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Design of a Cyclonic-Jetting and Slurry-Transport System for Separators. Oil and gas wells often produce sand or solids with the well fluids. Animals Essay! Despite exclusionary well designs, these solids can cause equipment failure, completion problems, or changes in production. This paper offers a way to remove solids in separators. Monitoring of Oil and Gas Pipelines by Use of VTOL-Type Unmanned Aerial Vehicles. Use of unmanned aerial vehicles to monitor pipeline networks for theft and other issues is discussed. Effectiveness of Bypass-Pigging Solutions in Multiphase-Flow Pipelines With Waxy Crude Oil: Evaluation and Innovative Solution. Bypass pigging has advantages over conventional approaches. Its application to multi-phase flow with high wax content crude is discussed. On the Contradiction of Applying Rolled Threads to Bolting Exposed to Hydrogen-Bearing Environments. Hydrogen stress cracking of bolts can be a source of failure.
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Linhua4-1 was China’s first tieback subsea development project. To develop this marginal oil field, a number of introduction for research papers technical challenges were overcome through a series of new technologies, and their successful development and implementation. Design Method Combining API and ASME Codes for Subsea Equipment for HP/HT Conditions up to 25,000-psi Pressure and do my admission job, 400°F Temperature. This paper demonstrates a design methodology that combines the API and American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Boiler and Pressure Vessels Code (BPVC) for designing an example subsea pressure containing component for introduction outline papers HP/HT conditions greater than 15,000 psi and 250°F. Flotation, Filtration, and Adsorption: Pilot Trials for Oilfield Produced-Water Treatment. In this study, a pilot plant with a capacity of 50 m3/d was used to conduct flotation, filtration, and adsorption trials for produced-water treatment at a crude-oil gathering facility. An Evaluation of do my admission Risk of Hydrate Formation at the Top of a Pipeline. Water condensation and/or hydrate formation at the top of pipelines are serious design/operation considerations in pipelines. This paper reports the results of tests conducted in a new experimental setup constructed for investigating gas-hydrate risks in varied operational scenarios. Experimental Investigation of introduction Wellhead Twin-Screw Pump for Gas-Well Deliquefication. Onshore gas developments are often characterized by drilling, fracturing, and production of wells before low-pressure gas-gathering systems are in essay place.
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Energy-Efficient Technologies for Reduction of Offshore CO2 Emissions. This paper discusses novel technologies for increasing the energy efficiency of offshore oil and gas platforms. Three case studies are in animals progress that are based on papers, actual oil-producing platforms—two on the Norwegian Continental Shelf (NCS) and one in the Brazilian basin. Implementing a Deepwater-Pipeline-Management System. There are few deepwater-pipeline operators with expertise in pipeline repairs.
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The smart-field concept is deployed through disseminating elements of tools and infrastructure integrated to bring a level of smartness that can improve the performance of an oilfield asset in a sustainable way. How this is accomplished can vary widely depending on the field. Inaccuracy in Pipeline-Compressor-Station Construction-Cost Estimation. This paper is investigates installed cost overruns of pipeline-compressor-station projects, using data from more than 200 projects. Results of the analysis show that project size, capacity, location, and introduction outline, year have different impacts on ozline thesis, individual component overruns. Choice of Development Concept—Platform or Subsea Solution? Valuation of the enhanced flexibility offered by platform-based development solutions and sequential subsea solution is difficult.
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Novel Leak Detection Method for Sulfur Recovery Unit Condensers. Tube leaks present in a water-cooled sulfur recovery unit (SRU) condenser can lead to a variety of process issues, including corrosion and the oxidative formation of outline for research papers acidic species. This work devised a novel method to verify such leaks within a SRU condenser. Acoustic-Induced-Vibration Case Study for WDDM Onshore Facilities. In gas applications with high-pressure drops and/or high-velocity gas flow, acoustic-induced vibration (AIV) occurs when very high sound levels are propagated in piping. This can induce fatigue cracking of the pipe and someone, potentially catastrophic pipe failure.
A Simplified Mechanistic Model for an Oil/Water Horizontal Pipe Separator. A new methodology for oil/water horizontal pipe separator (HPS) design and performance prediction is developed. Separator diameter is determined on outline, the basis of oil/water flow-pattern prediction. Justify Of Literature Review In A Research! A batch separator model is adopted and modified to predict the outline separator length for desired quality. The Braess Paradox and Its Impact on Natural-Gas-Network Performance. Paradoxical effects can exist when expanding the capacity of positive and negative effects natural-gas-transportation networks. This paper derives conditions where it can be expected, how the effect can be masked, and provide analysis to support identification in larger-scale networks.
New Method To Estimate Surface-Separator Optimum Operating Pressures. Setting optimal surface separation pressures are crucial for maximizing the surface liquid production from the introduction outline wellstream feed. Where separator tests are not available, empirical calculations are often used, but with limitations. A method suitable across many conditions is essay job proposed. HIPPS-Based No-Burst Design of Flowlines and Risers. A methodology is outline for research papers proposed for design of subsea flowlines and risers coupled with a subsea high-integrity pressure protection system (HIPPS) for fields with high shut-in tubing pressure (SITP). Available Methodologies Concerning the Treatment and Removal of Sand From Pipelines and Associated Case Studies. This paper discusses the available methodologies for remediation of a pipeline affected by sand and about someone who inspires you, presents examples where the discussed methodologies have been applied. Considerations for the Application of Controlled In-Situ Burning. The burning of oil in place (in situ) on water is a viable means of introduction papers mitigating the positive impact of marine oil spills. Introduction! This paper examines decision criteria and safe practices for deploying this method in both icy and warm conditions.
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This paper describes a gas-hydrate model for oil-dominated systems, which can be used for the design and optimization of facilities focusing on the prevention, management, and remediation of hydrates in flowlines. Experimental Study of 3% Cr Tubing Steel in CO2 and CO2/H2S Corrosion Environment. Through a range of experiments the introduction papers authors demonstrate that small amount of H2S can be beneficial in reducing corrosion in 3% Cr steel. Twelve Steps to Engineering Safe Onshore Oil and Gas Facilities. This paper reviews the key areas for facility designers and engineers to include when designing facilities to ensure safe facilities.
Use and incorporation of the research project principles outlined in this paper should enable engineers and designers to build safe facilities that reduce the for research papers risk of major incidents. 2003-2016 Society of Petroleum Engineers, All Rights Reserved.
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A level Biology Coursework - Effect of substrate concentration on rate of activity of the enzyme catalase. Aim: To investigate the introduction for research papers, effect of substrate concentration on the rate of activity of the enzyme catalase. Catalase is an enzyme which is found in most living organisms. It catalyses the decomposition of Hydrogen Peroxide into water and oxygen. Catalase dramatically reduces the activation energy needed for the reaction. Without catalase the decomposition would take much longer, and would not be fast enough to sustain human life. Hydrogen peroxide is also a dangerous, very potent by-product of metabolism, so it is essential that it is broken down quickly, otherwise it would cause damage to the inclusion of literature review research, cells. I have done some preliminary work and as a result, have identified problems that may occur in my main investigation, such as timing, measuring and keeping variables that I am not investigating constant, (such as temperature etc). Introduction For Research Papers. In the main procedure I will control the temperature in a water bath in order to create a constant external temperature to ozline thesis, dissipate the heat energy. This will minimise the effect of temperature on the results of the experiment. I have decided to do this because in my preliminary procedures, I used a thermometer to measure the temperature of the hydrogen peroxide (when left on introduction outline for research, the side) at different intervals, and on different days, and found that the temperature of the experimentation essay, hydrogen peroxide fluctuated slightly.
By doing this, it will ensure that the test is as fair as I can make it. Although the reaction is exothermic and will give out heat during the reaction anyway, since the heat has been dissipated by being kept in the water bath, the amount of heat given off in the experiment will be relative to outline for research, the concentration of hydrogen peroxide, but obviously some reactions will take longer than others, so more heat will be produced. However the temperature initially will be kept the same in each case. This is also very relevant because we may not get the opportunity to do the essay job, whole experiment on one day, or in the same class room. This means the room temperature in each class room or on for research, different days will not be the same for each procedure, because of obvious factors such as type of essay about someone who inspires day (very cold or mild etc) and introduction outline for research, the level of heating within the class rooms. Temperature directly affects the do my admission essay job, shape of the active site. At a temperature below the optimum, the molecules have less kinetic energy so the rate of collisions between enzyme and outline, substrate molecules are low and therefore less enzyme-substrate complexes are formed. As the temperature increases the justify of literature in a research project, molecules have more kinetic energy and so collide more often, resulting in an increased rate of reaction. Because of outline for research papers this, it is very important to control the temperature, in justify of literature review research, order to outline papers, ensure a constant temperature is maintained. Above the optimum temperature, the thermal energy breaks the hydrogen bonds holding the and negative, secondary and tertiary structure together, so the active site changes shape and eventually the reaction can no longer be catalysed.
I will keep the water bath at for research papers, 25 o C because the optimum temperature for the enzyme catalase at which it works most effectively is do my essay, 45 o C. This will ensure that, since the temperature is below the optimum the reaction will be slower and therefore enable me to collect oxygen at a measurable rate. Introduction For Research. I may, however need to change this as I have not done a preliminary experiment using a water bath. In my preliminary work I also found that when doing the experiment with 1g of essay about who inspires you yeast, and 5cm 3 of 20 volume of hydrogen peroxide, the rate of reaction was too fast to introduction outline for research papers, collect oxygen at a measurable rate, and therefore made it impossible to gain meaningful results. Experimentation Essay. I consequently reduced the mass of yeast to 0.2g rather than the introduction, 1.0g I used initially, and still used the ozline thesis, same volume (5cm 3 )of hydrogen peroxide. This meant that because the enzyme concentration (catalase in yeast) was reduced there were less collisions between enzyme and substrate molecules so the rate of enzyme-substrate formations were reduced.
This meant that less gas evolved with time, so I could effectively time, and measure the volume of oxygen produced. Another factor which I had to consider was the surface area of the yeast granules, because each yeast granule has a different surface area the amount of enzyme will differ in each granule, but more importantly the greater the for research, surface area of the yeast the mandeville, more reactions take place because of the fact that there will be more collisions between the enzyme and substrate molecules. Introduction. In my first preliminary experiment I just weighed 1.0g of yeast as it was supplied in review in a research, its granule form. However in my next preliminary experiment, I decided this would be unfair in the main procedure and because of papers this I decided to grind the yeast into a powder so that the surface area would be more similar in each yeast granule. Also, in my main procedure I will grind a larger mass of animals experimentation essay yeast (more than I need), and introduction outline, then weigh it, rather than weighing the yeast and then grinding. This is important because if I weigh the yeast and ozline thesis, then grind with the pestle, some of the yeast will be lost because it might get stuck to the pestle, hence decreasing the mass of introduction outline for research papers yeast slightly. I will also use the same batch of yeast because this will ensure that the yeast granules have the same surface area.
I also used 2 different methods in order to determine which would be the most effective in gaining the best possible results, with minimal error. In my first experiment, I used the displacement of water method, whereby a measuring cylinder (containing water) is placed upside down in animals essay, a plastic tub, with a tube attached to the test tube (airtight). A syringe with hydrogen peroxide is introduction outline, also present (as shown in the diagram). I believe that as the concentration of the hydrogen peroxide (substrate) decreases, the rate of reaction will decrease consequently. Positive And Negative Effects Of Technology. This is because there will be fewer collisions between the substrate and outline papers, enzyme molecules (catalase in yeast) – because there are fewer molecules of hydrogen peroxide, so there will be a decrease in enzyme-substrate complexes formed. The reaction will then stop because all of the active sites become saturated with substrate because the enzyme is the limiting factor. Essay. This will result in a decreased volume of oxygen being produced as one of the by-products of this reaction.
In addition, based on my knowledge of the collision theory I believe that if the concentration of hydrogen peroxide is doubled (or halved) then the rate of reaction is also doubled (or halved). Introduction Outline Papers. This is because if the concentration is doubled the number of molecules of the substrate is also doubled. This means there will be twice as many successful collisions. Therefore it is true to say that in essay, theory: rate µ concentration. Introduction Outline. I will investigate if this is true for this reaction.
The hydrogen peroxide is injected into the test tube and the volume of oxygen gas is recorded (by the amount of water displaced). This would determine the rate of reaction. However I decided against this method for several reasons. Firstly, because I used such a large measuring cylinder, the volume of gas produced was hard to admission, measure as not much water had been displaced. Outline For Research. Although I could have used a smaller measuring cylinder, I decided that the best possible way I could do the about, experiment was by outline papers measuring the volume of positive gas directly using a gas syringe, rather than by the displacement of water. Also, because the hydrogen peroxide had to be inserted into introduction for research papers the syringe before the reaction could begin, the amount of time it would be out of the water bath (which I intend to use in my main experiment) was longer than necessary.
I decided that I could reduce this time by about someone who inspires you using a different method. Introduction. In my second preliminary experiment, I used a gas syringe instead, which measured the volume of oxygen produced directly, rather than by the displacement of water. The hydrogen peroxide is do my admission essay job, inserted into a 5cm 3 small beaker and then tipped over to “spill” the contents and start the reaction. Papers. I felt that this would give me more reliable result in my main investigation because the length of time that the hydrogen peroxide is out of the water bath is reduced. Furthermore, the volume of gas is measured directly.
I noticed that when doing the first method that “bubbles of gas” were affected by people bumping the table, and that sometimes they got trapped in the tube, so even though the product of the reaction (oxygen) had been formed it was not measured until afterwards, (at a later stage in the reaction). Also, the bubble volume is affected by ozline thesis the diameter of the tube and introduction outline, the overall pressure of the water (depth of the water) so I believe that by using the gas syringe, I will be able to eliminate this inaccuracy as water will not be involved. The gas syringe, however, also has a small volume of air displaced within it when it is attached to the conical flask, so I will have to consider this in the main procedure. I will subtract this volume of air from each of my results so that I can gain a precise measure of the volume of gas produced. The preliminary experiment also gave me an animals idea as to how often I should measure the volume of gas formed (i.e. every 5, 10, 15 seconds etc). In my first preliminary experiment the reaction went to fast to collect oxygen at a measurable rate, but in the second preliminary experiment I measured the volume of gas every 10 seconds, but found that the reaction was over before I had enough measurements and that the outline for research, results I gained would not be sufficient to obtain enough results and positive, make a valid conclusion. I therefore did a further experiment based on mainly on timing only, and found that if I measured the volume of gas every 5 seconds I obtained enough measurements. However, I do have to take into account that I will be using different concentrations of hydrogen peroxide in my main experiment, so 5 seconds may not be sufficient to measure the volume of oxygen produced in the slower reactions and introduction, I may need to ozline thesis, change this. The concentrations of hydrogen peroxide I will use will be 100%, 90%, 80%, 70%, 60% and introduction outline, 50%. I will use these concentrations because I believe that if I were to go any lower than 50% that the rate of reaction will be relatively slow, and will not produce enough results because the of sir mandeville, substrate concentration (hydrogen peroxide) will be too low in concentration.
I also want to outline, decrease in 10% because I believe it will provide me with closer results rather than decreasing by 20% which will mean I would be testing a concentration of 0% of hydrogen peroxide. Finally, I also want to determine whether or not half the 100% concentration of hydrogen peroxide (50%) would produce half the justify of literature in a research, volume of gas. Bored of revsion? need to read something GOOD? Want to say thanks for this article? Help me out by checking out this book I helped co-edit. Thanks in advance! The independent variable will be the factor that I am going to manipulate. This will be the concentration of the hydrogen peroxide. I intend to use a pipette in order to make up the concentrations of 100%, 90%, 80%, 70%, 60%, and 50%. I will do this by making each mixture up to 100cm 3 , so for example, the 90% concentrated solution will consist of 90cm 3 of hydrogen peroxide, and 10cm 3 water.
I will put the introduction for research papers, 6 different concentrated solutions in a conical flask which will be placed into a water bath. Because a pipette is a very accurate way of measuring volumes, I believe that this will be the best method to make up the concentrations. This will eliminate a very large apparatus error that would occur if I used a beaker or conical flask. The dependant variable – the variable I intend to measure is the volume of gas produced in of technology, each reaction. This will vary as a direct result to the different concentration of hydrogen peroxide. Controlled variable – the controlled variable consist of outline for research papers all the positive effects, other factors which must be kept constant.
This will be the mass of yeast for each experiment (0.2g). I will make sure that I measure 0.2g of yeast as accurately as I can using the balance. The balance has a mechanism whereby it can be made level (so perfectly balanced) regardless of the angle of the desk or counter it is placed on. I have explained this is my method below. I will also consider the apparatus error of the balance (and indeed all the equipment I use) so I can work out the for research papers, overall error derived from the apparatus and identify this in my conclusion. I am also controlling the temperature, so this has to be considered, because I am controlling 2 variables. This will affect my results, but I believe it will make them more accurate since the temperature will be constant, and about who inspires you, so eliminate any fluctuations in temperature (as I have explained earlier). It will also rule out the fact that if I have to do my procedures in different rooms/days, the introduction for research papers, temperature in the room might be different.
Conical flask 20 vols hydrogen peroxide Water Yeast Gas syringe Stop clock Clamp stand 50cm 3 pipette 20cm 3 pipette 25cm 3 pipette Water bath Syringe Stopper Pestle and mortar Thermometer Tweezers 5cm 3 Beaker. Firstly I am going to measure out the concentrations of hydrogen peroxide that I have decided on. This will be 100%, 90%, 80%, 70%, 60% and 50%. Essay About. I will do this by adding different volumes of water to outline for research papers, make up 100cm 3 .For example, the 80% concentrated solution will consist of 80cm 3 of hydrogen peroxide and 20cm 3 of water, (as shown in the table below). Instead of using a conical flask or a measuring cylinder, I will use a pipette because they are very accurate for measuring volumes. Travels Of Sir John Mandeville. I will then place the 6 conical flasks in a water bath, at 25 o C, to for research, create a constant external temperature to dissipate the heat energy. Justify Of Literature In A Research Project. I will do this first to ensure that the mixtures have enough time to reach a constant temperature, rather than only putting them in for for research papers, a short time because this will mean there may be fluctuations in temperature of the different molecules which I was initially trying to eliminate. Next, I will grind the yeast into a powder using a pestle and mortar. I will grind up more than I need, so that I can use the same (ground) yeast for all of my experiments. This will also be fairer than grinding the yeast on different days or for different procedures, because the time spent grinding may be different.
Hopefully this will mean that each yeast granule will have the same (or a very similar) surface area. I will then set up my apparatus. Finally, on setting up the apparatus, I will place the ozline thesis, balance on the table, making sure the bubble in the spirit level is in the middle level, thereby eliminating any deviation from the balance position. This means that even though the table may not be level, the pan (or weighing basin) is perfectly level. I will set up my apparatus this way every time I need to, e.g. when I need another lesson to outline papers, complete my investigation.
Once the apparatus is set up, I will place a conical flask on the balance, and effects of technology essay, set the balance to 0, so that I can weigh the yeast only, which I will place in introduction, the conical flask using a spatula until the right weight (0.2g) is in the conical flask. I will weigh the yeast directly into the conical flask, not a Petri dish, because then I do not have to worry about you transferring the yeast from the Petri dish to the conical flask. Next I will place the conical flask under the gas syringe and place an outline for research airtight stopper in the top, with a single tube attached to do my job, the gas syringe as shown in the diagram. I will then take the introduction for research, conical flask with the 100% hydrogen peroxide out of the water bath and measure exactly 5cm 3 of the of literature in a project, mixture using a syringe, and place it into the 5cm 3 small beaker. Being very careful as not to spill the mixture, I will take the stopper off the conical flask and lower the beaker into the conical flask using tweezers. I will then put the stopper back on the conical flask so the procedure is ready to commence. Using a stop clock I will time from the moment the introduction papers, small beaker is tipped over to when the do my admission, reaction stops, measuring the introduction outline, volume of gas evolved every 15 seconds. The reaction is over when I record 3 volumes of gas that are concordant or very similar. This indicates that no more gas is travels john mandeville, being produced because the enzyme is the limiting factor as all the active sites are occupied. I will repeat this method using the different concentrations of hydrogen peroxide making sure to wash the equipment thoroughly after each reaction.
I will carry out each reaction 3 times for each to gain an average. I hope to record concordant results for each repeat, so if an anomaly occurs I can discount it and repeat the procedure again. I will record the outline papers, data in a table and travels john mandeville essay, allow me to work out the rate of reaction. I will then represent the results in a graph. This will enable me to introduction, work out the gradient and and negative effects essay, make a conclusion based on the evidence I have obtained. Hydrogen peroxide, if inhaled or has contact with the skin or eyes, can be very dangerous and toxic. I will therefore be wearing safety goggles whenever I am handling the introduction outline for research, hydrogen peroxide and ozline thesis, during the reaction, and will also wear gloves.
I will also make sure that my hair is tied back at for research papers, all times and do my admission essay job, that I am not wearing any jewellery or articles of clothing that may come into contact with the papers, hydrogen peroxide. I will also clean up any spillages immediately. I believe that the graph will firstly start of steep in all the reactions, but steepest in the 100% concentration of hydrogen peroxide and gradually decreasing as the concentration of effects hydrogen peroxide decrease. This is because there will be more collisions between the introduction outline for research papers, enzyme and the inclusion review, substrate molecules so more enzyme-substrate complexes. The curve will then level off and for research papers, this represents the point where most of the enzymes active sites are saturated. The curve will eventually stay constant and this is because the enzyme molecules are fully saturated. This is called the travels of sir mandeville, maximum velocity of reaction or Vmax. The substrate concentration at this point, even if increased, will not affect the rate of reaction because it is the enzyme which is in low concentration. I believe that the outline for research papers, graph for one of the concentrations, for example 100% hydrogen peroxide, will look similar to the one below. I believe that each curve for and negative of technology, each concentration will look like the one above, but for each decreased concentration – 90%, 80%, 70%, 60% and introduction for research, 50%, the value of the Vmax will decrease too, as will the initial rate of reaction, This is because of the fact that there will be less substrate molecules in each successive concentration, so fewer collisions between particles that can react with each other.
This means that the number of of sir mandeville collisions that reach the introduction papers, activation energy also decreases. This can be explained by of literature research project the Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution curve: THEN Draw the outline for research, graph using your results or the one's in the above table. Based on the information above, I therefore believe that the graph with all the concentrations plotted will look similar to essay, the one below. I will record my results in a table like the one below, and then record further, average results, in a similar table. I will draw a graph based on the average results, and draw a curve of introduction for research papers best fit for each concentration which will help me analyse my results. Essay. I will then work out the gradient of each curve and introduction, plot a further graph of percentage of H 2 O 2 against rate of ozline thesis reaction on introduction papers, the y-axis. Ozline Thesis. I would expect this graph to be linear as this would show that as the concentration increases, time taken for a set volume of gas would decrease - in other words, the introduction outline for research papers, rate is proportional to the concentration. I expect this graph to look similar to essay someone who inspires, the one I have drawn previously.
I will work out the introduction outline papers, rate of reaction from the results gained in the first 5 seconds as this will be the point where the greatest volume of positive and negative of technology essay gas is evolved. I had to change the volume of hydrogen peroxide used from 5cm 3 to 4cm 3 because in the first reaction with 100% hydrogen peroxide went too fast to collect oxygen at a measurable rate. When I did repeat the procedure with 4cm 3 of hydrogen peroxide, I could effectively measure the volume of introduction outline gas. I also had to change the gas syringe because at about, first the reaction did not occur, and this was because a large volume of gas was leaking from a tear in the tube. I also had to repeat the whole of the 70% concentration of hydrogen peroxide because the results were all anomalous when compared to the rest of the data. I will talk about why this might have been in my evaluation. * Another factor which I found out later when I drew my graphs was that there were limitations to the range of results I collected, so I decided to collect some more results. I have explained this later on. Below is a table of the introduction, results I collected, including all the animals essay, results which I had to repeat. The raw results can be seen in the appendix. Because my results where mostly concordant, and at introduction, the very least there was only a 2cm 3 difference between any 2 repeats out of 3, I decided that I did not need to repeat any of the procedures, apart from the whole of concentration 7 which I will discuss later.
This then enabled me to work out an animals average by adding up 3 three repeat values and dividing by 3. For example the introduction for research papers, 100% concentration average would be (48+49+48) ? 3). Below is a table showing the average results. From these results, I can see instantly that less gas was evolved in the first 5 seconds as the concentration decreased and that the overall volume of essay someone gas also became successively lower in outline for research papers, each decreased concentration. This is because there were more molecules of about you hydrogen peroxide in the higher concentrations, so more collisions took place and so there was a greater probability of successful collisions. This resulted in more enzyme-substrate complexes formed in the higher concentrations, and less in the each decreased concentration. This supports the Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution curve I drew earlier. I have drawn a graph based on introduction for research, these average results, with a curve of best fit for animals, each concentration which will allow me to identify any anomalies. From the graph I can see that as the concentration of hydrogen peroxide decreased, the volume of oxygen produced decreased as a direct result.
This is because as the concentration decreased, the number of molecules of introduction for research hydrogen peroxide also decreased. This decreased the number of particles that can react with each other, and so the number of collisions that reached the about someone who inspires you, activation energy also decreased. This means that there are also less successful collisions, and so less enzyme-substrate complexes formed. Outline. The final volume of oxygen produced also decreased as the concentration decreased, and this is because less collisions overall took place, and so a reduced number of collisions reached the activation energy. This was because there were fewer molecules initially, and this resulted in justify the inclusion of literature in a, a lower probability that the molecules would collide. This means that there were less successful collisions overall. For example, the 100% concentration of hydrogen peroxide evolved a final volume of introduction outline for research oxygen of 88.3cm 3 , 90% concentration evolved 73.3cm 3 of oxygen, 80% - 63.7cm 3 , 70% - 49.3cm 3 , 60% - 44.7cm 3 and the 50% concentration evolved 37cm 3 of oxygen. The initial rate of reaction is fastest for the 100% concentration of hydrogen peroxide and gradually decreases as the concentration decreases. Animals. This can be explained by the collision theory, which states that the time taken for a reaction to take place, and so a set volume of gas to be evolved, becomes shorter for higher concentrations substrate. This is because at higher concentrations there are more substrate molecules than in lower concentrations.
Subsequently, if there are more molecules, then there will be more collisions taking place, and introduction, therefore more reactions between enzyme and substrate molecules take place in ozline thesis, 1 second, and so oxygen is introduction for research papers, evolved more rapidly. So at animals, the 100% concentration of hydrogen peroxide, the oxygen was given of more rapidly because there were more substrate and enzyme molecules reacting in a second. From the introduction for research, curves of best fit, I can also see that there were no anomalous results, only some results which were slightly above or below the positive and negative essay, curve, though they were not excessively distorted. This shows that my results were relatively accurate for each concentration alone. To find out if the concentrations together were accurate, I worked out the outline papers, rate of reaction.
This enabled me to find out if each concentration, based on the number of molecules of substrate in each decrease of 10%, was similar or even showed a pattern which I failed to travels of sir, identify with my previous results. I did this by working out the gradient of outline each curve and admission essay, plotting these values against the concentrations on the x- axis. The method which I used to do this can be seen on the next page. By plotting these values on a graph I could also see if there was a relationship between the different concentrations. Introduction Outline For Research. On the next page is a graph showing the rate of the inclusion review in a research reaction, with a line of best fit. Introduction Outline Papers. (again - on positive of technology, your graph showing rate of reaction, draw a line of best fit) Overall, I believe my experiment went well and I believe that I gained sufficient results because I repeated each concentration 3 times, and investigated 8 concentrations in total. I believe that my results were also relatively reliable because as you can see from the graph I plotted with the outline for research, curve of best fit for each concentration, as the concentration decreases the volume of oxygen produced also decreases. For example, the 100% concentration of hydrogen peroxide evolved a final average volume of gas of 77cm 3 of oxygen while the 90% concentration evolved a final average volume of 73.3cm 3 . Also most of the points were on or close to the curve of essay best fit for each concentration. However there are some factors that I must take into consideration.
Firstly, there were limitations of the apparatus that I used. Papers. Each piece of apparatus has an travels of sir john mandeville apparatus error in which there is an upper and for research, lower limit. For example the balance had an apparatus error of ±0.01 which means that since I used 0.2g of yeast, this value could either be 0.21g or 0.19g. This obviously affects the amount of catalase present, and this means that there could be more or less collisions and so successful collisions between enzyme and substrate molecules depending on the greater or lower mass of yeast. For example, if there were more molecules of justify of literature review in a yeast the rate of reaction would increase because there would be more collisions between enzyme and substrate molecules which would result in a greater probability of successful collisions, and therefore more enzyme-substrate complexes being produced. This means that in my results, the volume of gas produced in the first 5 seconds may have been higher than it should have been if I had used exactly 0.2g of yeast. This could have been a reason for the very fast rate of for research reaction of the 100% hydrogen peroxide, which showed up as an anomalous result on the first rate of reaction graph. This would apply for animals experimentation essay, the substrate concentration too, in that the pipettes also had an apparatus error. This would also mean the amount of outline for research substrate molecules could have been different for essay someone you, each repeat, even though I used the same concentration. For example in the 100% concentration I used two 50cm 3 pipettes which had an apparatus error of ±0.01. So in 100cm 3 the actual volume could have been either 99.98cm 3 of hydrogen peroxide or 100.02cm 3 of hydrogen peroxide so there would have either been more or fewer molecules of hydrogen peroxide.
If there were fewer molecules of introduction outline for research papers hydrogen peroxide, there would have been fewer collisions between molecules of enzyme and substrate, resulting in fewer enzyme-substrate complexes being made. However, I do not believe they were significantly different because each of my repeats were mostly concordant, so a similar amount of oxygen was produced which must mean that there was a similar number of substrate molecules in the inclusion of literature review in a project, each. For example, from my results, in the 100% concentrated solution on the first repeat, 48cm 3 of oxygen was produced. In the second repeat, 49cm 3 was and in the third repeat 48cm 3 of oxygen was produced. I tried to select the best method with which I considered would be most accurate. I decided on the gas syringe method because, as I explained in my plan, it measured the volume of outline for research papers gas directly and would also minimise the volume of justify of literature review oxygen which could potentially dissolve in water. However, some oxygen was displaced in outline papers, the gas syringe and I had to solve this by subtracting this small volume from the volumes produced in each of the reactions. Also, I noticed if the barrel was wet, the syringe often got stuck for a short time before it recorded the do my job, volumes of gas.
To prevent this I had to dry out the barrel and syringe before commencing the procedure. It was very hard to insert the small 5cm 3 beaker into the conical flask, and when it came to tipping it over, some of the substrate was still trapped inside the beaker. I solved this by swirling the conical flask constantly throughout the introduction outline for research papers, reactions and this seemed to solve the problem. Although, this means that the amount of swirling had to be the same in order to ensure a fair test. I tried to keep this constant by ozline thesis making sure I swirled the conical flask evenly. The accuracy of the introduction outline for research, results showed that this factor did not distort the results too much, and so a similar amount of substrate molecules were present in each reaction. For example, the repeated concentration of 80% had values of 32cm 3 ,33cm 3 and 32cm 3 which means that a similar number of substrate was present in do my admission job, each reaction.
Another factor which was hard to measure was the volume of introduction outline for research gas produced because some of the higher concentration reactions were very fast, so it was hard to read off the correct values every time. Essay Someone Who Inspires. I tried to make this as accurate as possible by introduction making sure my eyes were level with the gas syringe. Again, judging by the accuracy of my repeat results, I believe that this factor was not an essay about someone who inspires you issue. Although I did not check for gas leaks beforehand, there was good agreement between my replicates. In the 60% concentration the repeats at 5 seconds were 20, 21 and introduction papers, 20cm 3 , which is concordant. If my replicates had not been so close I would have had to change the essay, tube. I ground up the yeast to try to make the surface area as similar as possible, because surface area is a major factor in my experiment.
A larger surface area means there is more molecules being exposed to collisions with other molecules, with sufficient energy to introduction outline papers, cause a reaction. This means that having the same surface area of yeast in each reaction is job, very important in papers, ensuring a fair test because the number of molecules exposed to admission essay job, collisions must be the for research papers, same. Temperature is a major factor which affects rate of reaction. This is and negative essay, because at higher temperatures, molecules of introduction outline for research papers both enzyme and substrate have more kinetic energy and so collide more often. This results in a bigger proportion of molecules having a higher energy greater than that of the activation energy. Who Inspires You. More collisions are therefore successful so more substrate is for research papers, converted into product. The reaction is exothermic, and so heat is obviously produced in the reaction. The higher the of literature review research project, concentration the more heat will be produced because the molecules of both substrate and enzyme have more energy, and so collide more often producing more heat energy. This heat energy is transferred to the environment.
Although I tried to control the temperature in a water bath, and to good effect because a constant external temperature was produced and so the heat energy was dissipated, I could not control the amount of heat given off in each reaction. This would have affected my results for several reasons. Introduction Outline Papers. Firstly, more oxygen dissolves in water at a lower temperature than at high temperatures and this means that for the reactions involving low concentrations more oxygen would have dissolved than in the higher concentrations because of the decreased amount of heat energy given off. Because the of sir essay, volume of oxygen dissolved in the reaction is not constant for introduction outline, all the reactions, because less oxygen is dissolved in water at justify the inclusion review research project, higher temperatures, this would have affected my results. This may have been why the papers, difference in the final volume of oxygen produced was not equal, but instead decreased in steps of ozline thesis 3.7cm 3 , 9.6cm 3 , 14.4cm 3 , 4.6cm 3 and introduction, 7.7cm 3 . The different concentrations of hydrogen peroxide that I made up could not have been exactly accurate because this would have meant that the volume of gas evolved would have increased in of sir essay, equal steps which it did not. For example, the final average volume of introduction outline gas for do my essay, 100% hydrogen peroxide was 77cm 3 , and for 90% was 73.3cm 3 , 80% - 63.7cm 3 , 70% - 49.3cm 3 , 60% - 44.7cm 3 and 50% it was 37cm 3 . Outline Papers. As I have mentioned earlier, this decreases in steps of 3.7cm 3 , 9.6cm 3 , 14.4cm 3 , 4.6cm 3 and 7.7cm 3 , which is far from of technology equal. This may have been because I only used a pipette when measuring the hydrogen peroxide, and only poured the for research papers, water into the volumetric flask to make up the ozline thesis, 100cm 3 . I believed this was accurate, but upon reflection using a pipette would have been much more accurate as pipettes have a much lower apparatus error than the volumetric flask.
This may have also been a reason why I had to repeat the papers, whole of the 70cm 3 concentration, which initially had a final volume of gas, 72cm 3 , which was greater than the final volume of oxygen produced in of sir essay, the 80% concentration, 64cm 3 . Outline. Also I had to make sure I washed out the conical flask and beaker thoroughly with distilled water and addition I made sure they were also dried sufficiently. If I hadn’t I could have risked diluting the travels, solutions more and this would have affected the introduction for research, number of molecules of hydrogen peroxide present which in turn would have affected the number of collisions between enzyme and substrate molecules. For example, if there was still only 1cm 3 of water still remaining in the conical flask and beaker combined, then in essay about who inspires you, say the 80% concentration of hydrogen peroxide, the concentration would have been closer to for research, 79%. This can be shown by the simple calculation of 80 ? 101 x 100 = 79.2%. Essay Someone. Overall I believe that my data does reflect my hypothesis that “ as the concentration of hydrogen peroxide decreases that rate of introduction outline for research papers reaction will decrease consequently because there will be few collision between enzyme and substrate molecules due to a decreased number of molecules ”. This is animals essay, shown by outline papers my rate of reaction graph which shows that for the 100% concentration of hydrogen peroxide, the rate of travels john reaction was 8cm 3 second -1 , and the 90% concentration was only 7.4cm 3 second -1 . Outline Papers. My results also showed that the reaction will gradually slow and eventually stop because the enzyme will become the limiting factor. This is shown when oxygen stops being produces and the same results is recorded 5 times. Admission Job. So for example, I knew that the 100% concentration of hydrogen peroxide reaction was over outline for research papers, because I recorded 88cm 3 at least 5 times. However, I also believed that if I halved the concentration then the rate of justify the inclusion of literature review in a reaction (volume of introduction papers oxygen produced) would also be halved, and so the rate would be proportional to the concentration. This would show that the reaction is a first order reaction. Though in theory this should be the trend, my results did not show this pattern.
So, although my results did show a positive correlation, it doesn’t necessarily mean I have an accurate correlation, because my results do not follow specific trends. For example the effects of technology essay, final value at 50% was 37cm 3 whilst the volume of oxygen produced at for research papers, 100cm 3 was 77cm 3 which is not double 37. Travels Mandeville Essay. Again the final volume of oxygen produced at 30% was 27.3cm 3 , whilst the final value produced in the 60% concentration was 44.7cm 3 which also not double. As can be seen from the rate of reaction graph, the concentrations of outline papers 50%, 60%, 70%, 80% and 90% are relatively even, and would suggest that the line of best fit should be drawn where I have drawn the john mandeville essay, line of best fit (1). However this does not account for the fact that a concentration of 0% hydrogen peroxide produces 0cm 3 of oxygen.
If the line of best fit (1) is correct it would make this value an introduction papers anomaly, which clearly it is about someone you, not since it is the most accurate value on the graph. The line of best fit (2) therefore makes much more sense, because it is crosses through (0,0), and outline, also shows that the concentrations of of sir john mandeville essay 50%, 60%, 70%, 80% and for research, 90% are still quite even. Of Sir John. However, this presents a problem because this either suggests that the concentration of 100% is not accurate and for research, is an anomaly, or that the line of do my best fit should in fact be a curve of best fit. This presents me with a problem in the fact that I now have limitations because I did not test any of the concentrations below 50%, which would clearly define whether the graph should have a line or a curve of best fit. For Research Papers. Consequently I have decided to do further experiments with concentrations of 10% and about someone, 30% hydrogen peroxide. I will use exactly the same method as I did previously, and outline, since I still have some yeast left, I can still use the same batch of yeast.
I will then work out the gradient of the 2 concentrations and plot them on a rate of reaction graph along with the other concentrations. Do My. I will also repeat the 100% concentration of hydrogen peroxide, because I believe this was an outline anomalous result. Because it had a rate of reaction that was so much higher than the travels of sir, other values. Hopefully, with the new and repeated results I will be able to introduction papers, analyse my results further and therefore evaluate them with more evidence than I had previously. I will work out the gradient of these new results and plot them on a new rate of admission essay reaction graph.
This should tell me whether the reaction is indeed is a first order reaction, or if a curve of best fit is required. Now I have carried out the repeats and plotted the points on the rate of reaction graph I can see that the graph is in fact clearly linear. This means that the reaction a first order reaction, so the rate is proportional to the concentration. I believe that the data also shows strong positive correlation, and there are few outliers which show that my results are accurate. I have drawn a line of best fit to introduction outline for research, clearly illustrate this trend. The line of best fit also suggests values of concentrations which I have not investigated. I can find out what these values might be by drawing a line up and across from the line of best fit. About. So, for example the 40% concentration should have a curve gradient near to the value of for research 3 (shown by red line on the graph) Overall, the justify review in a project, there is a pattern showing a constant trend in introduction outline, that as the positive and negative of technology essay, concentration decreases the rate of reaction decreases too, and outline papers, that the overall volume of gas evolved also decreases. This is because at higher concentration there is more molecules of substrate , so more collision take place, resulting in more enzyme-substrate complexes being formed.
This is shown in the table with all the results I have gained. Apparatus error was one of the main factors in travels of sir mandeville, my experiment which I tried to keep at introduction for research papers, a minimal. Ozline Thesis. I did this by only using pipettes which have a very small apparatus error when compared to beakers. I also avoided using apparatus more than I had to when measuring amounts. The balance proved to be the biggest apparatus error and this would have been much bigger if I had used only 0.1g rather than 0.2g of yeast. Below is a summary of all the percentage errors.
50cm 3 pipette ± 0.01. 20cm 3 pipette ± 0.03. 10cm 3 pipette ± 0.02. Balance 0.01 ? 0.2 x 100 = 5% Making up concentrations. 100% using 2 x 50cm 3 pipettes: 0.01 ? 50 x 100 = 0.02% x 2. Introduction For Research. 90% using 1 x 50cm 3 pipette, 0.01 ? 50 x 100 = 0.02% 2 x 20cm 3 pipette: 0.03 ? 20 x 100 = 0.15% x 2 = 0.3% 1 x 20cm 3 pipette, 1 x 10cm 3 pipette 0.01 ? 50 x 100 = 0.02% 0.03 ? 20 x 100 = 0.15% 0.02 ? 10 x 100 = 0.10%
70% using 1 x 50cm 3 pipette, 0.01 ? 50 x 100 = 0.02% 1 x 20cm 3 pipette 0.03 ? 20 x 100 = 0.15% 60% using 1 x 50cm 3 pipette, 0.01 ? 50 x 100 = 0.02% 1 x 10cm 3 pipette 0.02 ? 10 x 100 = 0.02 % 50% using 1 x 50cm 3 pipette 0.01 ? 50 x 100 = 0.02% Total apparatus error for apparatus used for concentrations = 0.66% Total error for apparatus – 5.66% Considering the about who inspires, whole experiment, 5.66% is a relatively small apparatus error, and introduction outline for research, taking into account that the fact that the balance contributed to 5% of this error, the remaining error is minimal. Of Technology Essay. Remembering that a apparatus error on the balance is ±0.01, this would mean that the yeast could weigh 2.01g or 1.19g and this either increases or decreases the number of molecules present. I will talk about introduction outline this in my evaluation. for original and inspiring surf photography, articles and interviews with your favourite surfers. A grade GCSE chemistry coursework - Rates of reaction Decomposition of sodium thiosulphate. Oxygenate Your Body - Proper Regimen for Powerful Results. by Fairwitness 0. The Enzyme Catalase Activity at Different Conditions Lab Report. by positive and negative hyunchang 70.
Why is the study of for research basic chemistry essential to understanding human body systems ? by Liwayway Memije-Cruz 86. Classification of Insulating Materials. by OSBERT JOEL C 3. MemeMachine 4 months ago. Everybody knows that luno2012 has some of the ozline thesis, dopest fresh swag. I like memes tbh. Are you of insultings me. Papers. I am of here to the learn of biology not for the English. English of no importants to of becomings doctor.
Please shut off. This is the very good the piece of the work but i think the conclusion could be the john essay, better man so the marks could the be the highest. Nice hub with great information about introduction for research enzyme kinetics. Someone Who Inspires You. (Ignore the last question) What board gave the grade? What mark did this get? Thanks, this is introduction for research, great! full marks..nice! Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and respective owners. Other product and company names shown may be trademarks of their respective owners. HubPages ® is a registered Service Mark of HubPages, Inc. HubPages and Hubbers (authors) may earn revenue on about someone you, this page based on affiliate relationships and advertisements with partners including Amazon, Google, and others.
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essay on karma Concepts Compelled by the Modern Scientific Point of view. by Dr. Rudolf Steiner. FRANCESCO REDI, the Italian natural scientist, was considered a dangerous heretic by the leading scholars of the seventeenth century because he maintained that even the lowest animals originate through reproduction. He narrowly escaped the martyr-destiny of Giordano Bruno or Galileo. For the orthodox scientist of introduction for research papers, that time believed that worms, insects, and even fish could originate out of lifeless mud. Redi maintained that which today is generally acknowledged: that all living creatures have descended from living creatures. He committed the ozline thesis, sin of recognizing a truth two centuries before science found its “irrefutable” proof.
Since Pasteur has carried out his investigations, there can be no longer any doubt about the fact that those cases were merely illusion in which people believed that living creatures could come into existence out of lifeless substances through “spontaneous generation”. The life germs entering such lifeless substances escaped observation. With proper means, Pasteur prevented the entrance of such germs into substances in which, ordinarily, small living creatures come into existence, and not even a trace of the living was formed. Thus it was demonstrated that the living springs only from the life germ. Redi had been completely correct.
Today, the spiritual scientist, the anthroposophist, finds himself in a situation similar to that of the Italian scientist. On the basis of his knowledge, he must maintain in regard to the soul what Redi maintained in regard to life. He must maintain that the soul nature can spring only from the soul. And if science advances in the direction it has taken since the seventeenth century, then the time will come when, out of its own nature, science will uphold this view. For — and this must be emphasized again and again — the attitude of thought which underlies the anthroposophical conception of today is no other than the one underlying the scientific dictum that insects, worms and fish originate from life germs and not from mud. The anthroposophical conception maintains the postulate: “Every soul originates out of the soul nature,” in the same sense and with the same significance in outline, which the scientist maintains: “Everything living originates out of the living.” (See Appendix (a)) Today's customs differ from those of the seventeenth century. Someone? The attitudes of mind underlying the customs have not changed particularly.
To be sure, in introduction for research papers, the seventeenth century, heretical views were persecuted by ozline thesis, means no longer considered human today. Today, spiritual scientists, anthroposophists, will not be threatened with burning at the stake: one is satisfied in rendering them harmless by branding them as visionaries and unclear thinkers. Current science designates them fools. The former execution through the inquisition has been replaced by modern, journalistic execution. The anthroposophists, however, remain steadfast; they console themselves in the consciousness that the for research papers, time will come when some Virchow will say: “There was a time — fortunately it is now superceded — when people believed that the positive effects of technology, soul comes into existence by itself if certain complicated chemical and physical processes take place within the skull. Today, for for research papers, every serious researcher this infantile conception must give way to the statement that everything pertaining to the soul springs from the soul .” One must by no means believe that spiritual science intends to prove its truths through natural science. It must be emphasized, however, that spiritual science has an and negative of technology essay attitude of introduction for research, mind similar to that of true natural science. The anthroposophist accomplishes in the sphere of the soul life what the nature researcher strives to attain in the domains perceptible to the eyes and audible to justify the inclusion of literature project the ears.
There can be no contradiction between genuine natural science and spiritual science. The anthroposophist demonstrates that the laws which he postulates for the soul life are correspondingly valid also for the external phenomena of nature. He does so because he knows that the human sense of knowledge can only outline for research feel satisfied if it perceives that harmony, and not discord, rules among the various phenomenal realms of existence. Today most human beings who strive at all for knowledge and truth are acquainted with certain natural-scientific conceptions. Such truths can be acquired, so to speak, with the greatest ease. The science sections of newspapers disclose to the educated and uneducated alike the laws according to which the perfect animals develop out of the imperfect, they disclose the profound relationship between man and the anthropoid ape, and do my job, smart magazine writers never tire of inculcating their readers with their conception of “spirit” in the age of the outline, “great Darwin.” They very seldom add that in Darwin's main treatise there is to be found the statement: “I hold that all organic beings that have ever lived on this earth have descended from one primordial form into which the creator breathed the breath of life .” ( Origin of Species , Vol. The Inclusion In A Research? II, chapter XV.) — In our age it is for research most important to show again and again that Anthroposophy does not treat the conceptions of “the breathing in of life” and of sir mandeville essay, the soul as lightly as Darwin and many a Darwinian, but that its truths do not contradict the for research papers, findings of true nature research. Anthroposophy does not wish to penetrate into the mysteries of spirit-life upon animals, the crutches of natural science of the present age, but it merely wishes to say: “Recognize the laws of the spiritual life and you will find these sublime laws verified in corresponding form if you descend to the domain in outline, which you can see with eyes and hear with ears.” Natural science of the ozline thesis, present age does not contradict spiritual science; on the contrary, it is itself elemental spiritual science. Only because Haeckel applied to the evolution of animal life the laws which the psychologists since ancient days have applied to the soul, did he achieve such beautiful results in the field of animal life. If he himself is introduction for research papers not of this conviction, it does not matter; he simply does not know the laws of the soul, nor is he acquainted with the research which can be carried on of literature review research project in the field of the soul. Introduction Outline For Research Papers? (see Note 1).
The significance of his findings in ozline thesis, his field is thereby not diminished. Great men have the faults of their virtues. Our task is to show that Haeckel in the field where he is competent is nothing but an anthroposophist . — By linking up with the natural-scientific knowledge of the present age, still another aid offers itself to the spiritual scientist. The objects of outer nature are, so to speak, to introduction for research papers be grasped by our hands. Essay About Someone Who Inspires? It is, therefore, easy to expound their laws. It is papers not difficult to realize that plants change when they are transplanted from one region into of sir mandeville essay another. Nor is it hard to visualize that a certain animal species loses its power of eyesight when it lives for a certain length of time in dark caves. By demonstrating the laws which are active in such processes, it is easy to lead over to the less manifest, less comprehensible laws which we encounter in the field of the soul life. Papers? — if the anthroposophist employs natural science as an aid, he merely does so in order to illustrate what he is saying.
He has to show that anthroposophic truths, with respective modifications, are to be found in positive of technology, the domain of introduction outline, natural science, and that natural science cannot be anything but elemental spiritual science; and he has to employ natural-scientific concepts in order to lead over to his concepts of do my essay job, a higher nature. The objection might be raised here that any inclination toward present-day natural-scientific conceptions might put spiritual science into an awkward position for outline papers, the simple reason that these conceptions themselves rest upon a completely uncertain foundation. It is travels john mandeville true: There are scientists who consider certain fundamental principles of introduction outline for research papers, Darwinism as irrefutable, and there are others who even today speak of ozline thesis, a “crisis in Darwinism.” The former consider the concepts of “the omnipotence of natural selection” and “the struggle for introduction, survival” to be a comprehensive explanation of the evolution of living creatures; the latter consider this “struggle for survival” to be one of the infantile complaints of modern science and speak of the “impotence of natural selection.” — If matters depended upon these specific, problematic questions, it were certainly better for the anthroposophist to pay no attention to essay them and to wait for a more propitious moment when an agreement with natural science might be achieved. But matters do not depend upon these problems. What is important, however, is a certain attitude, a mode of thought within natural-scientific research in our age, certain definite great guiding lines, which are adhered to everywhere, even though the thoughts of various researchers and thinkers concerning specific questions diverge widely. Outline For Research? It is true: Ernst Haeckel's and Virchow's conceptions of the the inclusion of literature in a project, “genesis of man” diverge greatly. Introduction For Research Papers? But the anthroposophical thinker might consider himself fortunate if leading personalities were to think as clearly about certain comprehensive viewpoints concerning the soul life as these opponents think about that which they consider absolutely certain in spite of their disagreement. Neither the adherents of and negative essay, Haeckel nor those of Virchow search today for the origin of worms in lifeless mud; neither the former nor the latter doubt that “all living creatures originate from the living,” in outline for research papers, the sense designated above. — In psychology we have not yet advanced so far.
Clarity is completely lacking concerning a view point which might be compared with such scientific fundamental convictions. Whoever wishes to explain the shape and mode of life of a worm knows that he has to consider its ovum and ancestors; he knows the direction in which his research must proceed, although the ozline thesis, viewpoints may differ concerning other aspects of the question, or even the for research papers, statement may be made that the time is not yet ripe when definite thoughts may be formed concerning this or that point. About You? — Where, in psychology, is outline for research papers there to be found a similar clarity? The fact that the and negative of technology essay, soul (see Appendix (b)) has spiritual qualities, just as the outline, worm has physical ones, does not cause the researcher to approach — as he should — the essay, one fact with the same attitude of mind as he approaches the other. To be sure, our age is under the influence of introduction outline for research papers, thought habits which prevent innumerable people, occupied with these problems, from travels entering at all properly upon introduction outline papers, such demands. — True, it will be admitted that the animals experimentation, soul qualities of a human being must originate somewhere just as do the physical ones. The reasons are being sought for for research, the fact that the souls of a group of children are so different from one another, although the children all grew up and were educated under identical circumstances; that even twins differ from essay one another in essential characteristics, although they always lived at the same place and for research papers, under the care of the same nurse. The case of the Siamese Twins is positive of technology essay quoted, whose final years of life were, allegedly, spent in introduction outline papers, great discomfort in consequence of their opposite sympathies concerning the North-American Civil War. We do not deny that careful thought and observation have been directed upon such phenomena and that remarkable studies have been made and results achieved. But the fact remains that these efforts concerning the soul life are on a par with the efforts of a scientist who maintains that living creatures originate from lifeless mud. In order to explain the lower psychic qualities, we are undoubtedly justified in pointing to the physical forebears and in speaking of heredity, just as we do in the case of bodily traits. But we deliberately close our eyes to the most important aspect of the matter if we proceed in the same direction with respect to the higher soul qualities, the actually spiritual in man. We have become accustomed to regard these higher soul qualities as a mere enhancement, as a higher degree of the experimentation essay, lower ones.
And we therefore believe that an papers explanation might satisfy us which follows the same lines as the of sir john essay, explanation offered for the soul qualities of the animal. It is not to be denied that the observation of certain soul functions of higher animals may easily lead to this mistaken conception. We only need draw attention to the fact that dogs show remarkable proof of a faithful memory; that horses, noticing the loss of a horse shoe, walk of their own accord to the blacksmith who has shod them before; that animals which are shut up in a room, can by themselves open the door; we might quote many more of these astonishing facts. Certainly, the anthroposophist, too, will not refrain from admitting the possibility of continued enhancement of animal faculties. But must we, for that reason, obliterate the difference between the lower soul traits which man shares with the animal, and the higher spiritual qualities which man alone possesses? This can only be done by introduction for research, someone who is completely blinded by the dogmatic prejudice of a “science” which wishes to stick fast to the facts of the coarse, physical senses. The Inclusion Of Literature Review Research? Simply consider what is for research papers established by indisputable observation, namely, that animals, even the highest-developed ones, cannot count and therefore are unable to learn arithmetic. The fact that the human being is distinguished from the animal by his ability to essay you count was considered a significant insight even in ancient schools of outline, wisdom. — Counting is the simplest, the most insignificant of the higher soul faculties.
For that very reason we cite it here, because it indicates the point where the animal-soul element passes over into the spirit-soul element, into about you the higher human element. Of course, it is very easy to raise objections here also. Outline For Research Papers? First, one might say that we have not yet reached the end of the world and that we might one day succeed in what we have not yet been able to do, namely, to teach counting to essay intelligent animals. And secondly, one might point to introduction outline for research the fact that the brain has reached a higher stage of perfection in man than in the animal, and that herein lies the ozline thesis, reason for the human brain's higher degrees of soul activity. We may fully concur with the persons who raise these objections. For Research? Yet we are in the same position concerning those people who, in regard to the fact that all living creatures spring from the living, maintain over and over again that the worm is governed by the same chemical and physical laws that govern the mud, only in a more complicated manner. Nothing can be done for ozline thesis, a person who wishes to disclose the secrets of nature by means of trivialities and what is self-evident. There are people who consider the degree of insight they have attained to be the for research papers, most penetrating imaginable and to animals whom, therefore, it never occurs that there might be someone else able to raise the same trivial objections, did he not see their worthlessness. — No objection can be raised against outline, the conception that all higher processes in animals, the world are merely higher degrees of the lower processes to be found in introduction, the mud.
But just as it is impossible for ozline thesis, a person of insight today to maintain that the worm originates from the outline papers, mud, so is do my essay it impossible for a clear thinker to force the outline papers, spirit-soul nature into the same concept-pattern as that of the animal-soul nature. Experimentation? Just as we remain within the sphere of the living in outline papers, order to ozline thesis explain the descent of the living, so must we remain in the sphere of the soul-spirit nature in order to introduction for research understand the soul-spirit nature's origin. There are facts which may be observed everywhere and which are bypassed by countless people without their paying any attention to them. Then someone appears who, by becoming aware of one of these facts, discovers a fundamental and far-reaching truth. It is the inclusion of literature in a project reported that Galileo discovered the important law of the pendulum by observing a swinging chandelier in the cathedral of outline for research papers, Pisa. Up to that time, innumerable people had seen swinging church lamps without making this decisive observation. Do My Admission Essay Job? What matters in such cases is that we connect the right thoughts with the things we see. Now, there exists a fact which is quite generally accessible and which, when viewed in an appropriate manner, throws a clear light upon the character of the soul-spirit nature. This is the simple truth that every human being has a biography, but not the animal. To be sure, certain people will say: Is it not possible to write the life story of a cat or a dog?
The answer must be: Undoubtedly it is; but there is introduction papers also a kind of school exercise which requires the children to describe the fate of a pen. The important point here is that the biography has the same fundamental significance in justify the inclusion of literature research project, regard to the individual human being as the description of the species has in for research, regard to the animal. Just as I am interested in the description of the do my essay, lion-species in regard to the lion, so am I interested in the biography in regard to the individual human being. By describing their human species, I have not exhaustively described Schiller, Goethe, and Heine, as would be the case regarding the single lion once I have recognized it as a member of outline for research, its species. The individual human being is more than a member of his species. Experimentation Essay? Like the animal, he shares the outline papers, characteristics of his species with his physical forebears. But where these characteristics terminate, there begins for the human being his unique position, his task in the world. And where this begins, all possibility of an explanation according to the pattern of animal-physical heredity ceases.
I may trace back Schiller's nose and hair, perhaps even certain characteristics of his temperament, to corresponding traits in his ancestors, but never his genius. And naturally, this does not only hold good for Schiller. This also holds good for Mrs. Miller of Gotham. In her case also, if we are but willing, we shall find soul-spiritual characteristics which cannot be traced back to her parents and grand-parents in the same way we can trace the shape of her nose or the blue color of her eyes. Essay? It is outline papers true, Goethe has said that he had received from his father his figure and his serious conduct of life, and from his little mother his joyous nature and power of fantasy, and that, as a consequence, nothing original was to be found in the whole man. But in spite of this, nobody will try to trace back Goethe's gifts to father and animals experimentation essay, mother — and outline, be satisfied with it — in the same sense in which we trace back the form and manner of life of the lion to his forebears. — This is the direction in of sir john mandeville, which psychology must proceed if it wishes to parallel the natural-scientific postulate that “all living creatures originate from the living” with the corresponding postulate that “everything of the nature of the soul is to be explained by the soul-nature.” We intend to follow up this direction and show how the laws of reincarnation and for research papers, karma, seen from this point of view, are a natural-scientific necessity. It seems most peculiar that so many people pass by the question of the origin of the soul-nature simply because they fear that they might find themselves caught in an uncertain field of knowledge. They will be shown what the experimentation, great scientist Carl Gegenbaur (see Note 2) has said about Darwinism. Even if the direct assertions of Darwin may not be entirely correct, yet they have led to discoveries which without them would not have been made. Outline For Research? In a convincing manner Darwin has pointed to the evolution of one form of life out of another one, and this has stimulated the research into the relationships of such forms.
Even those who contest the errors of Darwinism ought to realize that this same Darwinism has brought clarity and certainty to the research into animal and plant evolution, thus throwing light into dark reaches of the working of mandeville essay, nature. Its errors will be overcome by itself. If it did not exist, we should not have its beneficial consequences. In regard to the spiritual life , the person who fears uncertainty concerning the anthroposophical conception ought to concede to it the same possibility; even though anthroposophical teachings were not completely correct, yet they would, out of their very nature, lead to the light concerning the riddles of the soul. Introduction Outline? To them, too, we shall owe clarity and certainty . Animals Experimentation Essay? And since they are concerned with our spiritual destiny, our human destination, our highest tasks, the for research papers, bringing about of this clarity and certainty ought to be the most significant concern of our life. Ozline Thesis? In this sphere, striving for knowledge is at the same time a moral necessity, an absolute moral duty. David Friedrich Strauss endeavored to furnish a kind of Bible for the “enlightened” human being in his book, Der alte und neue Glaube (Faith — Ancient and Modern) . “Modern faith” is to be based on introduction outline for research the revelations of natural science , and not on the revelations of “ancient faith” which, in the opinion of this apostle of positive and negative of technology essay, enlightenment, have been superceded. Papers? This new Bible has been written under the ozline thesis, impression of Darwinism by a personality who says to himself: Whoever, like myself, counts himself among the enlightened, has ceased, long before Darwin, to believe in “supernatural revelation” and its miracles. He has made it clear to introduction himself that in nature there hold sway necessary, immutable laws, and whatever miracles are reported in the Bible would be disturbances, interruptions of these laws; and there cannot be such disturbances and ozline thesis, interruptions. We know from the laws of nature that the dead cannot be reawakened to life: therefore, Jesus cannot have reawakened Lazarus. — However, — so this enlightened person continues — there was a gap in our explanation of papers, nature. We were able to understand how the phenomena of the lifeless may be explained through immutable laws of nature; but we were unable to john essay form a natural conception about the origin of the introduction outline for research papers, manifold species of plants and animals and of the human being himself.
To be sure, we believed that in animals experimentation essay, their case also we are concerned merely with necessary laws of nature; but we did not know their nature nor their mode of action. Try as we might, we were unable to raise reasonable objection to the statement of for research papers, Carl von Linné (see Note 3), the great nature-researcher of the the inclusion of literature review project, eighteenth century, that there exist as many “species in the animal and plant kingdom as were originally created in principle.” Were we not confronted here with as many miracles of creation as with species of plants and introduction outline for research, animals? Of what use was our conviction that God was unable to raise Lazarus through a supernatural interference with the natural order, through a miracle, when we had to assume the the inclusion in a research project, existence of such supernatural deeds in countless numbers. Then Darwin appeared and showed us that, through immutable laws of nature (natural selection and struggle for life), the plant and introduction papers, animal species come into existence just as do the lifeless phenomena. Our gap in essay, the explanation of nature was filled. Out of the mood which this conviction engendered in him, David Friedrich Strauss wrote down the following statement of his “ancient and modern belief”: “We philosophers and introduction, critical theologians spoke to no purpose in denying the existence of miracles; our authoritative decree faded away without effect because we were unable to prove their dispensability and give evidence of a nature force which could replace them in essay about someone you, the fields where up to now they were deemed most indispensable. Darwin has given proof of this nature force, this nature process, he has opened the door through which a fortunate posterity will cast the miracle into oblivion.
Everybody who knows what is connected with the for research, concept ‘miracle’ will praise him as one of the you, greatest benefactors of the human race.” These words express the mood of the victor. And all those who feel like Strauss may disclose the following view of the “modern faith”: Once upon a time, lifeless particles of matter have conglomerated through their inherent forces in introduction outline, such a way as to produce living matter. About Someone? This living matter developed, according to introduction necessary laws, into the simplest, most imperfect living creatures. These, according to similarly necessary laws, transformed themselves further into the worm, the fish, the snake, the marsupial, and finally into the ape. And since Huxley, the great English nature researcher, has demonstrated that human beings are more similar in their structure to the most highly developed apes than the essay someone who inspires, latter are to the lower apes, what then stands in the way of the assumption that the human being himself has, according to the same natural laws, developed from the higher apes?
And further, do we not find what we call higher human spiritual activity, what we call morals, in an imperfect condition already with the animal. May we doubt the fact that the animals — as their structure became more perfect, as it developed into the human form, merely on the basis of physical laws — likewise developed the introduction for research papers, indications of animals, intellect and morals to be found in them to the human stage? All this seems to be perfectly correct. Although everybody must admit that our knowledge of nature will not for a long time to come be in introduction outline, the position to conceive of how what has been described above takes place in detail, yet we shall discover more and more facts and laws; and thus the “modern faith” will gain more and firmer supports. Now it is a fact that the research and study of recent years have not furnished such solid supports for this belief; on the contrary, they have contributed greatly to discredit it. Do My Admission Job? Yet it holds sway in introduction for research, ever extending circles and is a great obstacle to every other conviction. There is no doubt that if David Friedrich Strauss and those of like mind are right, then all talk of higher spiritual laws of existence is an absurdity; the “modern faith” would have to be based solely on the foundations which these personalities assert are the result of the knowledge of nature. Yet, whoever with unprejudiced mind follows up the statements of these adherents of the “modern faith” is ozline thesis confronted by a peculiar fact.
And this fact presses upon introduction outline, us most irresistibly if we look at the thoughts of those people who have preserved some degree of impartiality in the face of the self-assured assertions of these orthodox pioneers of progress. For there are hidden corners in the creed of these modern believers. And if we uncover what exists in these corners, then the true findings of modern natural science shine forth in full brilliance, but the opinions of the modern believers concerning the human being begin to fade away. (See Appendix (c)) Let us throw light into a few of these corners. At the outset, let us keep to essay about someone who inspires you that personality who is the introduction outline, most significant and the most venerable of these modern believers. On page 804 of the essay, ninth edition of Haeckel's Natuerliche Schoepfungsgeschichte (Natural Genesis) we read: “The final result of a comparison of animals and man shows that between the most highly developed animal souls and the lowest human souls there exists only a small quantitative, but no qualitative difference; this difference is much smaller than the papers, difference between the lowest and do my, the highest human souls , or the difference between the introduction outline for research papers, highest and the lowest animal souls.” Now, what is the modern believer's attitude toward such a fact?
He announces: we must explain the difference between the lower and the higher animal souls as a consequence of necessary and immutable laws. Ozline Thesis? And we study these laws. We ask ourselves: how did it come about outline papers, that out of experimentation, animals with a lower soul have developed those with a higher soul? We look in nature for conditions through which the lower may develop into introduction the higher. Do My Admission? We then find, for example, that animals which have migrated to the caves of Kentucky become blind there.
It becomes clear to us that through the sojourn in the darkness the eyes have lost their function. In these eyes the introduction outline, physical and chemical processes no longer take place which were carried out during the justify of literature review in a research, act of seeing. The stream of nourishment which has formerly been used for introduction for research, this activity is now diverted to other organs. The animals change their shape. In this way, new animal species can arise out of existing ones if only the transformation which nature causes in about someone who inspires you, these species is sufficiently great and manifold. — What actually takes place here? Nature brings about changes in certain beings; and these changes later also appear in their descendants. We say: they are transmitted by heredity. Outline Papers? Thus the coming into existence of new animal and plant species is explained. The modern believers now continue happily in the direction of their explanation. Travels Of Sir Essay? The difference between the lowest human souls and the highest animal souls is not particularly great.
Therefore, certain life conditions in which the higher animal souls have been placed have brought about changes by means of which they became lower human souls. The miracle of the evolution of the human soul has been cast out of the temple of the introduction, “modern faith” into oblivion, to use an expression of and negative of technology, Strauss', and man has been classified among the animals according to “eternal, necessary” laws. Satisfied, the modern believer retires into introduction for research papers peaceful slumber; he does not wish to go further. Honest thinking must disturb his slumber. Animals? For this honest thinking must keep alive around his couch the spirits which he himself has evoked.
Let us consider more closely the above statement of Haeckel: “the difference (between higher animals and men) is much smaller than the difference between the lowest and the highest human souls.” If the modern believer admits this, may he then indulge in introduction for research papers, peaceful slumber as soon as he — according to his opinion — has explained the and negative effects, evolution of the lower men out of the highest animals? No, he must not do this, and if he does so nevertheless, then he denies the whole basis upon which he has founded his conviction . What would a modern believer reply to introduction outline for research another who were to say: I have demonstrated how fish have originated from lower living creatures. This suffices. I have shown that everything evolves — therefore the species higher than the fish will doubtless have developed like the fish. There is who inspires no doubt that the modern believer would reply: Your general thought of evolution is useless; you must be able to show how the mammals originate; for there is introduction outline a greater difference between mammals and of sir john mandeville essay, fish than between fish and those animals on a stage directly below them. — And what would have to be the consequence of the modern believer's real faithfulness to his creed? He would have to say: the difference between the higher and lower human souls is greater than the difference between these lower souls and outline for research papers, the animal souls on animals essay the stage directly below them; therefore I must admit that there are causes in the universe which effect changes in the lower human soul, transforming it in the same way as do the causes, demonstrated by me, which lead the introduction outline papers, lower animal form into the higher one. If I do not admit this, the species of human souls remain for me a miracle in of sir, regard to their origin, just as the various animal species remain a miracle to the one who does not believe in the transformation of introduction outline, living creatures through laws of nature.
And this is absolutely correct: the modern believers, who deem themselves so greatly enlightened because they believe they have “cast out” the miracle in the domain of the living, are believers in miracles, nay, even worshipers of the miracle in experimentation, the domain of the soul life . And only the following fact differentiates them from the believers in miracles, so greatly despised by them: these latter honestly avow their belief; the modern believers, however, have not the slightest inkling of the fact that they themselves have fallen prey to the darkest superstition. And now let us illumine another corner of the “modern belief.” In his Anthropology , Dr. Paul Topinard (see Note 4) has beautifully compiled the outline for research papers, findings of the modern theory of the origin of mandeville, man. Introduction Outline Papers? At the end of his book he briefly recapitulates the evolution of the higher animal forms in the various epochs of the earth according to Haeckel: “At the beginning of the earth period designated by geologists the Laurentian period, the essay, first nuclei of albumin were formed by a chance meeting of certain elements, i.e. carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, and nitrogen, under conditions probably only prevailing at that epoch. From them, through spontaneous generation, monads developed (the smallest, imperfect living creatures). These split and multiplied, rearranged themselves into organs, and finally, after a series of transformations which Haeckel estimates as nine, they bestowed life upon papers, certain vertebrae such as the amphioxus lanceolatus.” We may skip the description of the further animal species in the same direction and add here at once Topinard's concluding sentences: “In the twentieth earth epoch, we find the job, anthropoid ape approximately during the whole Miocene period; in the twenty-first, the man-ape which does not yet possess speech and a corresponding brain. In the twenty-second period, Man finally appears as we know him, at least in his less perfect forms .” And now, after having cited what is to be understood as the “natural-scientific basis of the modern belief,” Topinard, in a few words, makes a significant confession. Outline? He says: “ Here the classification comes to an abrupt halt. Ozline Thesis? Haeckel forgets the twenty-third degree in which the outline for research papers, brilliant Lamarck (see Note 5) and Newton (see Note 6) appear .” A corner in the creed of the modern believer is animals experimentation thereby exposed in which he points with the utmost clarity to facts, concerning which he denies his creed. He is unwilling to rise into introduction papers the human soul sphere with the concepts with which he tried to find his way in the other spheres of experimentation, nature. — Were he to do this, were he, with his attitude of mind acquired through the observation of external nature, to enter upon for research papers, the sphere which Topinard calls the twenty-third degree, then he would have to say to himself: just as I derive the higher animal species from the ozline thesis, lower through evolution, so do I derive the higher soul nature from the lower through evolution.
I cannot understand Newton's soul if I do not conceive of introduction for research papers, it as having sprung from a preceding soul being. And this soul being can never be looked for someone who inspires you, in the introduction, physical ancestors. Were I to look for it there, I would turn upside down the whole method of nature research. How could it ever occur to a scientist to admission show the evolution of for research papers, one animal species out of another if the latter, in regard to its physical makeup, were as dissimilar to the former as Newton, in regard to his soul , is to his forebears: One conceives of of sir mandeville essay, one animal species having proceeded from introduction outline for research a similar one which is merely one degree lower than itself. Therefore, Newton's soul must have sprung from a soul similar to it, but only one degree lower, psychically. Newton's soul nature is comprised in his biography. I recognize Newton by his biography just as I recognize a lion by the description of and negative effects essay, its species.
And I comprehend the species “lion” if I imagine that it has sprung from outline for research papers a species on a correspondingly lower stage. Justify Of Literature In A? Thus I comprehend what is comprised in Newton's biography if I conceive of introduction for research, it as having developed from the essay about someone who inspires, biography of a soul which resembles it, is related to it as soul . From this follows that Newton's soul existed already in another form, just as the species “lion” existed previously in a different form. For clear thought, there is no escape from outline for research papers this conception. Only because the modern believers do not have the you, courage to think their thoughts through to the end do they not arrive at this final conclusion. Through it, however, the outline for research papers, reappearance of the being who is comprised in the biography is ozline thesis secured. — Either we must abandon the whole natural-scientific theory of evolution, or we must admit that it must be extended to include the evolution of the soul. There are only two alternatives: either , every soul is created by a miracle , just as the introduction outline for research, animal species would have to be created by miracles if they have not developed one out of sir essay, of the other, or , the soul has developed and has previously existed in another form, just as the animal species has existed in another form. A few modern thinkers who have preserved some clarity and courage for logical thinking are a living proof of the above conclusion. Introduction? They are just as unable to familiarize themselves with the thought of soul evolution, so strange to you our age, as are the modern believers characterized above. But they at introduction outline for research, least possess the courage to confess the someone who inspires you, only other possible view, namely: the miracle of the creation of the soul . Thus, in the book on psychology by for research, Professor Johannes Rehmke (see Note 7), one of the best thinkers of our time, we may read the following: “The idea of creation . appears to us . to be the animals, only one suited to render comprehensible the mystery of the origin of the outline, soul.” Rehmke goes so far as to acknowledge the existence of a conscious Universal-Being who, “as the only condition for the origin of the ozline thesis, soul, would have to be called the creator of the soul .” Thus speaks a thinker who is unwilling to outline indulge in gentle spiritual slumber after having grasped the physical life processes, yet who is lacking the animals experimentation essay, capacity of acknowledging the idea that each individual soul has evolved out of its previous form of existence. Rehmke has the outline papers, courage to accept the miracle, since he is unable to have the courage to acknowledge the anthroposophical view of the reappearance of the soul, of reincarnation.
Thinkers in whom the natural-scientific striving begins to john be developed logically must of introduction, necessity arrive at this view. Thus, in the book, Neuchristentum und reale Religion (Neo-Christianity and Real Religion) , by justify the inclusion of literature review in a research, Julius Baumann (see Note 8), professor of philosophy at the University of Goettingen, we find the following (twenty-second) paragraph among the thirty-nine paragraphs of a Sketch of a Summary of Real-Scientific Religion : “Just as in introduction outline for research papers, inorganic nature the physical-chemical elements and forces do not disappear but only change their combinations, so is this also to be assumed, according to essay someone the real scientific method, in respect of the organic and organic-spiritual forces. Papers? The Human soul as formal unity, as connecting Ego, returns in new human bodies and is thus enabled to pass through all the stages of and negative effects, human evolution .” Whoever possesses the full courage for the natural-scientific avowal of faith of the present age must arrive at this conception. This, however, must not be misunderstood;we do not maintain that the more prominent thinkers among the modern believers are cowardly persons, in the ordinary sense of the outline for research, word. It needed courage, indescribable courage to experimentation essay carry to victory the natural-scientific view in face of the resisting forces of the nineteenth century. Introduction For Research Papers? (See Appendix (d)) But this courage must be distinguished from the higher one in regard to animals logical thinking.
Yet just those nature researchers of the present age who desire to erect a world conception out of the papers, findings of their domain are lacking such logical thinking. Essay? For, is it not a disgrace if we have to hear a sentence like the following, which was pronounced by the Breslau chemist Albert Ladenburg, in a lecture at a recent (1903) Conference of scientists: “Do we know anything about a substratum of the introduction for research papers, soul? I have no such knowledge.” After having made this confession, this same man continues: “What is your opinion concerning immortality? I believe that in regard to this question, more than in regard to any other, the wish is father to the thought, for I do not know a single scientifically proven fact which might serve as the travels mandeville, basis for introduction outline for research papers, the belief in immortality.” What would the learned gentleman say if we were confronted by a speaker who said: “I know nothing about chemical facts. I therefore deny the chemical laws, for I know not a single scientifically proven fact which might serve as the basis for these laws.” Certainly, the professor would reply: “What do we care about your ignorance of chemistry? First study chemistry, then do your talking!” Professor Ladenburg does not know anything about a substratum of the soul; he, therefore, should not bother the world with the findings of his ignorance. Just as the nature researcher, in order to understand certain animal forms, studies the animal forms out of which these former have evolved, so the psychologist, rooted in natural science, must, in order to understand a certain soul form, study the soul form out of which the of sir john mandeville, former has evolved. The skull form of higher animals is explained by scientists as having arisen out of the transformation of the lower animal skull. Therefore, everything belonging to a soul's biography ought to be explained by them through the biography of the soul out of which this soul concerned has evolved. The later conditions are the effects of former ones.
That is to say, the outline for research, later physical conditions are the effects of former physical conditions; likewise, the later soul conditions are the effects of former soul conditions. This is the content of the ozline thesis, Law of Karma which says: all my talents and deeds in my present life do not exist separately as a miracle, but they are connected as effect with the previous forms of existence of my soul and as cause with future ones. Those who, with open spiritual eyes, observe human life and do not know this comprehensive law, or do not wish to acknowledge it, are constantly confronted by riddles of life. Outline? Let us quote one example for many. It is contained in Maurice Maeterlinck's book Le Temple Enseveli (The Buried Temple) . Ozline Thesis? This is a book which speaks of these riddles, which appear to present-day thinkers in a distorted shape because they are not conversant with the introduction for research papers, great laws in spiritual life of cause and effect, of Karma.
Those who have fallen prey to the limited dogmas of the modern believers have no organ for the perception of such riddles. Maeterlinck puts [forth] one of these questions: “If I plunge into ozline thesis the water in zero weather in order to introduction outline for research papers save my fellow man, or if I fall into the water while trying to push him into it, the consequences of the do my admission, cold I catch will be exactly the same in both cases, and no power in heaven or earth beside myself or the man (if he is able to do so) will increase my suffering because I have committed a crime, or will relieve my pain because I performed a virtuous deed.” Certainly; the consequences in question here appear to an observation which limits itself to physical facts to be the same in both cases. Introduction Outline For Research? But may this observation, without further research, be considered complete ? Whoever asserts this holds, as a thinker, the same view point as a person who observes two boys being taught by two different teachers, and who observes nothing else in this activity but the fact that in both cases the teachers are occupied with the two boys for animals essay, the same number of hours and carry on the same studies. If he were to papers enter more deeply upon the facts, he would perhaps observe a great difference between the two cases, and he would consider it comprehensible that one boy grows up to travels essay be an inefficient man, while the introduction outline papers, other boy becomes an excellent and capable human being. About Someone? — And if the person who is willing to enter upon soul-spiritual connections were to observe the above consequences for the souls of the human beings in question, he would have to outline say to himself: what happens there cannot be considered as isolated facts. The consequences of a cold are soul experiences, and I must, if they are not to ozline thesis be deemed a miracle, view them as causes and effects in papers, the soul life. Essay? The consequences for the person who saves a life will spring from causes different from introduction outline for research those for the criminal; or they will, in the one or the other case, have different effects.
And if I cannot find these causes and effects in the present life of the people concerned, if all conditions are alike for this present life, then I must look for effects, the compensation in introduction for research papers, the past and the future life. Then I proceed exactly like the natural scientist in the field of external facts; he, too, explains the lack of eyes in animals living in dark caves by do my, previous experiences, and he presupposes that present-day experiences will have their effects in future formations of races and species.