indian Treaty of 1954 refers to as “the Tibet region of ap language, China,” but it is no more proof of a tendency towards expansionism than is the behavior of the Indian Government with regard to the Naga and Mizo tribesmen. As to North Thailand, “the apparatus of infiltration” may well be at work, though there is little reason to is cover letter suppose it to be Chinese—and it is surely not unrelated to the American use of ap language and composition essays, Thailand as a base of a professional research paper, its attack on Vietnam. This reference is the ap language and composition sheerest hypocrisy. The “attack on India” grew out of a border dispute that began several years after the Chinese had completed a road from Tibet to Sinkiang in an area so remote from Indian control that the Indians learned about this operation only is cover letter for resume from the Chinese Press. And Composition 2014! According to American Air Force maps, the disputed area is in is the of all crimes, Chinese territory. Cf. Alastair Lamb, China Quarterly , July-September, 1965.
To this distinguished authority, “it seems unlikely that the Chinese have been working out ap language and composition 2014 some master plan…to take over the Indian sub-continent lock, stock and overpopulated barrel.” Rather, he thinks it likely that the Chinese were probably unaware that India even claimed the territory through which the road passed. After the Chinese military victory, Chinese troops were, in most areas, withdrawn beyond the McMahon line, a border which the British had attempted to impose on China in 1914 but which has never been recognized by China (Nationalist or Communist), the writing United States, or any other government. It is remarkable that a person in a responsible position could describe all of this as Chinese expansionism. In fact, it is absurd to debate the hypothetical aggressiveness of a China surrounded by American missiles and a still expanding network of military bases backed by an enormous American expeditionary force in Southeast Asia. It is conceivable that at and composition essays 2014, some future time a powerful China may be expansionist. We may speculate about such possibilities if we wish, but it is American aggressiveness that is the central fact of writing a professional, current politics.  Douglas Pike, op. cit ., p. 110. This book, written by a foreign service officer working at the Center for International Studies, M.I.T., poses a contrast between our side, which sympathizes with “the usual revolutionary stirrings…around the world because they reflect inadequate living standards or oppressive and corrupt governments,” and the backers of “revolutionary guerrilla warfare,” which “opposes the aspirations of people while apparently furthering them, manipulates the individual by persuading him to manipulate himself.” Revolutionary guerrilla warefare is “an imported product, revolution from the ap language and composition essays 2014 outside”. (other examples, besides the Vietcong, are “Stalin’s exportation of armed revolution,” the Haganah in Palestine, and the Irish Republican army—see pp. 32-33).
The Vietcong could not be an phd english, indigenous movement since it had “a social construction program of such scope and ambition that of necessity it must have been created in Hanoi” (p. Ap Language! 76—but on pp. 77-79 we read that “organizational activity had gone on intensively and systematically for several years” before the Lao Dong party in Hanoi had made its decision “to begin building an organization”). On page 80 we find “such an effort had to is the of all crimes be the child of the ap language and composition essays 2014 North,” even though elsewhere we read of the prominent role of the Cao Dai (p. 74), “the first major social group to begin actively opposing the Diem government” (p. 222), and of the Hoa Hao sect, “another early and major participant in the NLF” (p.
69). He takes it as proof of Communist duplicity that in the South, the party insisted it was “Marxist-Leninist,” thus “indicating philosophic but not political allegiance,” whereas in the North it described itself as a “Marxist-Leninist organization,” thus “indicating that it was int he mainstream of the dissertations world-wide Communist movement” (p. 150). And so on. Also revealing is the contempt for “Cinderella and all the other fools [who] could still believe there was magic in the mature world if one mumbled the secret incantation: solidarity, union, concord”; for the “gullible, misled people” who were “turning the countryside into a bedlam toppling one Saigon government after another, confounding the ap language 2014 Americans”; for the “mighty force of what is cover, people” who in their mindless innocence thought that “the meek, at last, were to and composition essays 2014 inherit the earth,” that “riches would be theirs and all in the name of justice and virtue.” One can appreciate the chagrin with which a sophisticated Western political scientist must view this “sad and awesome spectacle.”  Lacouture, op. cit ., p. 188.
The same military spokesman goes on, ominously, to writing research say that this is the problem confronting us throughout Asia, Africa, and Latin America, and that we must find the “proper response” to it.  William Bundy, in A. Buchan, ed., China and the Peace of Asia , Praeger, 1965.
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300 Rationalism vs Empiricism Summary and ap language essays, History Essay. What is reality really like? A current running through much of the philosophical thinking around the time of Socrates and Plato was that there is a difference between how the world appears and how it is. Our senses reveal one layer of writing a professional paper reality but it is 2014 our minds that penetrate deeper. Dissertations. The world of appearances is a world in flux but underneath there must be a stable reality. For there is much that is unchanging.
We recognise kinds of things – badgers, daffodils, mountains – and whilst members of these kinds are born, change and die, and and composition essays 2014, differ from one another in writing a professional research paper, ever so many ways, the and composition kind-defining essence doesn#8217;t change. We see here the key rationalist idea that knowledge is of all a priori knowledge of necessary truths Plato said that kinds were defined by and composition essays 2014, the transcendental forms. He presented a number of arguments for the existence of these things. Prior to our incarnation, our souls existed in the realm of forms where we learned about essay on occupational, these essences. In our terrestrial state, we cannot recall what we know. Ap Language Essays 2014. Socrates considered himself a #8220;midwife to knowledge#8221; instead of essay on occupational health a teacher, helping his interlocutors to draw out what they don#8217;t know that they know. The example of and composition Meno and the slave-boy shows this idea clearly. Like many philosophers, Plato was also fascinated by mathematics. We are able to tap into a universe of truths that are non-sensible: we do not see numbers and we do not see the perfect geometric forms. Once again, we see the difference between the powers of the mind and the powers of the senses.
It was in the 17th century that the debate between the rationalists and the empiricists came to a head. Philosophers such as Descartes and Leibniz emphasised the power of reason over the senses. Dissertations. Descartes argued that our senses were fallible and that we could not rule out the and composition essays possibility of the demon deception hypothesis on the basis of sensory evidence alone. Descartes argued that he knew he existed, as a mind, on the basis of reflection alone: when I think, I cannot fail to be aware of myself as existing as that thinker (cogito, ergo sum). Having proved that he exists, Descartes argued that God exists. Since God is dissertations no deceiver, he would not have given us senses that systematically mislead.
But let us not overemphasise the powers of the senses. Descartes argued that even with material things, it is reason that exposes their essences. In his piece of wax reasoning, he argued that the senses merely reveal a succession of impressions: it is reason that grasps the underlying and enduring substance as extended (and filled space). Ap Language Essays 2014. Plato and Descartes believed that we are born with concepts and knowledge. What For Resume. In Descartes#8217; case, there was a religious motive: we are all born in the image of God. We discover more about the world primarily through metaphysical reflection. The philosopher Francis Bacon, an early empiricist, famously dismissed this rationalist approach to and composition 2014, knowledge. He compared rationalists to spiders who spin #8220;complex metaphysical systems out of their entrails#8221;. Empiricists get their hands dirty: like bees gathering pollen, they gather knowledge about the world and what, only then reflect on it. Around the same time as Bacon, many new discoveries were being made that shook the prevailing views of ap language 2014 reality. The Earth was dethroned from its position at phd english dissertations, the centre of the universe by Copernicus.
A new star (a supernova) was observed by Tycho Brahe in 1572 – yet the heavens were supposed to be timeless and unchanging. Ap Language Essays 2014. Galileo discovered the moons of Jupiter – again, everything clearly didn#8217;t revolve around the Earth. Later in the 17th century, scientist-philosophers such as Newton, Boyle, Gassendi and Huygens would revolutionise our understanding of reality. The original empiricist manifesto was written by John Locke. In his Essay Concerning Human Understanding, he sought to show how a mind that was blank at birth – a tabula rasa or blank slate – could come to essay, be filled. His first targets were the innate concepts and knowledge (#8216;ideas#8217;) of the rationalists. There are no such things. There are no truths everyone agrees on. Many people fail to grasp the supposed metaphysical truths. Instead, our senses deliver ideas to us.
We store them, abstract from them to form general ideas, and compound and mix them to generate new ideas. Like Lego bricks, we build the meagre sensory data into ap language and composition 2014, ever more complex structures. Writing. Even Leibniz thought Locke was onto something here. He claimed that our minds were like blocks of marble that had to be carefully chiselled at to reveal the hidden structure (the innate truths). It is hard work and and composition essays 2014, not everyone will end up well-chiselled.
Hume took empiricism to its limit. Where Locke talked indifferently of essay ideas, Hume distinguished impressions and and composition essays, ideas. Impressions are the writing direct deliverances of the senses and are forceful and ap language and composition 2014, vivid in sources essay writing, comparison to ideas, which are the copies our minds makes. (He also agreed with the Empiricist Berkeley that Locke#8217;s theory of general ideas was wrong. We do not abstract from particular ideas to a general idea but use a particular idea in a general way via a general name. ) What about the precious necessary truths philosophy is supposed to study? Locke argued that once we have ideas in our mind, our mind will perceive the necessary connections between them – e. g. that a triangle has internal angles that add to 180o? But where does the idea of necessity come from? Hume provided an ap language and composition answer. He distinguished statements into writing, two categories: those expressing relations of ap language essays 2014 ideas (analytic) and those expressing matters of fact (synthetic). The analytic truths express mere definitions: we simply are aware of an association between terms.
The synthetic truths are the contingent truths. So what happens to interesting necessary truths, such as God exists or nothing exists without being caused to exist? Hume argued that if these weren#8217;t analytic – and they aren#8217;t – they aren#8217;t necessary. We feel that they are necessary and this is all necessity is: a psychological property. When we say that X caused Y, we think we have said something about the universe.
We think we have seen an example of a law of phd english dissertations nature (e. g. the water in the bucket froze because it was cold exemplifies the ap language and composition essays law water freezes at 0oC). Science investigates these laws. Sources. Hume said that causation was #8220;all in the mind#8221;. We see one thing after another and when we#8217;ve seen instances of a regularity enough, we develop the feeling that one thing must be followed by the other. Ap Language And Composition 2014. Hume, like Locke, emphasised how all we can be certain of are our impressions – how the world seems. Scientists are really investigating how the world appears: they can never be certain that the world really is the way it appears.
So, empiricism seems to lead straight to scepticism about the external world. Kant objected strongly to this. Science really is studying the external world and essay health, there really is an external world for it to ap language and composition essays 2014, investigate. Kant brought about a revolution in philosophy (he called it a #8220;Copernican revolution). He argued that the empiricists and rationalists were both right and wrong. The Empiricists were right: science requires the study of the essay mother of all crimes world and the world is brought to and composition essays, us via the senses. The Rationalists were right: our mind is not blank but contains structures that enable us to essay is the mother crimes, interpret the stream of data from the senses.
We may liken the mind to a mould and the data to jelly: one only has something structured by combining both. Ap Language And Composition Essays. Or: the essay health and safety mind is a computer with an operating system and the data is the input from the user. Ap Language Essays. A computer with just an operating system is inert. A computer into thesis statement for videogames, which data is inputted but which has no operating system is just data: it cannot be interpreted. Only when you combine both do you get something useful. Our minds contain the #8220;structures#8221; for space, time, objects and causation, for essays, example. Mother. (In Kant#8217;s terminology, space and ap language and composition 2014, time are the pure forms of intuition whereas the structures for objects and causation are pure concepts of the understanding. ) This means that we experience a world of phd english spatio-temporally located objects in which causation happens because this is how our minds make it appear.
Does this mean that the world as such is #8220;all in the mind#8221;? Or is the mind somehow #8220;tuned#8221; to ap language essays 2014, the structure of reality, so that our pre-programmed minds mirror the structures of reality? This is a very difficult question over which there is no agreement amongst experts. The Empiricist movement came back with a vengeance in the 20th century. Philosophers such as Bertrand Russell agreed with Hume that our knowledge begins with our knowledge of sense-data (classical empirical foundationalism). Armed with new discoveries in on poverty mother of all crimes, mathematics and logic, and backed by the successes of science, the logical positivists argued that the and composition essays only proper way to investigate the world was the scientific way. If I say p and p is synthetic and there is no objective, scientific way to what is cover, verify my claim that p, then my claim is meaningless. Essays 2014. (This is the of all celebrated verification principle). So, if it is true that there atoms, we should be able to find empirical – sensory – evidence of them.
If it is ap language essays true that nothing happens without being caused to happen, then we likewise need scientific evidence for this. Dissertations. We cannot discover whether it is and composition essays true by pure reason. The Logical Positivist movement failed. Essay On Occupational Health. There is much that seems meaningful that is 2014 not objectively verifiable by the senses, such as the occurrence of and violence private sensations. The principle makes it impossible for general claims such as #8220;all mammals are warm-blooded#8221; to and composition, be true, as we cannot verify all of them. The very verification principle itself fails its own test! The Logical Positivists responded by watering down their principle: a meaningful claim is one we could gather some evidence for in principle and the principle itself is special – exempt from this rule. But it was not enough. (* Then Quine argued that the fundamental division between analytic and essay is the, synthetic sentences was incorrect. Analytic sentences cannot be false. Ap Language. But no sentence enjoys this privilege. As we learn more and more, truths we thought were beyond doubt are rejected.
Once upon a time, we would have thought it analytic that no object can be in two places at once or that there is is cover for resume no fastest velocity. Quantum physics and general relativity theory show that they are not true. Ap Language And Composition. Instead, we should have a #8220;web of belief#8221;. At the centre are those sentences least likely to be revised – our #8220;core beliefs#8221;. As we move out, we find those sentences that would be easier and easier to accept as false – that would cause less and less disruption to the rest of what we believe. ) In the 1950s, Chomsky became famous for suggesting that we are not born as blank slates when it comes to language. We are born knowing the fundamental structures of human language. When we are young, we hear our mother tongue and use our knowledge of language to pick up our language very quickly. (At 24 months, the average child understands 500-700 words; at 36 months, 1000; at 48 around 2500-3000; at 60 around 5000 words: that#8217;s around 7 words a day between 3 and 6). More recently, studies have shown that children are born with brains structured to #8220;expect#8221; the world to behave in certain way. Very young children expect objects to persist over phd english dissertations, time: not to ap language essays 2014, disappear and reappear at two different places, for example.
Is this a revival of sources essay rationalism? Not according to many people. Rationalists argued that we had innate concepts and knowledge. By reflection, we can discover them and ap language and composition, manipulate them to gain new knowledge. But our #8220;knowledge of language#8221; is sources writing altogether different. None of us can easily articulate the rules we follow in ap language and composition 2014, generating syntactically-correct English. (And certainly none of us at all can articulate the #8220;common structure rules#8221; to all human languages. ) Our brains are certainly pre-programmed, but only perhaps in the same way that a computer is pre-wired: clearly something has to be there but nothing as advanced as software. So where are we today?
No side is #8220;victorious#8221;: this would be to grossly over-simplify the debate between the empiricists and the rationalists. We definitely have minds in some way #8220;ready#8221; to receive the world – hardly surprising, perhaps, given the time it has taken for us to evolve. But when it comes to working out what is true? Few philosophers are rationalists in essay on poverty mother of all crimes, the old-fashioned way. There is no sharp division between metaphysics and science: our study of and composition 2014 reality cannot be done from the armchair alone. But our capacity to grasp abstract mathematical truths has always been difficult to explain from an empiricist perspective. We seem to have an access to a mathematical realm and a cognitive or intuitive access instead of a sensory one. You can#8217;t see numbers, after all, and it is not easy to sources essay, say what we could #8220;see#8221; that would lead us to generate the ideas of numbers.
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essayez face fx.ca Cet article est consacre a tous les MJs qui s’arrachent les cheveux en essayant de creer des scenarios de jeu de role originaux. And Composition. Il faut bien reconnaitre que la creation d’un scenario est sans doute l’exercice le plus perilleux qui soit dans le domaine du JdR. Le destin obscur des Personnages Non Joueurs (PNJs) Meneurs de jeux, vos joueurs ont la vie belle ! ils n’ont que leur personnage à jouer. Essay On Occupational Health. vous vous devez jouer tous les autres personnages de votre scénario, les créer avec leurs caractéristiques, leur inventer des noms, une vie (pour certains), tout cela en méditant sur la longévité relativement courte qui est la leur. And Composition. Certains n’existent que le temps d’une partie, les plus chanceux tiennent une campagne, extrêmement rarement plus. Is Cover For Resume. et les plus malchanceux voient leur vie abrégée par les personnages joueurs eux-mêmes. And Composition Essays. Ils peuplent vos scénarii de leur foule sans nombre, insignifiants souvent, importants parfois et dans certaines conditions points centraux du scénario.
Vous l’avez compris : ce deuxième volet des Conseils du Vieux Briscard a pour thème la difficulté de concevoir des Personnages Non Joueurs, et le désespoir subséquent du meneur de jeu qui a perdu de longues heures à penser des personnages invariablement éphémères. Ce désespoir n’est d’ailleurs pas total ni irrémédiable, car le MJ a, par ses PNJ, l’occasion précieuse et délicieuse de se créer toutes sortes de personnalités et d’être, à chaque scène, un mafieux intimidant, un chevalier au c?ur pur, un baladin ironique, une belle romantique. Essay Mother. Loin de coloniser ses scénarii et de tirer la couverture à lui, le MJ offre à ses joueurs quelques facettes de ce qu’il est, quelques vues de ce qu’il pourrait être, et le plaisir qu’il aura eu à les faire exister influencera le plaisir que les joueurs auront à les rencontrer. Ils sont vraiment incontournables, car sans un minimum de travail sur eux, les meilleurs scénarii sonnent creux. Ap Language. Vos joueurs vivraient dans un monde stéréotypé assez ennuyeux, et, pire que tout, prévisible. Phd English Dissertations. Car vos PNJs, c’est VOUS, meneur de jeu. Ap Language And Composition. Si vos joueurs vous connaissent trop, ils détecteront infailliblement vos stéréotypes et réagiront en conséquence : Oh ! Un noble dédaigneux ! Quasi le même que le mois dernier ! Oh ! Un tavernier bourru mais sympa ! Oh ! Un sorcier retors et menteur ! Faisons semblant de lui faire confiance et tuons le ! ! Oh ! Un faux jeton ! etc. Thesis Statement And Violence. etc.
Je ne vais donc pas insister sur l’importance du PNJ, j’ai l’impression de défoncer des portes ouvertes. And Composition Essays 2014. Fort bien, voici donc les Conseils du Vieux Briscard sur le sujet. On peur diviser les PNJs en grosso modo trois population : Les seconds rôles. Les personnages centraux. Ce sont des personnages qui apparaissent le temps d’une scène ou deux. Essay On Occupational Health. Ils peuvent être des adversaires comme le tout venant. Ap Language And Composition 2014. Ils ne jouent qu’un rôle secondaire dans l’intrigue.
Leurs apparitions sont courtes, et sauf dans le cas où ils sont agressifs, ils font quasi partie du décor. Thesis Statement For Videogames. Si des joueurs s’intéressent particulièrement à un figurant, il ne vous reste plus qu’à improviser un très basique second rôle. Ces personnages apparaissent plusieurs fois dans votre scénario, où revêtent une importance particulière. 2014. Vos joueurs sont appelés à dialoguer et interagir avec eux, plus d’une réplique en tout cas. Research Paper. Leurs actions ont une influence limitée mais réelle sur le scénario. Les personnages centraux. Ces personnages sont au centre de votre intrigue. Ap Language And Composition Essays 2014. Ce sont eux X qui en tirent les ficelles, ou qui assument le rôle du grand méchant, ou bien celui de la victime, et bien d’autres.
Ils ont une action directe et souvent irréversible sur le scénario. Statement For Videogames And Violence. Leur disparition ou leur mort entraîne un basculement de l’intrigue. And Composition Essays. Ils sont le principal souci des joueurs (généralement) quand ceux-ci ont conscience de leur existence. Essay On Poverty Is The Mother Of All. Ils sont incontournables. 2014. Veillez à ce que leur taux de survie soit élevé, donc. Essay On Occupational. Ceci dit, un scénario peut très bien ne pas inclure de premier rôle ! Notamment quand l’intrigue n’a pas de composantes humaine intrinsèque (comme une catastrophe naturelle, l’exploration d’un donjon ou une opération commando). Une fois que vous avez catalogué vos PNJs, une grosse part du boulot est faite ! ! Les PNJ se définissent également selon leur rôle dramatique.
En effet, si un personnage prend la forme d’une personne (psychologie à l’appui), il reste au fond une fonction dramatique du scénario, c’est à dire un opposant (vrai méchant, PNJ-obstacle style concierge d’immeuble /flic /automobiliste maladroit, sphinx, monstres, etc.) ou un adjuvant (qui file des coups de main : compagnons d’aventure, vieux professeur, indicateur, quidam providentiel. And Composition Essays 2014. ). Ce rôle peut également être un principe dramatique, une épreuve (comme tout obstacle, en théorie) et donc un enseignement : un PNJ peut représenter en lui-même un exemple, un modèle, une énigme, un rebondissement, un conflit. Ces précisions ne sont utiles que pour les seconds rôles et les personnages centraux. Elle est importante parce qu’elle sera la première impression de vos joueurs et qu’elle peut permettre de traduire, par une expression ou une attitude, des informations que vous préférez voir les joueurs déduire plutôt que de les leur mâcher. Essay Is The. Suivant le réalisme de votre univers, vous pouvez être plutôt subtil ou carrément caricatural. Ap Language And Composition Essays. Les films de série B sont un bon catalogue de seconds rôles marqués par leur physique : comptable maigre et myope, bûcheron barbu et velu, barde svelte et souriant, voleur au nez pointu. Thesis Statement For Videogames. Sortir de ces archétypes est évidemment un bon moyen de surprendre les joueurs. Essayez également d’imaginer comment parle et bouge un perso doté de tel ou tel physique : le langage est très important parce le ton de voix, l’accent ou le vocabulaire que vous utiliserez vont permettre à vos joueurs de distinguer les différents PNJ qui, sinon, ont tous la même apparence : la vôtre. Le profil psychologique.
Je vais reprendre ici un concept qui est très bien expliqué dans l’article ’Création d’un personnage’ du présent zine. And Composition Essays 2014. Tout PNJ possède sa psychologie particulière, sa ’motion’ : des objectifs, une manière de réagir, des motivation, des craintes, des obsessions, des phobies. Writing. Plus le PNJ est important, plus sa ’motion’ doit être détaillée. Essays. A l’inverse, plus le PNJ est secondaire, moins elle a d’importance. On Occupational And Safety. Qu’un individu lambda, au sein d’un mouvement de foule, soit pris d’une crise d’acrophobie, qu’est ce que ça peut bien faire ? Alors que la psychologie d’un personnage central peut très bien être l’objet de tout un scénario. Cette psychologie a plusieurs composantes. Ap Language And Composition Essays 2014. D’abord elle dépend du milieu du PNJ, de sa condition sociale, et ensuite de son histoire personnelle  . Quelle est la nationalité du PNJ ? Quelles sont les caractéristiques culturelles propres à sa nation (préjugés notamment) ? Dans quelle culture baigne t’il ? Sa condition sociale : quelle est la place du PNJ dans l’échelle sociale de son pays ? Qu’est ce que cela implique comme comportement face à ses compatriotes ? Face aux étrangers ? En cas de crise ? Quelle est sa position face à sa condition ? face à son gouvernement/à la loi ? Son histoire personnelle : quelle est la vie de ce PNJ ? pourquoi est il comme il est aujourd’hui ? (ce chapitre peut tenir des pages dans certains cas). Un figurant ne dispose dans sa description que des motions de son milieu, et dans certains cas de son groupe, voir de son rôle dramatique. Essay On Occupational. Dans tous les cas, la description des figurants se fait par groupes de figurants. Ap Language And Composition Essays. C’est suffisant ! Ne vous prenez pas la tête avec vos figurants.
Un second rôle dispose d’une description qui lui est propre, et qui inclut son milieu, sa condition sociale et une ou deux ligne de précisions. Phd English Dissertations. Pas plus ! Sinon vous perdez de l’énergie en vain ; croyez moi, vos joueurs n’accordent que peu d’importance aux seconds rôles. Un personnage central se décrit de la même manière qu’un second rôle. Essays 2014. Mais n’hésitez pas à le détailler ! Plus il sera détaillé, plus votre scénario sera ’réactif’, c’est à dire qu’en exploitant le profil psychologique de votre PNJ, vous pourrez faire face à l’imprévu et improviser ! Si vous n’arrivez pas à vous intéresser à votre personnage central, ne paniquez pas ; vous avez sûrement affaire à un second rôle un peu trop étoffé. Letter For Resume. Taillez dans sa description ! Un figurant , comme un second rôle , dispose généralement des ressources inhérentes à sa condition : habitation, argent, alliés, etc… Dans des cas très rares on 2014, les détaillera pour ce type de PNJs.
Pour un personnage central , il vous faut détailler un peu plus. Qui sont ses amis ? ses alliés ? ses ennemis ? sa fortune ? ses contacts ? son influence ? ses possessions importantes ? Passons maintenant aux caractéristiques, en termes de jeu, de vos PNJs, et leur influence sur leur longévité. Statement And Violence. Car si vous voulez qu’un PNJ tienne plus qu’une partie face aux joueurs, il leur faut un minimum de ressources ! Pour les figurants : Seuls les hostiles méritent des caractéristiques ; encore vous faut-il les réduire au maximum et utiliser le mêmes pour un même groupe de figurants. Ap Language And Composition. Un figurant peut très bien avoir des caractéristiques élevées, notamment quand il s’agit de spécialistes (genre garde du corps), mais relégués à un rôle de second plan. Les seconds rôles et les personnages centraux. Assurez vous que leurs caractéristiques soient en proportion de la puissance des joueurs et au-dessus dans le cas d’un personnage central surtout si c’est un adversaire. Writing. N’oubliez d’ailleurs jamais que la ruse et la débrouille assurent un taux de survie plus élevé que la force brute. Techniquement, c’est une source de blessures mais aussi d’XP pour vos PJ, en tant que personnage c’est le niveau zéro de la profondeur psychologique et en tant que fonction dramatique, le monstre se contente en général de matérialiser le danger, d’introduire un peu de tension et beaucoup d’hémoglobine. Ap Language And Composition Essays. C’est pas pour dire mais je trouve ça tout nul.
Si on essay health, fait un peu d’étymologie sauvage, on ap language, constate que monstre vient de la monstration, de l’action de montrer : c’est un révélateur, dans la tragédie classique il a pour but de démontrer la valeur du héros (civilisé) triomphant des forces instinctives et bestiales (la Nature). Writing. Ce serait dommage de se limiter à ce schéma, mais un monstre devrait être en général la matérialisation d’un danger : Godzilla est le risque nucléaire, le requin des Dents de la Mer symbolise et punit les péchés des personnages secondaires, le John Doe de Se7en l’excès dans le châtiment, le vampire représente essentiellement l’appétit sexuel, les Orcs de Tolkien sont l’image de la dégénérescence des Elfes, . Ap Language Essays 2014. Créer un monstre, c’est faire vivre un danger, pas juste animer un voyage trop long. Phd English Dissertations. Et coller à ce monstre une forme de psychologie, une logique et des objectifs va le rendre plus crédible, et donc plus inquiétant (créer de beaux monstres sera le thème d’un prochain article). (ça peut être un monstre), celui qui remet en question le pouvoir des héros (vos PJ, a priori) et les fait évoluer. Essays 2014. Par exemple, un super-balaise in-tuable qui barre la route des aventuriers peut les amener à découvrir le principe de la négociation, à jouer la psychologie, le charme, la ruse. Phd English. bref à accéder à un usage efficient de leurs cerveaux. Ap Language Essays. Ce PNJ-obstacle peut-être un PNJ-énigme, pas un sphinx poseur d’énigme, mais par exemple un fugitif mystérieux, un dément incompréhensible ou un conspirateur diabolique qui n’est en fait que la personnification d’une question de votre choix (ludique, intellectuelle, morale, éthique. Health. ) à laquelle les PJ vont devoir répondre pour la vaincre ou la résoudre.
Une concierge revêche, un flic soupçonneux (à qui il faudra prouver son innocence), un démon gardien, un vrai sphinx, un enfant trop terrorisé pour livrer les informations qu’ils possèdent sont autant de PNJ-Epreuve. Vos PNJ sont en même temps des spécimens d’humanité et peuvent être dotés d’un physique particulier, de citations rappelant la vision du monde qu’ils expriment (La loi c’est moi !, C’est vraiment trop injuste. Ap Language And Composition 2014. , J’veux pas d’ennuis. Dissertations. etc.), d’une profession transparente ou problématique (trapéziste-alcoolique, flic avec chien, infirmière compatissante, baladin porte-parole, cuisinier tout maigre. And Composition 2014. ). Encore une fois, cela amène à nuancer la conception d’un personnage par la multiplication des points de vue sur ce qu’il est et peut produire des PNJ particulièrement savoureux par croisement de ces différents axes. Roman Jarlsson, Primogène Gangrel  : Dans une petite ville de banlieue parisienne se tient une cour de la Camarilla privée de Duc depuis longtemps. Writing A Professional Research. Au sein du Primogénat, on essays 2014, trouve ce fameux Roman : Physiquement, il n’a pas les caractéristiques animales de la plupart des Gangrels, ce qui signifie 1) son humanité et 2) sa résistance à la Frénésie. Pas très grand, noueux, avec une gueule de dur (mâchoire carrée, balafré, mal rasé) et son look de baroudeur, il exprime aussi sa fonction de combattant et sa résistance. Thesis Statement For Videogames. Face aux joueurs, il doit être une sorte de repère moral, gardien d’un certain équilibre et des lois de la Camarilla pouvant, sans perdre son calme, leur arracher la tête d’une seule main s’ils le fâchent ou brave les Traditions. 2014. Pour manifester ce danger et son self-control, Roman joue régulièrement avec des allumettes (alors que les Caïnites ont normalement peur du feu) et fume de gros cigares (qui indispose les autres, ça l’amuse beaucoup). D’origine allemande, il murmure (peu) avec un très léger accent et va droit au but.
Paf, le perso est posé. Kadi, esclavagiste et adversaire des PJs : Cet homme est le chef d’une organisation occulte qui organise la traite des blanches, de leur ’recrutement’ en Europe (de l’Est ou de l’Ouest), de leur transport et de leur ’placement’ dans des pays lointains. Thesis Statement For Videogames And Violence. Son nom véritable est inconnu même de ses proches lieutenants. Ap Language. Il est intégré dans la mafia locale, qui prélève sa taxe sur ses activités illégales. Writing. Il ne quitte que rarement la France, et ne sort jamais d’Europe. 2014. Il est tout à fait sans scrupules, et ne considère pas avoir affaire à des êtres humains lorsqu’il parle ’marchandise’.
Très nerveux, sa face lisse est sans arrêt agitée de tics. Thesis For Videogames. Il parle un français impeccable, sans accent. Essays 2014. De sa personne, on essay, dirait un oriental corpulent d’une quarantaine d’années, avec un vague air turc. Ap Language 2014. Son crâne est rasé et lisse comme une boule de billard. Essay On Occupational Health. Il est toujours tiré à quatre épingles. Ap Language Essays. Il déteste notoirement les arabes, sans que personne n’en connaisse la raison exacte, mais on essay, pense que c’est lié à son passé trouble et mal connu.
Deux exemples de PNJs second rôle Renaud Chancrain, homme de main de Kadi : Renaud est chargé des basses ?uvres de Kadi. And Composition. Kadi fait appel à lui chaque fois qu’il lui faut avoir recours à l’intimidation et/ou la violence. Phd English Dissertations. Renaud a pour cela d’excellents contacts dans la mafia locale, et sait toujours trouver les personnes qu’il faut, du tueur professionnel à la minable petite frappe. Physiquement Renaud est un colosse en blouson noir et à la nuque rasée. Ap Language 2014. Il a toujours un cran d’arrêt sur lui, qu’il remplace par un pistolet quand il sent un coup foireux. Letter. S’il se sent surclassé, il laissera tomber ses airs de matamores pour révéler sa vraie lâcheté. Jean-Baptiste Frémion, banque de donnée sur pattes : Installé comme juriste dans le Londres des années 1890, Jean-baptiste en a exploré les bas-fonds autant que la bonne société. Ap Language And Composition. Il dévore les journaux, parle un anglais parfait et a une culture générale impressionnante ; on essay on poverty mother crimes, peut même dire qu’il est une bibliothèque vivante, bien utile à ceux qui ont recours à ses services (les PJS). Ap Language And Composition 2014. Malheureusement il est aussi dépressif, alcoolique et perpétuellement sarcastique, ce qui le rend parfois insupportable et souvent indisponible (puisque complètement saoul), juste histoire que les dits PJs ne se laissent pas aller à considérer son aide comme une facilité permanente.  Ceci n’est pas de la psychologie veritable, c’est simplement un artifice de conception de scenario. Is Cover For Resume. Je n’ai aucune, mais vraiment aucune pretention a appliquer ce systeme a la realite ; le JdR obeit a d’autres loi qui sont celles, plus facilement intelligibles, de la dynamique dramatique.
 J’ai interprete recemment ce PNJ assez typique dans un GN Vampire, la Mascarade, d’ou le contexte. Les commentaires sur cet article. Ceci est un exercice a 4 mains. L’acouchement a ete difficile. Ca me rappelle le bouquin d’Orson Scott Card sur les personnages et points de vue. Ajouter un commentaire. forum vous enregistrer forum vous inscrire. Tous les éléments et personnages sont des marques déposées détenues par leur propriétaire. Ap Language 2014. Ils sont utilisés ici sans autorisation particulière, dans un but d'information.
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