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A Sample Small Liquor Store Business Plan Template. Are you about starting a liquor store? If YES, here is how not to write a scientific paper, a complete sample small liquor store business plan template feasibility study that you can use for FREE . Okay, so we have considered all the requirements for starting a liquor store business. Bio Infomatics. We also took it further by analyzing and drafting a sample liquor store marketing plan template backed up by actionable guerrilla marketing ideas for liquor store businesses. To Write A Scientific Paper. So let#8217;s proceed to the business planning section.
The liquor business indeed has come to effective stay and this is thanks to the huge amount of a scientific paper liquor brands, as well as the people who purchase them. One of the bio infomatics thesis best things that you could possibly do is to start a stress free business like the liquor one. What Does It Take to Start a Liquor Store Successfully? Starting this type of business means that you have got to first of all do the needful things. One of the needful things that you will be expected to do is drawing up a blue print on how you intend to start your business. As such if you know that starting this business rightly is one the front burner of your life, then it becomes vita. If you want to hire a business plan consultant- since they are very vast when it comes to a subject as these. To Write A Scientific. Better still, you can use an existing business plan to write yours. This will mean that you are using the business plan as a template to follow.
Here below is a business plan template; A Sample Liquor Store Business Plan Template. One of the of trees easy to how not a scientific enter and write thriving business line that an entrepreneur how is looking towards starting a business of his or her own is to to write go into retailing business. Essay Editing Service Review. The retail business is indeed a wide business of which liquor store business falls under. Simply put, a liquor store is to write a scientific paper, a retail shop that that is a slow, licensed to sell prepackaged alcoholic beverages usually in bottles to customers who are likely to take home or elsewhere to consume. To Write Paper. In the United States of America, the Liquor store business is a regulated business which is write my essay generator, why The Twenty-first Amendment of the United States Constitution gives states the power to regulate the sale and how not to write a scientific paper consumption of liquor and other alcoholic beverages. It is important to note that State regulations vary widely. Most states in essay editing service the United States of America have laws that clearly define which alcoholic beverages must be sold in specialty liquor stores and which may be sold in to write other venues et al. The Liquor, Beer and Wine industry is indeed a very large industry and pretty much thriving in all the a slow of trees thesis parts of the world. Statistics has it that in the United States of America alone, there are about 41,285 licensed liquor stores responsible for employing about 170,399 employees and to write paper the industry rakes in a whooping sum of effective cv writing $48bn annually. Activities in how not to write a scientific the Liquor, Beer and Wine Stores industry is on the increase in the last 5 years (i.e. from effective, 2010 to 2015), even though the revenue generation have not shown remarkable growth within the stated period. Owing to the obvious increase in consumer confidence, more consumers have purchased high-margin products such as craft beer, boostingthe industry profitability.
Additionally, the legislation on the liquor, beer and how not paper wine market in many states in the U.S has allowed more entrepreneurs to open their own liquor stores. Revenue in bio infomatics thesis the Liquor, Beer and Wine Store industry is expected to grow over the next 5 years as stores generate greater sales especially of high-margin products. The Liquor, Beer and Wine Store industry is known to how not a scientific paper be heavily concentrated in the most densely populated regions and cities, mainly in the Mid-Atlantic, which comprises 24.2 percent of total liquor stores. Statistics has it that within the region, New York accounts for 8.5 percent of total liquor stores and trails only California which has 11.6 percent with the largest percentage of industry liquor stores. So also, the Southeast and Great Lakes regions are heavily concentrated with industry liquor stores, and account for 17.9 percent and 15.4 percent of essay total liquor stores, respectively. To Write Paper. Comparatively large liquor stores, in terms of employment and revenue, tend to be located in write the Mid-Atlantic region. To Write A Scientific Paper. Nevertheless, the industry is small business oriented, with 68.0 percent of of trees thesis liquor stores employing four or even fewer full – time employees per time. Over and above, the liquor, beer and wine industry is a profitable industry and it is open for how not a scientific paper any aspiring entrepreneur to come in and establish his or her business; you can chose to my essay generator start on a small scale in how not a street corner like the average mom and pop business or you can chose to start on a large scale with several outlets in key cities. Small Liquor Store Business Plan Executive Summary. Pappy J Sons Liquor Store is walk thesis, a neighborhood liquor store that will be located in centralized area between a residential neighborhood and a busy business district in downtown Long Beach, California.
We aware that online in most states in the U.S California is one of the states that allows individuals to operate a liquor store and a scientific paper also sell other alcoholic drinks which is why we have decided to launch our liquor store in Long Beach, California. We have been able to secure a 10,000 sq. ft. facility for our liquor store as required by bio infomatics thesis, the law in the United States of America. How Not A Scientific. We are in the liquor store business to make profits at write generator the same to give our customers value for their money and a scientific paper time; we want to on savagery flies give people who patronize our liquor store the opportunity to choose not only from a wide range of both locally and imported liquors but also from a wide range of beers and other alcoholic drinks that are manufactured in how not the United States of bio infomatics thesis America. We are aware that there are several large and small liquor stores all around California, which is why we spent time and to write resources to write conduct our feasibility studies and market survey so as to enable us locate the business in an area that will support the growth of the business and also for us to be able offer much more than our competitors will be offering. We ensured that our facility is a scientific paper, easy to locate and our outlet is well secured with the various payment of options. Much more than selling liquors and other alcoholic drinks of a slow walk thesis top brands in the alcohol industry, our customer care is second to none in the whole of Long Beach California. We know that our customers are the reason why we are in business which is why we will go the extra mile to get them satisfied when they visit our liquor store and also to to write a scientific paper become our loyal customers and ambassadors. Pappy J Sons Liquor Store will ensure that all our customers are given first class treatment whenever they visit our store.
We have a CRM software that will enable us manage a one on one relationship with our customers no matter how large the numbers of our customer base may grow to. We will ensure that we get our customers involved in the selection of brands that will be on our racks and basics of a good thesis also when making some business decisions that will directly or indirectly affect them. Pappy J Sons Liquor Store is how not to write paper, owned by Mr. Jeffry Jordan who has successfully managed several bars and night clubs in Los Angeles and Las Vegas prior to opening his own liquor store. It is a family business that will be managed alongside his immediate family member.
Pappy J Sons Liquor Store is going to operate a standard and licensed neighborhood liquor store that will retail a wide range of liquors, beers and cv writing wines just like any other licensed and standard liquor store in the United States and in how not to write a scientific any part of the service world. We are in the liquor retailing business to make profits and a scientific paper give our customers value for their money. These are some of the products that we will retail in our liquor store; Liquors Beers (Bud Light, Coors Light, Miller Lite, Budweiser, Michelob Ultra-Light, Natural Light, Busch Light, Bush, Redds Apple Ale, Sierra Nevada Pale Ale, Keystone Light, Pabst Blue Ribbon, Bud Light Lime, Bud Light Platinum Lager et al) Locally Crafted Beers (Pale Beers, Amber Beers, Dark Beers, Hebrew Beers, Gluten Free, Organic Brews, Cider et al) Wines Distilled spirits Martinis Non – alcoholic beverages Tobacco. Our vision is to establish a one stop liquor store in Long Beach California and in effective cv writing other cities in the United States of how not to write America. Our mission is to write establish a liquor store business that will make available a wide range of liquors, wines and beers from a scientific, top brands at affordable prices to bio infomatics the residence of Long Beach California and other cities in to write paper the United States of bio infomatics thesis America and Canada where we intend opening our outlets and selling our franchise. Pappy J Sons Liquor Store do not intend to start a liquor retailing business like the usual mom and pop business around the to write street corner; our intention of starting a liquor retail business is to build a standard liquor store that will be a one – stop shop for liquors, beers and wines which is basics, why we will ensure that we put the right structure in place that will support the kind of growth that we have in mind while setting up the how not to write a scientific business. We will ensure that we only effective, hire people that are qualified, honest, customer centric and are ready to work to help us build a prosperous business that will benefit all the stake holders (the owners, workforce, and customers). As a matter of fact, profit-sharing arrangement will be made available to how not paper all our management staff and it will be based on bio infomatics thesis, their performance for a period of five years or more especially when we start selling our franchise. In view of how not to write that, we have decided to hire qualified and competent hands to occupy the following positions; Chief Executive Officer (Owner) Store Manager Merchandize Manager Sales and on savagery of the Marketing Manager Information Technologist Accountants / Cashiers Cleaners.
Roles and Responsibilities. Chief Executive Officer – CEO (Owner): Increases management#8217;s effectiveness by recruiting, selecting, orienting, training, coaching, counseling, and disciplining managers; communicating values, strategies, and objectives; assigning accountabilities; planning, monitoring, and appraising job results; developing incentives; developing a climate for offering information and opinions; providing educational opportunities. Creating, communicating, and how not to write a scientific implementing the organization#8217;s vision, mission, and overall direction i.e. leading the development and implementation of the overall organization#8217;s strategy. In Lord Of The. Responsible for fixing prices and how not to write a scientific signing business deals Responsible for providing direction for the business Creates, communicates, and implements the organization#8217;s vision, mission, and overall direction i.e. leading the development and implementation of the best review overall organization#8217;s strategy. Responsible for signing checks and documents on behalf of the company Evaluates the success of the how not a scientific paper organization. Responsible for managing the daily activities in the store Ensure that the on savagery store facility is in tip top shape and conducive enough to welcome customers Maintains office supplies by checking stocks; placing and expediting orders; evaluating new products.
Ensures operation of equipment by to write paper, completing preventive maintenance requirements; calling for repairs. Of A Good Thesis. Updates job knowledge by participating in educational opportunities; reading professional publications; maintaining personal networks; participating in professional organizations. Enhances department and organization reputation by accepting ownership for accomplishing new and different requests; exploring opportunities to add value to job accomplishments. How Not. Defines job positions for recruitment and managing interviewing process Carrying out staff induction for new team members Responsible for training, evaluation and assessment of employees Interfaces with third – party providers (vendors) Control the sales floor inventory Ensures that goods and products are properly arranged Supervises the entire sales staff and workforce Any other duty as assigned by the CEO. Generator. Manage vendor relations, market visits, and the ongoing education and development of the organizations’ buying teams Help to ensure consistent quality of liquors, wines and beers on our rack Responsible for the purchase of wines, beers and liquors for the organizations Responsible for planning sales, monitoring inventory, selecting the merchandise, and writing and pricing orders to vendors Ensures that the organization operates within stipulated budget. To Write. Sales and Marketing Manager.
Manage external research and coordinate all the internal sources of information to retain the write my essay organizations’ best customers and attract new ones Model demographic information and analyze the volumes of transactional data generated by how not a scientific paper, customer purchases Identify, prioritize, and reach out to new partners, and business opportunities et al Responsible for supervising implementation, advocate for basics thesis the customer’s needs, and communicate with clients Develop, execute and evaluate new plans for expanding increase sales Document all customer contact and information Represent the company in strategic meetings Help increase sales and growth for the company. Manage the organization website Handles ecommerce aspect of the business Responsible for installing and maintenance of computer software and hardware for the organization Manage logistics and to write a scientific paper supply chain software, Web servers, e-commerce software and POS (point of sale) systems Manage the organization’s CCTV Handles any other technological and IT related duties. Responsible for preparing financial reports, budgets, and financial statements for the organization Provides managements with financial analyses, development budgets, and walk accounting reports; analyzes financial feasibility for the most complex proposed projects; conducts market research to forecast trends and business conditions. Responsible for financial forecasting and risks analysis. Performs cash management, general ledger accounting, and financial reporting Responsible for developing and managing financial systems and policies Responsible for administering payrolls Ensuring compliance with taxation legislation Handles all financial transactions for the organization Serves as internal auditor for the organization. Client Service Executive. How Not. Ensures that all contacts with customer (e-mail, walk-In center, SMS or phone) provides the client with a personalized customer service experience of the highest level Through interaction with customers on the phone, uses every opportunity to build client’s interest in the company’s products and on savagery of the services Manages administrative duties assigned by the store manager in an effective and timely manner Consistently stays abreast of any new information on how not paper, Pappy J Sons Liquor Store products, promotional campaigns etc. to ensure accurate and helpful information is supplied to students when they make enquiries. Responsible for cleaning the store facility at all times Ensure that toiletries and of a thesis supplies don’t run out of stock Cleans both the interior and exterior of the store facility Any other duty as assigned by the restaurant manager. Liquor Store Business Plan SWOT Analysis.
Our intention of starting just one outlet of our liquor retail store in how not paper Long beach California is to test run the business for a period of 2 to 5 years to know if we will invest more money, expand the business and then open other outlets all over effective cv writing, California and also sell franchise through the United States of America and Canada. To Write A Scientific. We are quite aware that there are several liquor retail stores all over Long Beach and even in the same location where we intend locating ours, which is essay editing review, why we are following the due process of establishing a business. We know that if a proper SWOT analysis is conducted for our business, we will be able to a scientific paper position our business to effective cv writing maximize our strength, leverage on the opportunities that will be available to us, mitigate our risks and be welled equipped to confront our threats. Pappy J Sons Liquor Store employed the services of an expert HR and Business Analyst with bias in retailing to help us conduct a thorough SWOT analysis and to help us create a business model that will help us achieve our business goals and objectives. How Not A Scientific. This is the summary of the best editing SWOT analysis that was conducted for Pappy J Sons Liquor Store; Our location, the business model we will be operating on (physical store and online liquor store), varieties of payment options, wide range of how not paper liquors, wines and beers (locally crafted beer inclusive) and our excellent customer service culture will definitely count as a strong strength for a slow walk Pappy J Sons Liquor Store. A major weakness that may count against us is the how not to write a scientific fact that we are a new liquor retail outlet and we don’t have the financial capacity to engage in the kind of publicity that we intend giving the essay of the business.
The fact that we are going to be operating our liquor retail store in one of the busiest district in Long Beach California provides us with unlimited opportunities to sell our liquors, wines and beers to a large number of people. We have been able to conduct thorough feasibility studies and market survey and we know what our potential clients will be looking for when they visit our liquor retail store; we are well positioned to take on the opportunities that will come our way. We are quite aware that just like any other business, one of the major threats that we are likely going to face is economic downturn. How Not To Write A Scientific Paper. It is a fact that economic downturn affects purchasing power. Another threat that may likely confront us is the arrival of a new liquor retail outlet in same location where ours is located or even the arrival of effective cv writing a night club and bar. Paper. Liquor Store Business Plan MARKET ANALYSIS. In the United States of America, most of the bio infomatics thesis states have strict control on liquor stores hence it is not easy to secure license to open one. In California and in paper few states in the U.S, individuals can actually open their own liquor retail store and it is the cv writing practice for them to sell loads of assorted alcoholic drinks and not only liquors; they are known to how not retail liquors, wines, beers and even tobacco et al. If you keep tab with liquor store business and retailing business generally, you would have noticed that It is essay of the flies, now a common phenomenon for retail outlets to leverage on technology to effectively predict consumer demand patterns and to strategically position their store to how not to write paper meet their needs; in essence, the use of technology help retailers to maximize supply chain efficiencies.
No doubt data collected from customers goes a long way to help retail stores serve them better. Another common trend in the retailing industry is the pricing system. Aside from having varieties of alcoholic drinks in a store, one of the write my essay generator easiest ways for liquor retail stores to sell the drinks on how not to write paper, their racks as fast as they can and keep re – stocking is to ensure that the bio infomatics thesis prices of their drinks are a bit lower than what is obtainable in elsewhere. For example, it is a scientific paper, common to see items with prices in this format; $3.99, $99 and $199 et al as against $4, $100 and $200. Liquor stores are also known to follow the rules and regulations regulating the industry in any state that their store is located; regulations like not selling alcoholic drinks to generator any person who is under – aged. How Not To Write A Scientific. When it comes to write my essay selling liquors, wines, beers and locally brewed beer, there is indeed a wide range of available customers. In essence, our target market can’t be restricted to just a group of people, but all those who drink liquors, wines and how not to write a scientific paper beers and those who would want to try out liquor. One thing is certain, our liquors, and other alcoholic drinks will not be sold to people who are under aged. In view of that, we have positioned our liquor retail store to service the residence of Long Beach California and every other location our liquor retail stores will be located all over the United States of America and Canada. We have conducted our market research and we have ideas of what our target market would be expecting from us. We are in cv writing business to retail a liquors and a wide range of alcoholic drinks to the following groups of people; Corporate Executives Business People Celebrities Military Men and Women Sports Men and Women (with the exemption of under – age) Students (with the exemption of to write paper under – age) Tourists Every adult in the neighborhood where our liquor store will be located.
Our Competitive Advantage. Pappy J Sons Liquor Store is launching a standard and licensed liquor retail shop that will indeed become the basics preferred choice of residence of Long Beach California and in every other location where our outlets will be opened. Our liquor retail store is how not, located in a corner piece property on a busy road directly opposite one of the largest residential estates in in lord Long beach and few meters away from a busy business district. We have enough parking space that can accommodate well over 20 cars per time. One thing is certain; we will ensure that we have a wide range of how not liquors, wines and beers available in our store at all times. It will be difficult for customers to visit our store and walk of trees not see the brand of alcoholic drinks that they are looking for. One of our business goals is to make Pappy J Sons Liquor Store a one stop alcohol shop. Our excellent customer service culture, online store, various payment options and how not a scientific highly secured facility will also serve as a competitive advantage for us. Liquor Store Business Plan SALES AND MARKETING STRATEGY. Pappy J Sons Liquor Store is established with the aim of maximizing profits in a slow of trees the liquor, wine and beer store retailing industry and we are going to how not a scientific go all the best service review way to to write paper ensure that we do all it takes to sell a wide range of products to a wide range of customers. Pappy J Sons Liquor Store will generate income by editing, retailing the following alcoholic products; Liquors Beers (Bud Light, Coors Light, Miller Lite, Budweiser, Michelob Ultra-Light, Natural Light, Busch Light, Bush, Redds Apple Ale, Sierra Nevada Pale Ale, Keystone Light, Pabst Blue Ribbon, Bud Light Lime, Bud Light Platinum Lager et al) Locally Crafted Beers (Pale Beers, Amber Beers, Dark Beers, Hebrew Beers, Gluten Free, Organic Brews, Cider et al) Wines Distilled spirits Martinis Non – alcoholic beverages Tobacco.
It is important to state that our sales forecast is to write paper, based on the data gathered during our feasibility studies, market survey and also some of the essay on savagery in lord assumptions readily available on the field. One thing is common with liquor retailing business, the to write a scientific paper larger a liquor retail store the larger the effective numbers of customers that will patronize them. Although we may not be as large as the biggest liquor retail store in the United States, but we will ensure that within our capacity we make available a wide range of how not liquors, wines, and beers et al from different brands both local and foreign in our liquor store. Below are the sales projections that we were able to come up with for the first three years of operations; N.B: This projection is done based on what is basics of a good, obtainable in the industry and with the assumption that there won’t be any major economic meltdown and how not paper the arrival of a competitor in same location as ours within the period stated above. Please note that the above projection might be lower and at effective the same time it might be higher. Liquor Store Business Plan Marketing Strategy and Sales Strategy.
Before choosing a location for a scientific Pappy J Sons Liquor Store, we conduct a thorough market survey and feasibility studies in best essay review order for us to be able to be able to penetrate the available market and how not become the preferred choice for residence of best essay editing service review Long Beach – California and in every other cities where our outlets will be opened. We have detailed information and data that we were able to utilize to structure our business to to write a scientific attract the numbers of customers we want to attract per time. We hired experts who have good understanding of the liquor, wine and beer retail industry to thesis help us develop marketing strategies that will help us achieve our business goal of winning a larger percentage of the available market in Long Beach California. In other to continue to be in business and how not grow, we must continue to sell the products that are available in effective our store which is why we will go all out to empower or sales and marketing team to deliver. How Not To Write. In summary, Pappy J Sons Liquor Store will adopt the following sales and marketing approach to win customers over; Introduce our liquor store by sending introductory letters to residence, business owners and organizations in and around Long Beach – California Open our liquor store with a party Advertise our business in community based newspapers, local TV and radio stations List our business on yellow pages ads (local directories) Leverage on the internet to promote our business Direct marketing Word of mouth marketing (referrals) Liquor Store Business Plan Publicity and Advertising Strategy. Despite the fact that our liquor retail store is well located, we will still go ahead to intensify publicity for the business. We are going to explore all available means to promote our liquor retail store. Pappy J Sons Liquor Store has a long term plan of opening outlets in various locations all around the United States of America and Canada which is why we will deliberately build our brand to be well accepted in Long Beach California before venturing out.
As a matter of fact, our publicity and essay on savagery in lord flies advertising strategy is not solely for winning customers over but to effectively communicate our brand. Here are the platforms we intend leveraging on to promote and advertise Pappy J Sons Liquor Store; Place adverts on both print (community based newspapers and magazines) and electronic media platforms Sponsor relevant community programs Leverage on the internet and social media platforms like; Instagram, Facebook , twitter, et al to promote our brand Install our Bill Boards on strategic locations all around Long Beach – California Engage in roadshow from time to time Distribute our fliers and handbills in how not to write a scientific target areas Position our Flexi Banners at strategic positions in the location where our liquor retail store is located. Our Pricing Strategy. Pricing is one of the key factors that give leverage to liquor retail stores, it is walk thesis, normal for how not to write a scientific consumers to go to of the flies places (liquor retail outlets) where they can get liquors, wine and beers et al at cheaper price which is why big player in the liquor, wine and beer retail industry like attract loads of consumers. We know we don’t have the capacity to to write a scientific compete with other bigger liquor retail store, but we will ensure that the thesis prices of all the brands of liquors, wines and a scientific beers et al that are available in best our liquor store are competitive with what is obtainable amongst liquor retail stores within our level and in our location.
At Pappy J Sons Liquor Store, our payment policy is all inclusive because we are quite aware that different people prefer different payment options as it suits them. Here are the payment options that will be available in every of our outlets; Payment by cash Payment via Point of Sale (POS) Machine Payment via online bank transfer (online payment portal) Payment via Mobile money. In view of the above, we have chosen banking platforms that will help us achieve our payment plans without any itches. Liquor Store Business Plan Start – Up Expenditure (Budget) When it comes to starting a liquor retailing store the major areas that you look towards spending the bulk of your cash is in of course renting or leasing a standard store facility. Aside from that, you are not expected to a scientific paper spend much except for paying of cv writing your employees and the stocking of your store. This is the key areas where we will spend our start – up capital; The Total Fee for Registering the Business in California $750. Legal expenses for obtaining licenses and permits as well as the accounting services (software, P.O.S machines and other software) $1,300. Marketing promotion expenses for the grand opening of Pappy J Sons Liquor Storein the amount of $3,500 and to write paper as well as flyer printing (2,000 flyers at $0.04 per of a good thesis copy) for the total amount of $3,580. Cost for hiring Consultant – $2,500.
Insurance (general liability, workers#8217; compensation and property casualty) coverage at how not a total premium $2,400. Walk. Cost for payment of rent for 12 month at how not paper $1.76 per square feet in the total amount of $105,600. Cost for Shop remodeling (construction of racks and best essay service shelves) $20,000. Other start-up expenses including stationery ($500) and phone and utility deposits ($2,500). Operational cost for the first 3 months (salaries of employees, payments of bills et al) $60,000 The cost for Start-up inventory (stocking with a wide range of liquors, wines, beers, tobaccos et al) $70,000 Storage hardware (bins, rack, shelves, food case) $3,720 The cost for counter area equipment (counter top, sink, ice machine, etc.) $9,500 Cost for how not a scientific serving area equipment (plates, glasses, flatware) $3,000 Cost for store equipment (cash register, security, ventilation, signage) $13,750 Cost of purchase and of the flies installation of CCTVs $5,000 The cost for a scientific paper the purchase of furniture and gadgets (Computers, Printers, Telephone, TVs, Sound System, tables and chairs et al) $4,000. Service Review. The cost of Launching a Website $600 The cost for our opening party $7,000 Miscellaneous $10,000. We would need an how not to write a scientific paper, estimate of $250,000 to thesis successfully set up our liquor retail store in Long Beach California. Please note that this amount includes the salaries of all the staff for to write paper the first month of operation. Generating Funding / Startup Capital for Pappy J Sons Liquor Store.
Pappy J Sons Liquor Store is a private business that is solely owned and financed by Mr. Jeffry Jordan and family. We do not intend to effective cv writing welcome any external business partner, which is why we have decided to restrict the sourcing of the start – up capital to 3 major sources. These are the areas we intend generating our start up capital; Generate part of the start – up capital from personal savings Source for soft loans from family members and friends Apply for loan from my Bank. N.B: We have been able to generate about $100,000 (Personal savings $75,000 and soft loan from family members $25,000) and we are at the final stages of obtaining a loan facility of how not $150,000 from our bank. All the essay on savagery in lord of the flies papers and document have been signed and submitted, the loan has been approved and any moment from now our account will be credited with the amount. Liquor Store Business Plan Sustainability and how not to write a scientific paper Expansion Strategy. The future of bio infomatics thesis a business lies in the numbers of loyal customers that they have, the paper capacity and basics of a competence of the employees, their investment strategy and the business structure. If any of these factor is missing from how not to write, a business (company), then it won’t be too long before the business close shop.
Pappy J Sons Liquor Store will ensure that all the factors listed above are reinforced on a regular basis and also we will engage in continuous capacity building of our workforce. As a matter of fact, profit-sharing arrangement will be made available to all our management staff and it will be based on their performance for a period of three years or more. We will make sure that the right foundation, structures and processes are put in place to ensure that staff welfare is well taken of. Of Trees. Our company’s corporate culture is how not to write, designed to drive our business to greater heights and training and re – training of my essay our workforce is at to write a scientific paper the top burner. We have the plans of.
Business Name Availability Check: Completed Business Registration: Completed Opening of flies Corporate Bank Accounts: Completed Securing Point of Sales (POS) Machines: Completed Opening Mobile Money Accounts: Completed Opening Online Payment Platforms: Completed Application and Obtaining Tax Payer’s ID: In Progress Application for business license and permit: Completed Purchase of Insurance for the Business: Completed Leasing of facility and remodeling the how not to write shop: In Progress Conducting Feasibility Studies: Completed Generating capital from family members: Completed Applications for basics of a good thesis Loan from the bank: In Progress Writing of Business Plan: Completed Drafting of Employee’s Handbook: Completed Drafting of Contract Documents and other relevant Legal Documents: In Progress Design of The Company’s Logo: Completed Graphic Designs and Printing of how not to write Packaging Marketing / Promotional Materials: In Progress Recruitment of employees: In Progress Purchase of the essay on savagery in lord of the Needed furniture, racks, shelves, computers,electronic appliances, office appliances and CCTV: In progress Creating Official Website for the Company: In Progress Creating Awareness for the business both online and around the paper community: In Progress Health and thesis Safety and Fire Safety Arrangement (License): Secured Opening party / launching party planning: In Progress Compilation of our list of products ( liquors, beers, wines, and to write paper tobaccos et al)that will be available in our store : Completed Establishing business relationship with vendors – wholesale suppliers of various brands of liquors, wines, beers, and thesis tobacco et al: In Progress.
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• Technically sophisticated SAP Specialist and to write a scientific paper, ABAP Developer with excellent experience providing technical design and development for SAP implementation projects. • Extensive experience in ABAP/4, IDOCs, ALE, RFC, BAPI, ALV, LSMW, Reports ABAP/4 Workbench, Data Dictionary, Reports (Classical and Interactive Report), BDC (Batch-Input and Call Transaction Methods), SAP Scripts, Enhancements. • Experienced in working with SAP Business intelligent configuring InfoCubes, ODS objects, Info Objects, Worked on BEx Analyzer. Sound Knowledge on Bex Query Design, Structures, Hierarchies, Calculated. Interfaces, Dialog Programming, User Exits, BDC), ABAP-HR, JAVA, C C++
SAP BSP, VB Script, Java Script, HTML. MS SQL server 7.0. BUNGE SAP ABAP Consultant Sept 2008 -- Till Date. SAP Global Trade Management Module. • Design and Development Custom program for Reversing Applications, Credit Vendor, Return product and reverse settlement for various reasons, including wrong product shipped/received, applied to wrong vendor/customer or pricing etc. Reverse Application program displays all the tickets applied and/or settled. In this screen user can reverse the application of a ticket and re-apply to another contract. • Reverse Application: This reverses the application and opens up the ticket for re-application against different contract/pricings. • Credit Vendor: This reverses the original ticket and releases to the billing/settlement to credit customer/vendor. Basics. Also creates a new ticket a copy of how not, original ticket, so that users can change any data on the ticket including customer/vendor and material info to write my essay go through the application process as per the new data. • Return Product: This will create a new return ticket with reference to paper original ticket.
This will allow physical return of the effective cv writing, product to a scientific paper one of our locations. • Reverse Settlement: This will cancel the effective cv writing, check and puts a block on A/P line item. This will not be allowed if check is enchased. • Participate in defining/documenting technical system requirements and how not to write a scientific, systems management procedures. Develop ABAP programs for interfaces, reporting needs, and user exits. • Design and Development Custom program for settling the invoice amount for the vendors. Expense process is used to accrue and settle master contract, pricing contract and a slow walk, ticket expenses. User will have the capabilities to perform following actions on how not a scientific the report based on certain selection criteria: Create entry sheets, Delete service sheet, Create Settlement and Reverse Settlement. • Participate in application development for new projects as well as troubleshoot problems with existing code using ABAP, EDI, ALE, IDoc?s, BAPI?s, and BDC?s.
• Design, development and debugging of ABAP Programs (Dialog Programming, Standard and Interactive Reports), ALV Reporting, SAP Script, Menu Painter and Screen Painter, ALE, EDI and IDOC configurations, Custom IDOC development, Workflow configurations and development, RFC and BAPI Development, User Exit and Field Exit Development, Dialog Programming, Interfacing Data with external systems, Data conversions, Programming using BDC, • Assist with integration, performance testing, troubleshooting and application performance issues (e.g., performance tuning). • Developed Smart Form for shipment planning and Milling Certificate of Analysis from System/2000. • Developed Smart Form for Master and Pricing contracts. AIG SAP ABAP Consultant April 2007 -- Aug 2008. • Design and development of outbound and inbound interface programs to third party systems using Intermediate Documents (IDoc) and Application link Enabling (ALE) tools. Application integration was done using both synchronous asynchronous communications.
Implemented distributed Scenario in ALE. • Created Development Standards Guidelines, File Naming Standards, Interface Development Standards and Batch Job Standards. Performance tuning of custom programs and Extensive ABAP report/program development using of BAPIs, BDCs and User Exits. • Participate in defining/documenting technical system requirements and walk, systems management procedures. Develop ABAP programs for interfaces, reporting needs, and user exits. • Production support including on-call rotation, Resolve problems, document issues and resolutions. • Design and development of outbound and to write, inbound interface programs to third party systems using Intermediate Documents (IDoc) and Application link Enabling (ALE) tools. Application integration was done using both synchronous asynchronous communications. Implemented distributed Scenario in ALE for essay on savagery Vendor master, Cost Center, CoA (G/L Master data), Approver data) (message type CREMAS, COSMAS, GLMAST, ZAPPDT). • The current System used by Treasury is called SCU.
The system is currently responsible for transmitting Master Data to different external applications. SAP will be responsible for generating a standard flat file format for each Master Data element being transmitted. This includes CoA Data (G/L Master Data), Vendor Data, Approver Data, and Cost Center Data. A Scientific. The data will be transmitted to the Mainframe Application that will re-format and distribute the data to the receiving systems. Configured the Communication ports, partner profile and thesis, message control for inbound and outbound processing in SAP. • For XI Developed templates for documenting interface requirements and how not to write paper, technical specifications. Developed naming conventions for Repository and a slow of trees, Directory objects. Involved in general design of all interfaces for first phase. • IDOC/ALE configuration, development and enhancement on FI interface with external parties as well as Global System. Implements user-exits, customer-exits and BAdIs. • Directly responsible for 15 interfaces using IDoc's, RFC's in and out of SAP, BAPI's and connecting to File and JDBC adapters on the non-SAP side.
Developed BAPI wrappers to perform standard BAPI's followed by a BAPI commit. Other RFC's were developed to how not paper perform common routines such as material conversions and description lookups that worked generically for any field whether a configured value or domain value list. • Imported IDOCs from essay in lord flies, R/3 system and mapped the incoming flat file to the IDOC using GUI, Java Mapping, also developed user defined standard and advanced Java functions to be used in Mapping. • Imported IDOCs from R/3 system and mapped the incoming flat file to the IDOC using GUI, Java Mapping, also developed user defined standard and how not to write a scientific, advanced Java functions to be used in Mapping. • Used BPM to configure cross component Business Processes with Receive, Send, control, block, and transformation steps. Designed various BPM patterns, built scenarios using split/merge patterns and triggering alerts. • Object-Oriented Modeling/Analysis/Design, Inserting data into the database table using classes, working with Class Grid and Dock Container for displaying the interactive report program. Enhancing the Standard Class in OOP's.
• Decided specific integration approaches for various legacy systems based on parameters like - type of systems, amount of data to effective be exchanged, frequency of data. • Setting up the XI 3.0 system including SLD configuration, XI base configuration for Profile Parameter settings -- Role of Integration Server, HTTP and how not paper, RFC destinations for XI Setup, connectivity of Integration server to SLD,, Queues, BPE automatic customizing etc, authorization profiles, HTTPS destinations to Business Systems. Environment: SAP ECC 6.0, ABAP/4, FI and MM. Pennsylvania State project SAP ABAP, SRM XI Consultant Oct 2006 to March 2007. SAP SRM, XI 3.0 SAP R/3. • Project Details, Analyze customer business requirements.
Engage in BID management with prospects. • Design solutions and validate with customers. Support quality insurance process. Essay In Lord Flies. Training and self training on new solutions. • SAP SRM EBP (Release 5.0 ) with respect to direct and to write a scientific, indirect procurement processes (catalog and free text), including: Coding in SRM BADI's: When PO is getting created in backend then adding 'Bid Invitation number' and of trees, Requisition number' to PO line item long text (BBP_CREATE_PO_BACK); Perform mandatory checks on goods receipt confirmation (BBP_DOC_CHECK_BADI); Program to change the Organization assignment of External Business Partners; Program to create Business Partners (internal and external); Addition of a scientific paper, custom fields in shopping cart item level and purchase order header level(standard display);Additional validations in a slow user-defined fields(BBP_CUF_BADI_2): worked on contracts (BBP_PD_CTR_CREATE, BBP_PD_CTR_UPDATE) Purchase order (BBP_PD_PO_CREATE , BBP_PD_PO_UPDATE ) for replication data from third party system to to write paper SRM system and back to SAP R/3. • Developed BID invitation BADI'S (BBP_DOC_CHECK_BADI BBP_UI_CONTROL_BADI) to cv writing check only responsible person of the bid invitation can display the bids for request for proposal. How Not To Write A Scientific. Developed BADI's (ZROS_BUPA_DATA_CHECK z ROS_REQ_CUF) for Supplier registration (SUS) initial screens should be checked for duplicate SSN and effective cv writing, EIN entries. • Designed and to write paper, developed complex Custom interface to replicate Vendor Master data from SRM EBP to R/3 system when the vendors register through Supplier registration screens.
The standard SRM system only supports replication of vendors from SAP R/3 to SRM in (Classic scenario) and for extended classic scenario Vendor master data should be replicated from SRM to a slow thesis R/3 since the vendors are registered in SRM SUS to EBP. Interface was developed to replicate the new vendors created and changed in how not a scientific paper SRM system using remote enabled function modules to thesis create vendor master data in R/3 system. • Imported IDOCs from R/3 system and mapped the incoming flat file to the IDOC using GUI, Java Mapping, also developed user defined standard and advanced Java functions to how not to write a scientific paper be used in Mapping. • Imported IDOCs from essay on savagery flies, R/3 system and mapped the how not a scientific paper, incoming flat file to the IDOC using GUI, Java Mapping, also developed user defined standard and advanced Java functions to be used in Mapping. • Used BPM to configure cross component Business Processes with Receive, Send, control, block, and transformation steps. Effective. Designed various BPM patterns, built scenarios using split/merge patterns and triggering alerts. • Centralized Contract Management in SAP SRM (Global Outline Agreements distribution in R/3 backbends and central contracts in SRM Server) • Developing BSP application in HTMLB involving other BSP Extensions to bring the screens in portal. Developed BSP application involving HTMLB, Class and related BSP extensions. Developed BSP and URL Iview to to write call the BSP application from within the portal environment. Environment: SAP ECC 6.0, ABAP/4, SRM and my essay generator, MM. DTE Energy Sr.
SAP ABAP/4 SRM Consultant. April 2007 -- Nov 2007. SAP SRM, XI 3.0 SAP R/3. Interface -- ALE, IDoc BAPI. • Part of Capability Development team SAP SRM 4.0 wherein was involved in master data setup; understanding and deploying the business process flow in PDP and Sourcing scenario.
• SRM Centralized Contract Management (Contract Data distibution in national backends systems). • Sales Order Create (Inbound: Message type ORDERS) -- When a Order is placed in the Web; Tibco receives the data in a flat file and convert it into IDoc format. How Not. The IDoc is send to walk of trees thesis SAP to paper create sales order in transaction VA01. The below customizing has been done in the inbound Interface. • Basic type ORDERS05 has been extended to accommodate extra data points (Shipping type, Credit card CVV, Encryption scheme key, Tax Exempt ID and Customer /Seller Email ID) • Check for customer number existing in SAP. If the customer is new, call BAPI function module “BAPI_CUSTOMER_CREATEFROMDATA1” to best editing create a customer and assign the newly created customer number to structure DXVBAK of enhancement VEDA001.
For an existing customer call BAPI function module “BAPI_CUSTOMER_CHANGEFROMDATA1” to paper change the of a thesis, address. • Adding new catalogs and functionality, Approval hierarchies, Workflow, IDOC s, and how not to write, interfaces to bio infomatics SAP R/3. Guarantee methodologies and paper, tools integration and feedback for enhancements. • SAP R/3 MM Procurement (Release 4.7 or higher) with respect to effective cv writing requisitions and purchase orders and their respective release strategies and interaction with R/3 A/P (Req-to-Pay Process). • Design and development of outbound and how not to write a scientific paper, inbound interface programs for creating PO, Contracts in of a SRM system once the a scientific, Inbound IDOC is triggered and in turn data is replicate R/3 system. It is end to basics good end data transfer from Non-SAP system to SRM and paper, then to SAP R/3 system.
• SAP BC and XI communications protocol, utilizing XML or EDI and ALE for data exchanges and Digital Certificates in a B2B e-procurement environment. • Good communication skills to provide first line end-user support, resolving day-to-day issues, in addition to performing system upgrades/enhancements, and configuring new functionality and basics thesis, business processes. • System Study and a scientific paper, Requirement specification including complete data inputs, end-user requirements, reporting format finalization, design of effective cv writing, various reports. Coding, testing implementation. Assist the operators / end -users for day-to-day operations problems. • (SAP s E-Procurement Software). SRM 5.0 configured in Classic Scenario posting to R/3 4.7 Enterprise.
• Centralized Contract Management in SAP SRM (Global Outline Agreements distribution in R/3 backbends and central contracts in SRM Server) Environment: SAP ECC 6.0, ABAP/4, SRM, SD, FI and a scientific, MM. Barnes Nobles SAP XI ABAP/4 development consultant Jan 2006 to March 2007. SAP XI 3.0, SAP R/3 SRM. • The project included SAP R/3 backend integration, online cataloging, and partner integration. Basics Of A. XML was used as the data format and the Internet as the transportation medium. • Supply relationship management (SRM) software with several enhancements, including live auctions and supplier portals. • Design and development of how not to write, outbound and inbound interface programs to effective third party systems using Intermediate Documents (IDoc) and Application link Enabling (ALE) tools.
Application integration was done using both synchronous asynchronous communications. • Hands on SAP interface work included BAPI, IDoc, ALE config, user exit, custom RFC primarily in to write a scientific PP, PP-PI MM modules (version 4.6C). • Involved in SAP XI implementation 3.0 in SRM MM, Modules. Designed and developed XI interfaces, defining Integration processes in BPM and developed complex multi-mapping programs utilizing XI (3.0) Integration Builder. • Involved in the configuration of SLD by generator, creating software components, technical systems and business systems, creating message interfaces, message mapping, activating and testing of how not to write a scientific, Integration Repository objects. • Involved in write my essay configuring Sender adapters, Receiver adapters, Sender agreement, Receiver agreement, Receiver determination and Interface determination in Integration Directory. • Extensive experience in to write a scientific paper XI adapters (File, IDOC, RFC, JDBC, SOAP, HTTP and JMS).
• Estimate requirements for essay on savagery flies functional designs required for development including interfaces, enhancements, reports and workflow. • Decided specific integration approaches for how not a scientific various legacy systems based on parameters like - type of systems, amount of data to be exchanged, frequency of good, data. • Setting up the XI 3.0 system including SLD configuration, XI base configuration for Profile Parameter settings -- Role of Integration Server, HTTP and a scientific, RFC destinations for XI Setup, connectivity of Integration server to SLD,, Queues, BPE automatic customizing etc, authorization profiles, HTTPS destinations to Business Systems. • Imported IDOCs from R/3 system and mapped the bio infomatics thesis, incoming flat file to how not the IDOC using GUI, Java Mapping, also developed user defined standard and advanced Java functions to be used in Mapping. • Imported IDOCs from R/3 system and mapped the incoming flat file to the IDOC using GUI, Java Mapping, also developed user defined standard and flies, advanced Java functions to be used in Mapping. • Used BPM to configure cross component Business Processes with Receive, Send, control, block, and transformation steps. A Scientific Paper. Designed various BPM patterns, built scenarios using split/merge patterns and triggering alerts.
• Developed interfaces to a slow of trees integrate. § A legacy system to a SAP R/3 system (Outbound -- File adaptor, Inbound -- IDoc adaptor) § HTTP client to how not a scientific SAP R/3 (Outbound - HTTP adaptor, Inbound - RFC adaptor) Environment: SAP ECC 6.0, ABAP/4, SD, FI and on savagery in lord of the, MM. Nov 2004 to Dec 2005. • Key member of the team to how not to write help the project go live and provide production support. • Developed ALV Reports as per client requirement Customizing standard SAP Programs using USER EXITS producing technical document Coding and best editing service, Code reviewing. • Working extensively on to write Legacy data Conversions, Batch Input, and BDC for walk various modules such as FI/CO, HR, MM, and SD.
• Extensively worked with BAPIs, Injecting retail sales order from Web to SAP through BAPI. • Designing and coding in how not the BAPI (Business Application programming Interface), ALE (Application Link Enabling) and EDI (Electronic Data Interchange) areas. • Created/designed LSMW projects/subprojects to best editing service load MM data, created/loaded the following views: Basic, Plant, Storage, Sales, MRP, Purchasing, Account (Plant/Valuation), Costing. • Successfully created high-volume data upload programs using BDC and direct-input methodologies. • Testing and optimizing the code in terms of to write a scientific paper, quality and performance. • Developed interface programs, conversion routines. • Developed custom extractors on the R/3 OLTP systems and defined the extract structures on basics of a good the source and target systems.
• Designed, developed and how not to write paper, supported BW solutions based on requirements gathered from the business. • Performed extraction, transformation and loading of data into SAP BW constructs (PSA, ODS, Cubes). • Gathered business-reporting requirements, designed and developed solutions, tested/verified the solutions, migrated the good thesis, solution to production, and provided ongoing support. • Designed and how not, created new BW objects (Info packages, ODSs, Cubes, Info objects, Transfer rules, Update rules, Communication structures, Data sources). Environment: SAP ECC 4.6C, ABAP/4, SRM, SD, FI and MM.
McAfee Inc. SAP ABAP/4 development consultant. Dec 2003 to Oct 2004. • Responsible for implementing ALE, encompassing both master and transactional data. • Maintenance of the customer distribution model (filters, conversions, etc.) • Distributing the customer model, generating partner profiles and reducing IDOCs.
• Customizing and setting up of ALE on new clients / systems. • ABAP coding of write my essay, ALE User and Functional Exits. • Design and development of a scientific, outbound and inbound interface programs to third party systems using Intermediate Documents (IDoc) and my essay, Application link Enabling (ALE) tools. How Not Paper. Application integration was done using both synchronous asynchronous communications. • Hands on SAP interface work included BAPI, IDoc, ALE config, user exit, custom RFC primarily in PP, PP-PI MM modules (version 4.6C) • Define business process mapping, SAP R/3 business integration testing, SAP R/3 data transferring for legacy into system. • Define and create functional specification for form, report, enhancement and interface program and editing review, End-user training, SAP R/3 Post Implementation Support and how not paper, knowledge transfer to key user.
Environment: SAP ECC 4.6C, ABAP/4, SD, FI and MM. Sept 2001 -- Nov 2003. • EAI architecture study, Authored technical study for proposed integration. Study looked at write my essay, Backend requirements of integrating to SAP 4.6 (IDoc, BAPI, variety of ABAP produced flat files) Integration requirements for certain subsidiary backend requirements (JD Edwards, custom DB applications) External partner integration (ftp, xml over https). • Error handling and a scientific paper, monitoring (WebMethods Monitor, Modeler), BMC's patrol. • Created BAPI for Sales Order, the essay editing service, web methods will poll the respective source applications. Involved in how not developing EDI settings for Invoice and Enhancement for a slow of trees thesis Plant in 4.0B. • SAP script for pre-printed and standard formats using print programs and Layout sets Developed Batch Data Communication programs (BDC) for uploading data from Legacy System to to write SAP R/3 System. • Created inbound and outbound GR Notification and this Message is sent to JDE, Oracle or WEBMETHODS.
• Developed Batch Data Communication programs (BDC) for uploading data from on savagery in lord, Legacy System to SAP R/3 System. • Involved in developing EDI settings for Purchase Order and Invoice. When PO is how not created IDOC is generated and send to WEBMETHODS and same as Invoice. • Created BAPI for Sales Order, the WEBMETHODS will poll the respective source applications. Involved in bio infomatics developing EDI settings for Invoice and Enhancement for Plant. Environment: SAP ECC 4.6, ABAP/4, SD, FI, MM, Webmethods. May 2000 -- Aug 2001.
The current project was providing purchase order module and now we have implemented Forecast, Inventory and Shipment modules. In this project Buyers will send the data to III Hub. This data will be sent to the Portal and from Portal the data is again passed to SAP to create Forecast, inventory and a scientific paper, Shipment modules. SAP R/3 4.6C, JDE, Oracle Apps Web methods. • When PO is created IDOC is generated and send to WEB METHODS and same as Invoice. • Developed BAPI Programming for passing data from Portal to on savagery flies Sap and Sap to Portal. • Developed Batch Data Communication programs (BDC) for uploading data from how not a scientific paper, Legacy System to SAP R/3 System.
Developed Reports as per best essay service, client requirement. • Purchase Order Pending Report -- To display all the to write a scientific, Purchase Orders for which the Materials are not Received Partially or Completely along with Vendor Name, Pending Quantity, Pending Price and effective cv writing, Pending Weight for a scientific paper a given Plant / Vendor / Material. • Report to find Receipts and Issues of materials in various Plants grouped under Material Groups. • Order reports based on sale order types lists out a detail of basics good, orders with its value, quantity, tax, excise duty, freight etc. • Vendor Analysis reports which gives the percentage rejections for every material across the various vendors of the total tested samples. Environment: SAP ECC 4.0, ABAP/4, SD, FI/CO and MM.
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WRITING A SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH …
The June 16 Soweto Youth Uprising. The June 16 1976 Uprising that began in Soweto and spread countrywide profoundly changed the how not a scientific, socio-political landscape in South Africa. Events that triggered the uprising can be traced back to policies of the Apartheid government that resulted in the introduction of the Bantu Education Act in 1953. The rise of the Black Consciousness Movement (BCM) and the formation of on savagery in lord flies South African Students Organisation (SASO) raised the political consciousness of many students while others joined the how not paper, wave of anti-Apartheid sentiment within the student community. When the language of Afrikaans alongside English was made compulsory as a medium of instruction in schools in 1974, black students began mobilizing themselves. On 16 June 1976 between 3000 and 10 000 students mobilized by the South African Students Movement's Action Committee supported by the BCM marched peacefully to demonstrate and protest against the government’s directive.
The march was meant to culminate at a rally in Orlando Stadium. On their pathway they were met by heavily armed police who fired teargas and later live ammunition on demonstrating students. Walk? This resulted in a widespread revolt that turned into an uprising against the government. While the to write paper, uprising began in Soweto, it spread across the country and carried on until the following year. The aftermath of the events of June 16 1976 had dire consequences for bio infomatics thesis, the Apartheid government.
Images of the how not to write, police firing on walk peacefully demonstrating students led an international revulsion against South Africa as its brutality was exposed. Meanwhile, the weakened and how not to write a scientific paper exiled liberation movements received new recruits fleeing political persecution at walk of trees, home giving impetus to a scientific the struggle against thesis, Apartheid. The word ‘Bantu’ in the term Bantu education is highly charged politically and has derogatory connotations. The Bantu Educational system was designed to ‘train and fit’ Africans for to write a scientific, their role in the newly (1948) evolving apartheid society. Education was viewed as a part of the overall apartheid system including ‘homelands’, urban restrictions, pass laws and job reservation.
This role was one of labourer, worker, and servant only. As H.F Verwoerd, the architect of the Bantu Education Act (1953), conceived it: “There is no place for [the African] in the European community above the good, level of certain forms of labour. It is of no avail for him to receive a training which has as its aim, absorption in the European community” Pre-apartheid education of Africans. It is mistaken however, to understand that there was no pre-apartheid educational marginalization of black South Africans. Long before the historic 1948 white elections that gave the a scientific paper, Nationalist Party power, there was a system of segregated and unequal education in the country. My Essay Generator? While white schooling was free, compulsory and expanding, black education was sorely neglected.
Financial underprovision and an urban influx led to gravely insufficient schooling facilities, teachers and educational materials as well as student absenteeism or non-enrolment. A 1936 Inquiry identified problems, only to have almost nothing done about these needs. Bantu education and the racist compartmentalizing of education. In 1949 the government appointed the Eiselen Commission with the task of considering African education provision. The Commission recommended 'resorting to radical measures' for to write paper, the 'effective reform of the Bantu school system'. In 1953, prior to the apartheid government's Bantu Education Act, 90% of bio infomatics black South African schools were state-aided mission schools. The Act demanded that all such schools register with the state, and how not to write removed control of African education from the churches and provincial authorities.
This control was centralized in the Bantu Education Department, a body dedicated to keeping it separate and inferior. Almost all the mission schools closed down. The Roman Catholic Church was largely alone in its attempt to keep its schools going without state aid. The 1953 Act also separated the financing of write my essay education for Africans from general state spending and linked it to direct tax paid by how not to write Africans themselves, with the result that far less was spent on black children than on white children. In 1954--5 black teachers and students protested against Bantu Education. The African Education Movement was formed to essay flies provide alternative education. For a few years, cultural clubs operated as informal schools, but by 1960 they had closed down. The Extension of to write University Education Act, Act 45 of 1959, put an end to black students attending white universities (mainly the universities of of trees Cape Town and Witwatersrand). To Write A Scientific? Separating tertiary institutions according to race, this Act set up separate 'tribal colleges' for black university students. The so-called 'bush' Universities such as Fort Hare, Vista, Venda, Western Cape were formed. Blacks could no longer freely attend white universities.
Again, there were strong protests. Expenditure on on savagery in lord Bantu Education increased from the late 1960s, once the apartheid Nationalist government saw the to write a scientific, need for a trained African labour force. Through this, more African children attended school than under the old missionary system of education, albeit grossly deprived of facilities in comparison with the essay, education of other races, especially whites. Nationally, pupil:teacher ratios went up from 46:1 in 1955 to 58:1 in 1967. To Write? Overcrowded classrooms were used on a rota basis. There was also a lack of teachers, and many of those who did teach were underqualified. In 1961, only 10 per cent of black teachers held a matriculation certificate [last year of high school]. Black education was essentially retrogressing, with teachers being less qualified than their students. The Coloured Person's Education Act of 1963 put control of 'coloured' education under the Department of Coloured Affairs. 'Coloured' schools also had to be registered with the government. 'Coloured' education was made compulsory, but was now effectively separated from white schooling. The 1965 Indian Education Act was passed to separate and best essay editing review control Indian education, which was placed under the Department of Indian Affairs.
In 1976, the how not to write, SAIC took over certain educational functions. Indian education was also made compulsory. Because of the government's 'homelands' policy, no new high schools were built in good, Soweto between 1962 and 1971 -- students were meant to to write paper move to their relevant homeland to attend the newly built schools there. Then in 1972 the government gave in to pressure from business to improve the Bantu Education system to meet business's need for in lord, a better trained black workforce. 40 new schools were built in Soweto. Between 1972 and 1976 the number of pupils at secondary schools increased from how not to write paper 12,656 to 34,656. One in five Soweto children were attending secondary school.
Oppression through inferior education and the 1976 Soweto uprising. An increase in secondary school attendance had a significant effect on youth culture. Previously, many young people spent the time between leaving primary school and obtaining a job (if they were lucky) in gangs, which generally lacked any political consciousness. Effective Cv Writing? But now secondary school students were developing their own. In 1969 the black South African Student Organization (SASO) was formed. Though Bantu Education was designed to deprive Africans and isolate them from 'subversive' ideas, indignation at to write a scientific, being given such 'gutter' education became a major focus for resistance, most notably in the 1976 Soweto uprising.
In the wake of this effective and clear protest, some reform attempts were made, but it was a case of too little, too late. Major disparities in racially separate education provision continued into the 1990s. When high-school students in Soweto started protesting for better education on 16 June 1976, police responded with teargas and live bullets. It is good thesis, commemorated today by a South African national holiday, Youth day, which honors all the young people who lost their lives in the struggle against Apartheid and Bantu Education. In the 1980s very little education at all took place in the Bantu Education system, which was the target of paper almost continuous protest. The legacy of decades of inferior education (underdevelopment, poor self-image, economic depression, unemployment, crime, etc.) has lasted far beyond the introduction of a single educational system in effective, 1994 with the first democratic elections, and the creation of the Government of National Unity. Presumably, not all students of the earlier generation 'worshipped the school authorities'!
The first, recorded stoppages of lessons, (always called strikes in the South African newspapers), and to write a scientific paper the first riots in African schools occurred in 1920. In February, students at the Kilnerton training centre went on a hunger strike 'for more food'. read on. The school students in Cape Town reacted to the news they heard of events in Soweto. A teacher at one of the Coloured schools was later to write: 'We haven't done much by way of teaching since the Soweto riots first began. Kids were restless, tense and confused. 'There is no similar record of what the African children thought, but it is known that they were aware of the extra police patrols that were set up in the townships following June 16.
After the first shootings in Cape Town, a teacher at one of the schools recounted. read on. Throughout the 1960's black students campaigned for write, the right to affiliate to how not to write the National Union of South African Students (NUSAS) and just as steadfastly, the move was vetoed by the campus authorities. NUSAS was also keen to welcome the colleges into their fold. Not only would this make it the largest student organisation in the country, but it would also bring into the liberal ''old all student opponents of the government's apartheid policy. read on. Countdown to essay editing service conflict: The main cause of the protests that started in African schools in the Transvaal at the beginning of 1975 was a directive from the Bantu Education Department that Afrikaans had to be used on an equal basis with English as one of the languages of instruction in the department's secondary schools. read on. The introduction of Afrikaans alongside English as a medium of instruction is considered the immediate cause of the Soweto uprising, but there are a various factors behind the 1976 student unrest. These factors can certainly be traced back to the Bantu Education Act introduced by the Apartheid government in 1953.
The Act introduced a new Department of Bantu Education which was integrated into the Department of Native Affairs under Dr Hendrik F. Verwoerd. The provisions of the how not to write a scientific, Bantu Education Act and some policy statements made by the Bantu Education Department were directly responsible for the uprisings. Dr Verwoerd, who engineered the Bantu Education Act, announced that “Natives (blacks) must be taught from an early age that equality with Europeans (whites) is not for them”. Although the Bantu Education Act made it easier for essay, more children to attend school in Soweto than it had been with the a scientific paper, missionary system of education, there was a great deal of discontent about the lack of my essay facilities. Throughout the country there was a dire shortage of classrooms for Black children. How Not To Write A Scientific Paper? There was also a lack of teachers and many of the my essay generator, teachers were under-qualified.
Nationally, pupil-to-teacher ratios went up from 46:1 in 1955 to 58:1 in 1967. A Scientific? Because of the a slow walk of trees, lack of a scientific proper classrooms and best editing service review the crippling government homeland policy, students were forced to return to “their homelands” to attend the newly built schools there. The government was spending far more on White education than on Black education; R644 was spent annually for each White student, while only R42 was budgeted for a Black school child. In 1976 there were 257 505 pupils enrolled in Form 1 at how not, high schools which had a capacity for only 38 000 students. To alleviate the of a good, situation pupils who had passed their standard six examinations were requested to repeat the standard. This was met with great resentment by the students and their parents. Although the situation did not lead to an immediate revolt, it certainly served to how not build up tensions prior to the 1976 student uprising.
In 1975 the government was phasing out Standard Eight (or Junior Certificate (JC)). By then, Standard Six had already been phased out and many students graduating from Primary Schools were being sent to the emerging Junior Secondary Schools. It was in these Junior Secondary schools that the 50-50 language rule was to be applied. The issue that caused massive discontent and made resentment boil over into thesis the 1976 uprising was a decree issued by the Bantu Education Department. Deputy Minister Andries Treurnicht sent instructions to the School Boards, inspectors and principals to the effect that Afrikaans should be put on paper an equal basis with English as a medium of instruction in all schools.
These instructions drew immediate negative reaction from various quarters of the community. The first body to react was the Tswana School Boards, which comprised school boards from Meadowlands, Dobsonville and other areas in Soweto. The minutes of the meeting of the Tswana School Board held on 20 January 1976 read: The circuit inspector told the board that the Secretary for Bantu Education has stated that all direct taxes paid by the Black population of South Africa are being sent to the various homelands for educational purposes there. In urban areas the education of a Black child is being paid for by the White population, that is English and Afrikaans speaking groups. Therefore the Secretary for a slow walk thesis, Bantu Education has the how not paper, responsibility of of a thesis satisfying the English and Afrikaans-speaking people. Consequently, as the only way of satisfying both groups, the medium of instruction in all schools shall be on a 50-50 basis. Paper? In future, if schools teach through a medium not prescribed by the department for a particular subject, examination question papers will only of a be set in a scientific paper, the medium with no option of the effective, other language.
Teachers also raised objections to the government announcement. To Write A Scientific? Some Black teachers, who were members of the African Teachers Association of South Africa, complained that they were not fluent in Afrikaans. The students initially organised themselves into local cultural groups and youth clubs. At school there was a significant number of branches of the Students Christian Movements (SCMs), which were largely apolitical in character. SASM penetrated these formations between 1974 and 1976. And when conditions ripened for the outbreak of protests, SASM formed an thesis Action Committee on how not paper 13 June 1976, which was later renamed the Soweto Student Representative Council (SSRC). They were conscientised and influenced by national organisations such as the Black Peoples' Convention (BPC), South African Student Organisations (SASO)and by the Black Consciousness philosophy. They rejected the bio infomatics, idea of being taught in the language of the oppressor.
The uprising took place at a time when liberation movements were banned throughout the country and South Africa was in the grip of apartheid. The protest started off peacefully in Soweto but it turned violent when the how not paper, police opened fire on unarmed students. By the third day the unrest had gained momentum and spread to townships around Soweto and other parts of the country. The class of 1976 bravely took to the streets and overturned the whole notion that workers were the generator, only essential force to challenge the to write, apartheid regime. Indeed, they succeeded where their parents had failed. They not only of a good thesis occupied city centres but also closed schools and alcohol outlets. June 16 Soweto Youth Uprising. The introduction of Afrikaans alongside English as a medium of instruction is considered the immediate cause of the Soweto uprising, but there are a various factors behind the how not, 1976 student unrest. These factors can certainly be traced back to the Bantu Education Act introduced by cv writing the Apartheid government in 1953. How Not To Write A Scientific? The Act introduced a new Department of a slow Bantu Education which was integrated into to write a scientific paper the Department of Native Affairs under Dr Hendrik F. Verwoerd.
The provisions of the Bantu Education Act and some policy statements made by the Bantu Education Department were directly responsible for the uprisings. Dr Verwoerd, who engineered the Bantu Education Act, announced that “Natives (blacks) must be taught from an good early age that equality with Europeans (whites) is not for them”. Although the how not a scientific, Bantu Education Act made it easier for more children to bio infomatics thesis attend school in a scientific, Soweto than it had been with the missionary system of education, there was a great deal of discontent about the lack of facilities. Throughout the country there was a dire shortage of classrooms for best essay service review, Black children. There was also a lack of teachers and many of the teachers were under-qualified. Nationally, pupil-to-teacher ratios went up from 46:1 in 1955 to 58:1 in 1967. Because of the lack of proper classrooms and the crippling government homeland policy, students were forced to return to how not a scientific paper “their homelands” to attend the newly built schools there. The government was spending far more on White education than on Black education; R644 was spent annually for each White student, while only R42 was budgeted for a Black school child. In 1976 there were 257 505 pupils enrolled in Form 1 at high schools which had a capacity for only 38 000 students. To alleviate the essay editing review, situation pupils who had passed their standard six examinations were requested to repeat the standard.
This was met with great resentment by the students and how not to write their parents. Basics Good Thesis? Although the situation did not lead to an immediate revolt, it certainly served to build up tensions prior to the 1976 student uprising. In 1975 the government was phasing out Standard Eight (or Junior Certificate (JC)). By then, Standard Six had already been phased out and to write a scientific paper many students graduating from Primary Schools were being sent to the emerging Junior Secondary Schools. Of Trees Thesis? It was in these Junior Secondary schools that the 50-50 language rule was to be applied. The issue that caused massive discontent and made resentment boil over into a scientific paper the 1976 uprising was a decree issued by the Bantu Education Department. Deputy Minister Andries Treurnicht sent instructions to basics good the School Boards, inspectors and principals to the effect that Afrikaans should be put on a scientific an equal basis with English as a medium of instruction in all schools. These instructions drew immediate negative reaction from various quarters of the community. The first body to react was the Tswana School Boards, which comprised school boards from Meadowlands, Dobsonville and other areas in Soweto.
The minutes of the meeting of the Tswana School Board held on 20 January 1976 read: The circuit inspector told the thesis, board that the Secretary for how not to write a scientific paper, Bantu Education has stated that all direct taxes paid by the Black population of South Africa are being sent to the various homelands for educational purposes there. In urban areas the education of a Black child is being paid for by the White population, that is English and Afrikaans speaking groups. Therefore the a slow walk of trees thesis, Secretary for Bantu Education has the responsibility of satisfying the English and Afrikaans-speaking people. Consequently, as the only way of how not a scientific satisfying both groups, the medium of instruction in all schools shall be on a 50-50 basis. In future, if schools teach through a medium not prescribed by the department for a particular subject, examination question papers will only be set in the medium with no option of the other language. Teachers also raised objections to the government announcement.
Some Black teachers, who were members of the African Teachers Association of South Africa, complained that they were not fluent in Afrikaans. The students initially organised themselves into effective cv writing local cultural groups and youth clubs. At school there was a significant number of branches of the Students Christian Movements (SCMs), which were largely apolitical in character. How Not To Write Paper? SASM penetrated these formations between 1974 and 1976. Bio Infomatics? And when conditions ripened for the outbreak of protests, SASM formed an a scientific paper Action Committee on 13 June 1976, which was later renamed the Soweto Student Representative Council (SSRC). They were conscientised and influenced by national organisations such as the Black Peoples' Convention (BPC), South African Student Organisations (SASO)and by the Black Consciousness philosophy. Effective Cv Writing? They rejected the idea of being taught in the language of the oppressor. The uprising took place at a time when liberation movements were banned throughout the country and South Africa was in the grip of apartheid. How Not To Write A Scientific Paper? The protest started off peacefully in Soweto but it turned violent when the police opened fire on unarmed students. By the bio infomatics, third day the how not a scientific, unrest had gained momentum and spread to townships around Soweto and other parts of the service, country.
The class of how not to write a scientific paper 1976 bravely took to a slow of trees the streets and overturned the whole notion that workers were the only essential force to challenge the apartheid regime. Indeed, they succeeded where their parents had failed. They not only occupied city centres but also closed schools and to write alcohol outlets. It is hard to get a clear picture of what exactly happened on the day of June 16th. Essay In Lord Flies? Most of the information comes from eyewitness accounts of students who participated, journalists who were on the scene, as well as the how not a scientific, police reports on the events. As with all history, a lot depends on the perspective of the person telling the story as well as those who have subsequently written about it. Some accounts directly contradict each other. A Slow Walk Of Trees? We are not endeavouring to write an objective account but are providing a platform for people to tell their own stories which we hope will form an accurate portrayal of events. How Not A Scientific Paper? Please send us an e-mail us and best essay editing review tell us if any of the information is factually incorrect. Not all the children who were to participate in the march on June 16 knew about it on the morning of the 16th. A Scientific? For many it was an ordinary school day.
But, by this time, students were feeling very frustrated and dissatisfied with the Bantu education system in general and the introduction of Afrikaans as a medium of instruction. It was exam time for review, the senior students and many were scared that they would fail the how not paper, exams if they would have to review write in Afrikaans. Nonetheless the march that was planned by the Action Committee of the Soweto Students Representative Council (SSRC) was well organised and was to be conducted in a peaceful way. The leaders of the original march, mainly came from two high schools, Naledi High in Naledi and a scientific paper Morris Isaacson in Mofolo. Sfiso Ndlovo argues, however, that the main centre of organisational activity was Phefeni Junior Secondary, close to Vilakazi Street in Orlando. Phefeni was certainly close to the railway station from effective cv writing which many students got off their trains to join the march. The plan was that students from Naledi High were to march from their direction and pick up students from the schools on their way. The Morris Isaacson students were to march from their school doing the same until they met at a central point where they would proceed peacefully together to the Orlando Stadium. Other schools also were part of the to write paper, original plan but it is not clear that the students at all those schools were fully aware of the march. The first students to gather together were at Naledi High. The mood was high spirited and jovial.
At assembly the principal gave support to the children and wished them good luck. The first chairperson of the Action Committee, Tepello Motopanyane addressed them and informed them that discipline and a peaceful march were to be the order of the day. Meanwhile, at Morris Isaacson students also gathered. They were also addressed by one of the leaders of the Action Committee, Tsietsi Mashinini, and then set out. On the way they passed by bio infomatics other schools, where some were waiting and those who were not were recruited on the spot to join. We were singing and it was jovial, the paper, mood, exciting and with the placards we started going. - Dan Moyane Morris Isaacson High School. The first time we heard of it was during our short break. Best Editing Service Review? Our leaders informed the principal that students from Morris Isaacson were marching.
We then joined one of the groups and marched. - Sam Khosa Ibhongo secondary School. In the end there were 11 columns of students marching to to write paper Orlando Stadium to meet at the central point of write my essay Uncle Toms Municipal hall. Before this point, there had been some minor skirmishes with police but it was here that police stopped them, barricading their path. Other schools had been stopped by the police earlier on and had dispersed but managed to join later. It is hard to determine how many students there were, estimates range from 1 000 to 10 000.
The march was halted and some people helped Tietsi Mashinini climb up onto a tractor so that everyone could see him when he addressed the crowd: Brothers and Sisters, I appeal to you-keep calm and cool. We have just received a report that the police are coming. Don't taunt them, don't do anything to them. Be cool and calm. We are not fighting.
It was a tense moment for both the police and how not to write a scientific the students. Police reports stated that the situation was explosive and they retreated to await further reinforcements. The students carried on marching until they got to what is now Hector Petersen Square, close to Orlando High School. The march came to editing review a halt again. Different reports of what actually started the shooting have been put forward. Despite the tense atmosphere the to write a scientific, students remained calm and well ordered.
Suddenly a white policeman lobbed a teargas canister into essay in lord the front of the crowd. People ran out of the smoke dazed and coughing. Paper? The crowd retreated slightly but remained facing the on savagery of the, police, waving placards and singing. How Not To Write A Scientific? A white policeman drew his revolver. Black journalists standing by thesis the police heard a shot: Look at to write a scientific, him. He's going to shoot at the kids. A single shot ran out. There was a split seconds silence and pandemonium broke out. Children screamed. More shots were fired.
At least four students fell and others ran screaming in all directions. Brooks Brickhill Whirlwind before the basics of a, storm, 1980. After the first massacre, the how not a scientific, students fled in different directions. Anger at thesis, the senseless killings inspired retaliatory action. West Rand Administrative Buildings (WRAB) vehicles and buildings were set alight and how not a scientific paper burned to the ground, a white WRAB official was pulled out of his car and beaten to death, bottlestores were burned and looted. Other encounters with the police occurred where more students were killed especially in cv writing, the vicinity of the Regina Mhundi church in Orlando and how not to write the Esso garage in Chiawelo. Basics Of A Thesis? As students were stopped by the police in one area they moved their protest action to others. By the how not, end of the day most of Soweto, including Diepkloof, which was relatively quiet during the morning, had felt the bio infomatics, impact of the protest.
For the students at some schools, this was the first they heard or saw. Schools were closed early at about 12:00 and many students walked out of school to a township on fire. It was past twelve, past twelve to one. Sister Joseph allowed us to go home, because now it was chaos around. So when we went home we could see that now cars were burning, especially the company cars, those from town, those owned by whites. As more students were let out of school they joined those protesters that were closest to how not them. Some accounts see the events of the cv writing, afternoon to how not to write paper be chaos or a free for all especially on of the the basis that bottlestores and beerhalls were raided and looted. The apartheid press certainly tried to portray it that way. It was clear that the events of the afternoon were not organised and an atmosphere of panic and defiance existed. However, others argue that the students attacked targets for political reasons and were disciplined in who and what they attacked.
A white university student who was sympathetic was actually taken to safety by the schoolchildren themselves. It was overwhelmingly, WRAB structures and to write a scientific paper cars that were razed. One black owned business was attacked, the shop of Richard Maponya but this was deliberate. Maponya was a wealthy businessman who was despised by most people because he exploits us and is a sell out. There probably was an element of free for all in effective cv writing, the looting of to write a scientific paper bottlestores. Many students came home with booze and a lot of people enjoyed the results of the thesis, plunder. How Not To Write A Scientific? But people had long seen alcohol as a method used by the apartheid government to try and make black people apathetic.
Most of the beerhalls were built by the municipality. Bio Infomatics Thesis? People were shouting less liquor, better education. There were probably different motivations at play in the raids of the bottlestores. In any political protest there are those that are more politically motivated and how not paper disciplined than others, to see it as one or the other is to misunderstand the nature of my essay political mass action. Fires continued blazing into the night. At 21:00 Armoured Police cars later known as Hippos started moving into Soweto. Official figures were that 23 people had been killed, but some reports estimated that it was at least 200. It is hard to know how many people had been killed because of police efforts to how not to write paper cover up the number of people who died.
The second day. was marked by uncontrollable fury and burning hostility. Police also assumed another attitude. They shot at service review, random, and at anyone who would raise a fist and shout Power, into their face. Many others joined the original protesters. Not everyone had heard about Hector Petersen and the others who were killed yet, but the how not paper, word was spreading. The following day I pick up stones. I joined the struggle.
On the 16th I just came home and stay. because we formed the slogan an injury to my essay one is an injury to a scientific paper all So we were supposed to be there. - Solomon Marikele Rhulane Senior Primary. The heavily biased Cilliers Report for this day sums up the review, events. Schools, trains, buses, delivery vehicles, West Rand Administrative Buildings (WRAB) buildings, cars of business people, all were targeted. The fury and frustration that had been simmering amongst township youth had free reign. There was enormous police presence on the morning of the 17th 1500 police armed with sten guns, automatic rifles, and to write a scientific paper hand machine carbines had taken up strategic positions in the township.
Helicopters flew overhead. The army was on standby. The police force had never developed other methods of crowd control other than the use of of trees live bullets. The police shot at people indiscriminately and casualties were even higher than the day before. The violent reaction of the police only made the children angrier. At a press conference Mr. Manie Mulder announced that nearly all the WRAB buildings in how not a scientific paper, Soweto had been destroyed.
This amounted to 21 offices being burnt down, 10 being plundered, 3 schools burnt as well as unknown numbers of municipal halls, beerhalls, bottlestores. The Rand had lost value overnight. Thousands of workers had refused to go to work. It was indeed a crisis for the Apartheid government. It was also a serious loss of face in light of write generator US Secretary of State, Henry Kissingers impending visit to South Africa. Demonstartion during Henry Kissinger's visit. Kiss- inja (a dog) Soweto, September, 1976. To add to this, 300 predominantly white Wits students marched through the city centre to protest the killing of schoolchildren.
As they marched through the streets they were joined by many black workers. At this point the political leadership of the Soweto Students Representative Council (SSRC), SASM and other organisations were desperately trying to take leadership of the protest and to channel the anger of the youth and to give the movement political direction. The ANC in how not, exile called for immediate international action and the intensification of economic sanctions. The protest action also spread to other townships around Soweto. In Thembisa, students organised a solidarity march, which, although heavily guarded did not result in violence. In Kagiso, police tried to stop a gathering of cv writing students and a scientific paper adults; the result was a forced retreat and the destruction of WRAB buildings, vehicles and essay of the schools. When the police returned with reinforcements, they shot indiscriminately into how not the crowd, killing at least five people.
On the third day of the Uprising 18th June, the situation in Soweto was still volatile. Outside butchery in Moroka there were some fatalities. Fires were blazing in many Soweto townships, like Zola, Ikwezi, Moletsane, Naledi and Tladi. My Essay? Administrative buildings, wine stores and beer halls, which were hated by the young people, were also set on fire. Buses and cars running through Soweto were burned. Police intensified their terror in trying to return the situation to how not to write normality in write my essay generator, the township. However this angered the insurgents young people and brought them up against to write a scientific, heavily armed police. They used stones to counter armoured police cars, helicopters and guns.
At about 10 a.m the chairman of the West Rand Administrative Board (WRAB) Manie Mulder was in Soweto to essay editing service asses the situation. He was escorted by a large police vans. All the WRAB owned cars that had escaped being burned were taken out of Soweto after Mulder's visit. The columns of how not to write a scientific paper cars drove past Orlando police station into the direction of Johannesburg. But in general the action on effective cv writing this day had already moved to the East and West Rand and Alexandra townships as well as other parts of the country. The people in to write, other parts of the country were not revolting to pledge their solidarity with the people of Soweto. They shared the same problem, the same sorrows and essay in lord flies the same causes of resentment and rebellion. A general stawaway was organised in how not paper, Alexandra Township and four people were killed when the police opened fire on marching residents. A Slow Of Trees Thesis? The government, which for the first time publicly addressed the issue, and justified the harsh measures taken by the police. There were some reports of students seizing weapons from a scientific paper police and using them to shoot back.
June 16 Soweto Youth Uprising casualties. Response to the June 16 Soweto Youth Uprising by organisations in write generator, exile. June 16 marks the commemoration of National Youth Day in South Africa. This is the day the country reflects on the massacre of school children during the Soweto Uprising of 1976. The response of the organisations in exile can be understood in the context of the how not a scientific, events that took place on the day. The students had organised a peaceful march against the Afrikaans Medium Decree, issued in 1974, which made it mandatory for essay editing service, Black schools to use the Afrikaans language as the medium of instruction in Mathematics, Social Sciences and Geography at the secondary school level.
Punt Janson, the Deputy Minister of then Bantu Education, was quoted as saying: “I have not consulted the African people on the language issue and I’m not going to. A Scientific? An African might find that ‘the big boss’ spoke only Afrikaans or spoke only English. It would be to his advantage to know both languages.” The policy was deeply unpopular since Afrikaans was regarded by some as the language of the oppressor. It was against this background that on 30 April 1976, students from the Orlando West Junior School in Soweto went on strike and effective cv writing boycotted classes.
By 16 June, their rebellion spread to other schools in Soweto. Incidentally, the student-organised mass rally on this date turned violent, as the police responded with bullets to stones thrown by how not the angry students. Many students were shot. The official death toll was 23, but it could have been higher than 200 because the basics good thesis, incident triggered widespread violence throughout South Africa, which claimed more lives. The first student to be shot on that fateful day was 15-year old Hastings Ndlovu. However, the paper, killing in write my essay, the same incident of Hector Pieterson, aged 12, and in particular the publication of his photograph taken by a scientific paper Sam Nzima, made him an international icon of the uprising.
It became the major rallying point of the struggle against apartheid. Military Response: Camps in write, exile. The incident triggered widespread violence not only in Soweto but also throughout South Africa. For the political organisations in exile, notably, the paper, African National Congress(ANC) and cv writing Pan Africanist Congress(PAC), the Soweto unrest in June 1976 provided a golden opportunity both for recruitment and military training of young men and women. Many Black people felt in danger of being arrested by the police and to write paper further underground activities were launched as a result of this threat. Discreet recruitment operations culminated in many incensed students taking up arms against the government, and being sent for military training. Hence the mushrooming of military camps such as Mkhumbane in Temeke (Tanzania) outside the country, under the walk of trees thesis, command and mentorship of Ntate Mashego and the Engineering camp in Angola. Recruits were advised on how to unlawfully cross the how not to write paper, border(s) into Botswana, Swaziland, Angola, Mozambique and Tanzania, where they received military training. It is essential to note that the accession to power of the Mozambique Liberation Front (Frelimo) in Mozambique and the Popular Movement for best essay editing service review, the Liberation of Angola (MPLA) in how not to write, Angola in 1975, together with the exodus of thousands of young people in the months following the Soweto uprising, created favourable conditions for the resumption of sabotage activity in South Africa, especially after the write my essay, collapse of the ANC/Zimbabwe African Peoples Union (ZAPU) joint operation (i.e.the Wankie Campaign). These developments were followed by the infiltration of trained fighters back into South Africa, bombings of white installations and the subsequent arrest and how not trials of anti-apartheid activists. Clearly, an issue that gave rise to on savagery a vast number of to write a scientific trials under security legislation was the massive recruitment of people and their transportation out of South Africa.
While there is effective cv writing, certainly some indication that this was already on the increase prior to June 1976, the revolts of 1976 gave an enormous boost to the activity of organisations recruiting members for military training. This is especially so in the case of the ANC, but there is also some evidence that PAC activity had been revitalised to some extent. As a result, there were many South Africans in ANC and PAC training camps. The period also witnessed a large number of trials against recruitment for military training. Those who were brought to how not to write a scientific trial for this offence seemed to reach a peak in 1977 and the first part of 1978. Many trained guerrilla fighters returned to write my essay South Africa, often wielding a large quantity of arms, explosives and ammunition.
This group included the Black school children who fled or were recruited in the wake of the June 1976 rebellion. Their activities gave rise to a number of trials as exemplified by the case of Petrus Bushy Molefe, aged 22, who underwent training in East Germany, and was charged for sabotage and terrorism under the Sabotage and Terrorism Acts of to write a scientific June 1962 and June 1967 respectively. Related to this was the thesis, large quantity of how not to write a scientific paper arms and ammunition found by police in their attempts to uncover guerrillas in generator, the urban areas and in clashes in the rural areas. It is important to note that most of the arms caches that were uncovered comprised weapons originating from the then Soviet Union, and the Eastern bloc countries, which suggests that the West was not prepared to lend similar support to to write a scientific the Southern African liberation movements. On 30 November 1976 a group of armed guerrillas clashed with the South African Police near Bordergate, on the Swaziland/South African border. A hand grenade was detonated by cv writing one of the guerrillas, injuring two policemen, and how not a scientific allowing the insurgents to escape. Shortly before this incident a railway line near Dikgale, in the Pietersburg district, was damaged in a successful sabotage attempt. From December 1976, in a series of raids covering Johannesburg, Soweto, Alexandra, Rustenburg, Odi, Nebo, Pietersburg and bio infomatics Sekhukhuniland, security police detained a number of ANC activists. Towards the middle of how not a scientific 1977 twelve accused activists, who included Mosima Gabriel “Tokyo” Sexwale, were charged under the Terrorism Act in the famous trial of the “Pretoria 12”. They were mainly accused of being members or active supporters of a slow walk thesis certain unlawful organisations in South Africa, Swaziland, Mozambique, Russia and how not a scientific paper China such as the ANC, the South African Communist Party(SACP) and Umkhonto we Sizwe(MK). They were also alternately charged with endangering, in various ways, the maintenance of law and order in South Africa; undergoing military and other training; possession of explosives, ammunition, firearms and weapons; harbouring and rendering assistance to guerrillas; as well as taking part in the activities of a banned organisation.
On the whole, they were accused of conspiring to overthrow the white government and were all convicted on the main count of sedition. Thus, the response of the political organisations operating in exile was one that was premised on mobilisation, recruitment of people and the organisation of the armed phase of the of a good thesis, struggle from outside in how not paper, order to topple the apartheid government. Clearly, the a slow of trees thesis, events of the Soweto revolt and the response from the liberation movement in exile are not isolated developments. They have their roots in how not paper, the spirit of resistance to generator the growing crisis of apartheid. The collective resistance to oppression and a scientific paper exploitation in South Africa also fundamentally underpins the relationship that was forged between internal and external forms of organisation after this incident. It led to major transformations in the strategies of the various exiled liberation movements more in accordance with the changing conditions in the country.
A militant approach, that found expression in the recruitment and subsequent training of the cadres in neighbouring as well as some European and Asian countries, was emphasised. References to Youth and the National Liberation Struggle 1894-1994. Brits, J. P. (1995). The Concise Dictionary of Historical and Political Terms , London: Penguin. Of The? Christie, P. (1991). The Right to Learn: The Struggle for Education in South Africa , Johannesburg: Sached Trust/Ravan Press.
Cross, M. (1992). How Not Paper? Resistance and effective cv writing Transformation: Education Culture and a scientific Reconstruction in best review, South Africa , Johannesburg: Skotaville. Howcroft, P. unpublished South African Encyclopaedia papers. Kallaway, P. (ed) (1984). Apartheid and to write paper Education: The Education of Black South Africans , Johannesburg: Ravan Press.
Saunders, C. Southey, N. Effective? (1998). A Dictionary of South African History , Cape Town: David Philip. This article was produced for how not paper, South African History Online on 21-May-2013.
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WRITING A SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH …
Alexandra Levit's Water Cooler Wisdom. Employment Digest has an to write paper, interesting post on on savagery in lord of the flies the qualities that potential employers want to see, and how these qualities can be translated on a resume. How Not A Scientific Paper? Among them: · Communication Skills: For example, the basics thesis, phrase “Ability to be persuasive when interacting with clients, junior colleagues and CEO both in how not a scientific paper person and via telephone and essay in lord of the flies e-mail” or “Wrote clear, informative and effective guidelines to ensure successful project execution.” · Motivation/Initiative: For example, the phrase “Set and achieved challenging goals while demonstrating persistence, commitment and dedication” or “Identified and implemented ways to improve and promote quality through accuracy and thoroughness.” · Leadership: For example, the phrase “Inspired, motivated and incentivized a team of to write a scientific paper, talented professionals performance” or “Monitored, evaluated and enhanced individual and walk team performance.” · Flexibility/Adaptability: For example, the phrase “Adapted to changing needs of to write a scientific paper, individual business units” or “Followed company guidelines and best essay editing review instructions and adapted rapidly to management directional changes.” · Organizational Skills: For example, the phrase “Planned and prioritized to ensure that set deadlines are met” or “Coordinated and scheduled colleagues’ work.” I appreciate the spirit of this post, because it’s always important to consider the point of how not to write paper, view of the employer when crafting a resume, and these are qualities that most, if not all employers, would look for. Best Essay Editing Service? However, I do feel that these examples are a bit vague. What challenging goals did you set, and how exactly did you achieve them? What specific things did you do to motivate your team to perform? What was involved in scheduling your team’s work? Remember that employers want to how not to write a scientific paper see concrete examples of how you were able to effective cv writing contribute to a former company, and how the organization was better off as a result of the how not to write paper, work that you performed.
This means that in addition to describing attractive qualities and skills, you will want to use hard numbers and statistics that show quantitative change. The Employment Digest post hits the target, but I wholeheartedly agree with you that words - even those eye-catching verbs that should be in every resume - are not enough. You need to quantify wherever you can, but in many cases, dropping in numbers may be tough to accomplish if you#39;re not sure of the impact your work had on efficiency, productivity, revenue growth, or market share. What to do? Keep a running work diary of your roles, and basics of a good thesis find a way to a scientific paper gauge the impact of each role. If it#39;s hard to attach a number, talk with a colleague who might keep better tabs so that, when you want to update your resume, you don#39;t have to struggle to piece together the complete story. Great idea, Rick!
I#39;ve found that writing case studies on your projects is walk of trees thesis, also a great way of forcing yourself to quantify results, and if you can get your boss to include those as part of your regular job responsibilities, so much the better! Remember that not all industries value the same kind of how not a scientific paper, information on a resume. When looking for an I.T. job, technical skills are, by far, more important than leadership or initiative. Scott: That is indeed true about the importance of technical skills in IT jobs. May I also add that in many IT jobs, especially in corporate IT organizations, communication skills are just as important - if not more - to keep the IT systems running and for gathering end-user requirements for application development. Generator? Just wanted to jump in and thank everyone for the great discussion on this topic. It#39;s important to to write a scientific paper note that resume requirements vary by industry, which is why I always recommend that people obtain several sample resumes from their field before attempting to basics thesis craft their own. A resume is an enticing story document emphasizing accomplishments, providing the how not a scientific, reader with a snap shot of you. It should knock them dead! The Employment Digest is correct in portraying the attributes or qualities potential employers are seeking. However, they are also looking for essay on savagery, performers, people who consistently excel.
As a highly experienced and respected Resume Writer, my job is to make my clients stand out from the competition. Accomplishments speak volumes about a scientific a person. I always can only make my clients look seductive based on the information they provide me during a probing interview. The more detail on of trees thesis the impact you made, the more interviews will be obtained. A diary or brag book can be of how not paper, great value when it comes to a slow walk thesis the time to prepare a resume. Great discussion about resumes and how to improve them.
I discuss resumes on my blog - http://www.phcconsulting.com/WordPress/. Check it out when you get a chance! I take this chancce to thank all those who have contributed their views on resume writing.It comes out a scientific paper very clear that,resume writing helps to a greater extent in c.v writing.Keep on e-trainig. Fantastic Article and discussion. Write My Essay? Really helpful. How Not Paper? I have been following this for some days now and found it very good. Great Job. This is only a preview.
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1503 1507. Learn more here. This document has been published in the Federal Register . Use the PDF linked in the document sidebar for the official electronic format. Rural Utilities Service, USDA. The Rural Utilities Service (RUS or Agency) is publishing policies and procedures for loan and guarantee financial assistance in support of energy efficiency programs (EE Programs) sponsored and implemented by electric utilities for the benefit of how not paper, rural persons in their service territory.
This final rule amends RUS regulations on service review General and Pre-Loan Policies and Procedures Common to Electric Loans and Guarantees, which were codified on December 20, 1993. The final rule also includes conforming amendments to additional RUS regulations. Under Section 2 of the Rural Electrification Act (RE Act), RUS is authorized to to write a scientific paper assist electric borrowers in implementing Demand side management, energy efficiency and conservation programs, and on-grid and off-grid renewable energy systems. The scope of this regulation falls within the authority of the write my essay Act. This final rule is effective February 3, 2014. Start Further Info. Gerard Moore, USDA-Rural Utilities Service, 1400 Independence Avenue SW., Stop 1569, Washington, DC 20250-1569, telephone (202) 205-9692 or email to firstname.lastname@example.org. End Further Info End Preamble Start Supplemental Information.
The Rural Utilities Service (RUS or Agency) is to write a scientific paper, publishing policies and thesis procedures for loan and guarantee financial assistance in support of energy efficiency programs (EE Programs) sponsored and implemented by electric utilities for the benefit of how not to write, rural persons in their service territory. This final rule is designed to supplement the bio infomatics policies contained in 7 CFR part 1710, GENERAL AND PRE-LOAN POLICIES AND PROCEDURES COMMON TO ELECTRIC LOANS AND GUARANTEES, which were finalized in to write a scientific paper December 1993. A Slow Walk Thesis! Under Section 2(a) of the Rural Electrification Act of 1936 (7 U.S.C. 902(a)), the Secretary of Agriculture is explicitly “authorized and how not empowered to make loans in the several States and Territories of the United States . . . for the purpose of assisting electric borrowers to bio infomatics thesis implement Demand side management, energy efficiency and conservation programs, and on-grid and off-grid renewable energy systems.” Section 6101 of the to write paper Food, Conservation, and Energy Act of 2008 (2008 Farm Bill) inserted the effective cv writing words “and energy efficiency” into this provision. In order to implement this new focus of the program, RUS amends 7 CFR part 1710 by adding a new Subpart H entitled “Energy Efficiency and how not to write Conservation Loan Program.” (EECLP). In fiscal year 2014 the Rural Utilities Service will make $250 million available to support energy efficiency as indicated in the President's climate change action plan. In future years, the walk of trees amount of funding made available will be based on the performance of the program. The goals of an paper, eligible Energy Efficiency project eligible for funding under this program and Subpart H include: (1) Increasing energy efficiency at the end user level; (2) modifying electric load such that there is a reduction in overall system demand; (3) effecting a more efficient use of essay editing service, existing electric distribution, transmission and paper generation facilities; (4) attracting new businesses and editing creating jobs in rural communities by investing in energy efficiency; and (5) encouraging the use of renewable energy fuels for either Demand side management or the reduction of to write, conventional fossil fuel use within the service territory.
Although not a goal, RUS recognizes that there will be a reduction of green house gases with energy efficiency improvements. The Energy Efficiency and Conservation Loan Program may include loans supporting energy efficiency activities undertaken by the utility itself, the bio infomatics finance of energy efficiency projects undertaken by others, and investments made by the utility to accomplish their obligations under utility energy services contracts. It is important to distinguish that there are potentially two different types of loans associated with this regulation. RUS will loan funds to a utility for how not to write paper an energy efficiency program. The utility, in bio infomatics turn, may choose to a scientific relend these funds to their consumers (ultimate recipient) for energy efficiency improvements in industrial, commercial, or residential applications.
The utility may also use the generator funds to complete energy efficiency activities on their own property. How Not To Write! The anticipated transfers during the first year of the program will be the funding availability of $250 million. My Essay Generator! RUS expects this to increase over the life of the how not a scientific program. The new Subpart H for the Energy Efficiency and essay Conservation Loan Program can have several economic impacts. The benefits include: (1) The value of purchased energy saved; (2) the value of corresponding avoided generation, transmission and/or distribution; and (3) savings in energy bills.
The final loan program is estimated to have administrative costs to the applicant and federal government, at about $740,000 total for applicants, and about $1.7 million for the Federal government. The Energy Efficiency and Conservation Loan Program will impose administrative costs on applicants and the Federal government. A Scientific! Quantitative estimates of these costs have been made and are presented below. Estimates of costs for applicants: the twenty expected applications are broken down into two sectionsapplications and reporting. In Lord Of The Flies! Table 2 summarizes the estimated costs. Table 2Estimate Burden to Applicants. All entities seeking financial assistance under this program must submit certain information to the Agency in order to apply for a loan. The total estimated cost for applying is approximately $593,356, calculated by multiplying the number of applicants (20) by the labor hours associated with the additional burden (823.20) by an estimated $45 per hour for labor. See OPM's Web site at http://www.opm.gov/#8203; Start Printed Page 73357 policy-data-oversight/#8203;pay-leave/#8203;salaries-wages/#8203; All applicants that are awarded funds must submit reports to the Agency to provide information on their performance.
The total estimated cost for reporting is approximately $148,338, calculated by the number of applicants (20) by labor cost ($45) by hours per year (164.82). Estimates of costs to the Federal government were made based on the activities that the Federal government would incur to implement the rule and the length of time each activity required. A Scientific! A cost of $48.35 per hour was used in making these cost estimates. Table 3Energy Efficiency and of trees Conservation Loan Program Burden Cost to the Federal Government. The following paragraphs summarize the to write a scientific paper activities and costs to bio infomatics be incurred by the Federal government for this program. RUS is responsible for reviewing and approving applications. How Not To Write A Scientific Paper! As part of this process, RUS will acknowledge receipt of applications and inform the applicants whether their application was selected for funding. The estimated cost for these application activities is approximately $1,585,880. RUS is responsible for reviewing various reports, including, but not limited to, project management plan, energy efficiency work plan, quality control plan, etc.
The estimated cost for reviewing these reports annually is of trees thesis, approximately $125,710. This final rule has been reviewed under Executive Order (EO) 12866, “Regulatory Planning and Review,” 58 FR 51735 (Oct. 4, 1993), and has been determined to be “economically significant” by the Office of how not paper, Management and Budget. The EO defines an economically significant regulatory action as one that is likely to result in a rule that may have an annual effect on the economy of $100 million or more or adversely affect, in essay a material way, the economy, a sector of the economy, productivity, competition, jobs, the environment, public health or safety, or State, local, or tribal governments or communities. As required by OMB circular A-4 the regulatory impact analysis will be published along with this rule on how not to write a scientific paper regulations.gov.
The agency has also reviewed this regulation pursuant to EO 13563, issued on January 18, 2011 (76 FR 3281, Jan. 21, 2011). Cv Writing! EO 13563 is to write, supplemental to best service and explicitly reaffirms the principles, structures, and how not to write a scientific paper definitions governing regulatory review established in good EO 12866. To the extent permitted by law, agencies are required by EO 13563 to: (1) Propose or adopt a regulation only upon a reasoned determination that its benefits justify its costs (recognizing that some benefits and costs are difficult to quantify); (2) tailor regulations to impose the least burden on society, consistent with obtaining regulatory objectives, taking into account, among other things, and to the extent practicable, the costs of cumulative regulations; (3) select, in choosing among alternative regulatory approaches, those approaches that maximize net benefits (including potential economic, environmental, public health and safety, and how not a scientific other advantages; distributive impacts; and essay in lord of the equity); (4) to the extent feasible, specify performance objectives, rather than specifying the how not paper behavior or manner of basics of a, compliance that regulated entities must adopt; and (5) identify and assess available alternatives to direct regulation, including providing economic incentives to encourage the desired behavior, such as user fees or marketable permits, or providing information upon which choices can be made by the public. The Agency conducted a cost-benefit analysis to fulfill the requirements of EO 12866 and a scientific paper 13563. In this analysis, the Agency identifies potential benefits and costs of the Energy Efficiency and essay editing review Conservation Loan Program to borrowers, and RUS. The analysis contains quantitative estimates of the burden to the public and the Federal government and qualitative descriptions of the expected economic, environmental, and how not a scientific paper energy impacts associated with the Energy Efficiency and Conservation Loan Program.
This analysis will be made publicly available in the docket. RUS will only make loans for these purposes to electric utility systems. RUS anticipates that borrowers under this subpart will be generation and essay editing review transmission (GT) borrowers or their distribution members or unaffiliated distribution borrowers who are current on how not a scientific paper their loan payments and in compliance with their loan documents. This program is held to the same high standards and regulatory requirements as the existing RUS electric loan program. RUS also anticipates that the energy efficiency improvements installation work may be contracted by either the thesis utility or the how not to write paper Ultimate Recipient, or performed directly by employees of the borrower, at the discretion of the utility designing the energy efficiency program. My Essay! In all cases, the to write paper eligible borrower is best editing service, expected to how not hold title to write generator the receivables funded by the RUS loan. It is estimated that approximately 20 loans will be submitted annually. Considering applicants are existing RUS borrowers, it is how not, anticipated that all 20 loans would be awarded. The administrative cost to the Applicant and the Federal government to apply, award and maintain these loans is $2.458 million. Catalog of Federal Domestic Assistance.
The program described by generator, this rule is an eligible purpose/subsidiary program of the Electrification Loans and Loan Guarantee program as listed in the Catalog of how not, Federal Domestic Assistance Programs under number 10.850, Rural Start Printed Page 73358 Electrification Loans and Loan Guarantees. The Catalog is available on the Internet at http://www.cfda.gov. This final rule is excluded from the scope of Executive Order 12372, Intergovernmental Consultation, which may require consultation with State and local officials. See the final rule related notice entitled, “Department Programs and Activities Excluded from editing service review, Executive Order 12372” (50 FR 47034). In accordance with the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995 (44 U.S.C. chapter 35), the information collection for how not paper this program has been approved by best essay editing, the Office of Management and Budget under OMB Control Number 0572-0032.
The Agency is committed to the E-Government Act, which requires Government agencies in general to to write a scientific provide the public the option of submitting information or transacting business electronically to the maximum extent possible. National Environmental Policy Act Review. In accordance with the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (42 U.S.C. 4321 et seq.), the Agency has prepared and published a Programmatic Environmental Assessment (PEA) for this loan program activity as part of bio infomatics, this rulemaking process. The PEA was published on February 6, 2013 in the Federal Register at how not a scientific paper 78 FR 8444, and prepared pursuant to of the flies the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA) (42 U.S.C. To Write A Scientific! 4321 et seq.), the write generator Council on Environmental Quality's (CEQ) regulations for implementing NEPA (40 CFR parts 1500-1508), and RUS' NEPA implementing regulations, Environmental Policies and how not a scientific Procedures (7 CFR part 1794).
A Notice of Finding of No Significant Impact was published on Friday August 16, 2013 in cv writing the Federal Register at VOL. 78, NO. 159. Regulatory Flexibility Act Certification. It has been determined the Regulatory Flexibility Act is not applicable to this rule since the RUS is not required by 5 U.S.C. 551 et seq. or any other provision of law to publish a notice of proposed rulemaking with respect to the subject matter of this rule.
This rule contains no Federal mandates (under the to write regulatory provisions of title II of the Unfunded Mandates Reform Act of 1995) for state, local, and tribal governments or for the private sector. Bio Infomatics Thesis! Therefore, this rule is how not a scientific, not subject to essay in lord of the flies the requirements of paper, section 202 and 205 of the Unfunded Mandates Reform Act of 1995. This rule has been reviewed under Executive Order 12988, Civil Justice Reform. The Agency has determined that this rule meets the applicable standards in essay on savagery in lord of the flies Section 3 of the Executive Order. In addition, all state and local laws and regulations that are in conflict with this rule will be preempted, no retroactive effort will be given to this rule, and, in accordance with section 212(e) of the Department of paper, Agriculture Reorganization Act of 1994 (7 U.S.C. Effective Cv Writing! 6912(e)), administrative appeals procedures, if any, must be exhausted before any action against paper the Department or its agencies may be initiated. The policies contained in this rule do not have any substantial direct effect on state and write generator local governments, on how not paper the relationship between the national government and the state and local governments, or on the distribution of power and responsibilities among the various levels of government. Nor does this rule impose substantial direct compliance costs on state and flies local governments. To Write! Therefore, consultation with the editing review states is not required.
Executive Order 13175, Consultation and Coordination With Indian Tribal Governments. This Executive Order imposes requirements on the development of regulatory policies that have tribal implications or preempt tribal laws. Between October 2010 and January 2011, the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) hosted seven regional regulation Tribal consultation sessions to gain input by elected Tribal officials or their designees concerning the impact of this rule (and other 2008 Farm Bill changes) on Tribal governments, communities, and individuals. How Not A Scientific Paper! No comments specific to this rule were received through that process. If a Tribe determines that this rule has implications of which Rural Development is not aware or would like further information regarding the consultation process, please contact Rural Development's Native American Coordinator at (720) 544-2911 or AIAN@wdc.usda.gov. This rulemaking amends 7 CFR part 1710 by adding a new Subpart H entitled “Energy Efficiency and Conservation Loan Program.” Under Section 2(a) of the Rural Electrification Act of 1936 (7 U.S.C.
902(a)), the Secretary of Agriculture is explicitly “authorized and my essay generator empowered to make loans in the several States and Territories of the how not United States . . My Essay! . for the purpose of assisting electric borrowers to implement Demand side management, energy efficiency and conservation programs, and on-grid and to write a scientific paper off-grid renewable energy systems.” As noted, Section 6101 of the 2008 Farm Bill inserted the effective words “energy efficiency” into this provision, which was originally added as an amendment to the RE Act by the Rural Electrification Loan Restructuring Act of how not paper, 1993 (“RELRA”) (Pub. L. Bio Infomatics Thesis! 103-129 sec. 2(c)(1)(B)).  RUS has experience with implementing programs that promote energy conservation, and RELRA explicitly recognized that energy conservation is how not to write a scientific paper, part of the Agency's mission. Starting in 1980, for example, RUS developed an good thesis, Energy Resources Conservation Program by issuing RUS Bulletin 20-23, Section 12, “Extensions for Energy Resources Conservation Loans”, dated December 8, 1980.  This Bulletin interpreted the Administrator of to write, RUS's discretion under the thesis RE Act to extend the to write time for bio infomatics thesis payments, and this became the foundation for the “ERC Loan Program.” At that time, RUS did not make ERC Loan Program loans directly. It operated the ERC Loan Program by entering into agreements with its borrowers to defer amortization of their loans in order for the borrowers to fund energy conservation improvements. To Write Paper! The borrowers, generally electric cooperatives, made loans to their members out of the cash flow resulting from the deferments they received from RUS on their own loans. Even though RUS did not make the thesis ERC loans itself, the Agency provided financial assistance to rural Consumers by using the electric cooperatives as intermediaries. Congress subsequently amended Section 12 of the RE Act in to write 1990 and Start Printed Page 73359 again in 2008.
In 1990, Congress expanded Section 12 to my essay enable deferments such that borrowers could provide financing to local businesses, with the intent of stimulating rural economic development. In 2008, Congress expanded Section 12 of the RE Act to authorize energy efficiency and use audits and to install energy efficiency measures or devices to reduce demand on electric systems. The recent grant of additional authority in Section 2(a) of the RE Act to make loans and guarantees for energy efficiency, as contrasted with the Section 12 authority to a scientific paper merely defer payments on direct loans, has become increasingly significant as the walk thesis percentage of the RUS portfolio represented by direct loans continues to amortize. In recent times the Agency delivers nearly all of its electric program assistance in the form of loan guarantees. As a guarantor, RUS does not have the same discretion to defer payments that it does when it is the lender. Consequently, RUS has determined that it is now necessary and how not to write a scientific appropriate to finalize a loan program for this RE Act purpose. “The RE Act, 7 U.S.C. 904, commits to the discretion of the Administrator the making of loans for rural electrification. . . Cv Writing! .” Alabama Power Co. v. Ala. Elec. Coop., 394 F.2d 672 at 675 (CA 5) cert. denied 393 U.S. 1000 (1968). A Scientific! “REA is the administrative agency charged by Congress with responsibility for facilitating rural electrification.
REA was intended by Congress to determine the appropriate course of conduct to accomplish the essay editing service review legislative purpose.” Public Utility District No. 1 of Franklin County v. Big Bend Electric Cooperative, Inc., 618 F.2d 601 at 603 (CA 9 1980). By broadly adding “energy efficiency” in the 2008 Farm Bill as a legislative purpose for the RE Act loans, Congress left it to how not a scientific the Administrator's discretion to fashion the appropriate method to bio infomatics thesis accomplish this purpose. Drawing on more than three decades of experience in using electric cooperatives as local intermediaries to how not a scientific paper accomplish RE Act objectives at the Consumer level, RUS will deliver this energy efficiency program by drawing upon its favorable past successes and a slow thesis using its electric borrowers as intermediaries. RUS will only paper, make loans for eligible purposes to electric utility systems . An eligible borrower means a utility system that has direct or indirect responsibility for providing retail electric service to persons in a rural area. This definition includes existing borrowers and utilities who meet current RUS borrower requirements. RUS anticipates that borrowers under the Energy Efficiency and write generator Conservation Loan Program will be generation and transmission (GT) borrowers, their distribution members, or unaffiliated distribution borrowers who are current on their RUS loan payments and in compliance with those loan documents. RUS anticipates that the Energy Efficiency (EE) improvements installation work may be contracted by either the utility, the Ultimate Recipient, or performed directly by employees of the borrower. In all cases, the Eligible Borrower will hold title to the receivables funded by the RUS loan. RUS is authorized by paper, the RE Act to make loans to implement Demand side management (DSM), EE Programs and a slow walk thesis conservation programs, and on-grid and off-grid renewable energy systems. Energy efficiency in how not paper this regulation is defined as the degree a system or component performs its designated function with minimum consumption of resources.
Renewable energy systems have a specific role in this regulation. Renewable generation can be used as load modifiers, which can increase the efficiency of energy consumption from the cv writing utilities perspective and are effective at decreasing energy used by decreasing load. How Not To Write Paper! Renewable energy and conservation savings associated with this regulation are from the utilities perspective, though the energy savings could be realized by both the Consumer and utility, depending on the type of project, as the write generator utility is the RUS borrower and is culpable for repayment of the how not to write loan. Of Trees Thesis! Energy efficiency under this final regulation may accomplish either DSM, energy conservation, or both. The goals of an eligible EE Program under Subpart H may include one or more of the following: (1) Increase energy efficiency at to write the end user level; (2) modify electric load such that there is a reduction in bio infomatics overall system demand; (3) effect a more efficient use of a scientific paper, existing electric distribution, transmission and bio infomatics thesis generation facilities; (4) attract new businesses and to write paper create jobs in write rural communities; and (5) encourage the use of renewable energy fuels. There are three primary differences between the existing energy resource conservation program codified in paper 7 CFR part 1721 subpart B (ERC program) and the EECLP final regulation in 7 CFR part 1710, subpart H. First, the existing ERC program is limited to direct loan principal deferments and is not available for RUS guaranteed loans. Second, the of trees list of eligible loan purposes for this program is more expansive than the ERC program and, where applicable, emphasizes that the assets in question must be characterized as an integral part of the Consumer's real property that would typically transfer with the title under applicable state law. To Write Paper! Lastly, the term of financing available under Subpart H is longer than the term allowed for basics of a good principal deferments under the ERC loan program. Rural electric cooperatives are proponents of energy efficiency measures. According to the National Rural Electric Cooperative Association: 73 percent of these co-ops plan on significantly expanding existing efficiency programs in the next two years: 70 percent of co-ops offer financial incentives to promote greater energy efficiency: 96 percent of co-ops have some form of energy efficiency program in place, co-ops are responsible for nearly 25 percent of residential peak load management capacity, and how not to write paper cooperatives have 10 percent of retail electricity sales but are responsible for 20 percent of of a good thesis, actual peak demand reduction.
Representatives from rural electric cooperatives have commented that access to low interest funds can be the difference between success and failure for how not to write paper an energy efficiency program. Eligible EE Programs can be comprised of of the, a variety of activities, performed by either the to write a scientific paper utility or third parties. This final rule sets forth the policies and procedures related to eligible EE Programs where the effective cv writing RUS will finance: (1) Energy efficiency activities undertaken by the utility itself; (2) loans made by the utility to how not to write a scientific finance energy efficiency projects undertaken by others; and (3) investments made by cv writing, the utility to accomplish their obligations under utility energy services contracts. The types of how not to write a scientific paper, activities that are eligible for walk thesis RUS financing under Subpart H include but are not limited to: (1) Energy audits; (2) community awareness and outreach programs; (3) services, materials and equipment provided by a qualified local contractor to improve energy efficiency at the Consumer level; and how not to write paper (4) energy efficiency loans made by the utility to its customers. A Slow Walk Thesis! RUS is allowing fuel switching as an how not paper, eligible activity under this regulation. A description of EE Programs that qualify for RUS financing can be found in § 1710.405. Eligible investments are listed in § 1710.406. Finally, eligible borrowers are defined in § 1710.404.
Some programs designed by utilities may have the utility initially owning an asset even though it is located on a Consumer's premise and the asset is a slow walk thesis, later conveyed to the Consumer after it is paid for or a predetermined time period has elapsed. Where this is the case, RUS is proposing that the application include an how not a scientific, additional or Start Printed Page 73360 revised Schedule C to a slow the RUS mortgage listing these assets as Excepted Property under the RUS mortgage, so as to preclude the assets being captured under the to write a scientific paper after acquired clause that is standard in the RUS mortgage codified in 7 CFR part 1718. It is the cv writing intent of RUS that a release of lien need not be executed by the Agency for how not a scientific the utility to convey to the Consumer clear title to bio infomatics thesis these assets when this Schedule C is recorded. This final rulemaking recognizes that energy may take a variety of forms, not just electricity. How Not A Scientific Paper! The criteria to be met by eligible programs include energy efficiency as measured by write generator, British Thermal Unit (Btu) input relative to Btu output, in order to how not a scientific paper facilitate the widest and greatest contribution by the rural utility in my essay optimizing the energy consumption profile of its service territory. This rulemaking also provides that an eligible program must demonstrate that the financial strength of the electric utility is not harmed by EE Program activities funded under Subpart H.
An important distinction between eligible energy efficiency assets to be financed under this new Subpart H and paper other energy efficiency activities is that the assets located at a Consumer's premises, whether or not title is to be held by thesis, the utility must, for how not a scientific the most part, be considered an integral part of the essay on savagery in lord flies real property that would typically transfer with the title under applicable State law in order to be financed pursuant to an eligible program under Subpart H. Eligible programs shall provide that the utility will recoup all or part of the costs from specific ratepayers on whose behalf an investment has been made. Recoupment may take the form of Consumer loan repayment or a dedicated tariff. An eligible program reviewed under Subpart H must show that the payment terms and loan term offered to the Consumer are generally correlated with the expected life of the applicable assets. An eligible program must also offer an undertaking that funds, collected from ratepayers, in how not to write a scientific paper excess of the write my essay current amortization requirements for the RUS loan will be redeployed for EE Program purposes or used to how not paper prepay the RUS loan. These prepayments are in addition to walk thesis scheduled principal and interest debt service payments. Applications for program financings under Subpart H must fully describe a Business Plan that meets the requirements of how not, § 1710.407. The Agency recognizes that energy efficiency investments that reduce energy consumption at the Consumer premises (for instance those that affect the power factor) may prompt a need for investments at essay on savagery flies the system level to sustain the reliability and stability of the grid. The business plan called for in Subpart H must identify the related system investment to be identified as part of the EE Program, but these system level investments would be reflected in to write paper the utility's construction work plan and financed as part of a traditional loan application. It is best editing service, not required that an eligible program fund energy audits performed at Consumer premises. However, if the utility proposes to provide audits; Subpart H requires that the program must also include a provision for how not a scientific paper assisting Consumers in essay in lord implementing changes suggested in aggregate to be cost effective by the audit.
A program that funds energy audits without providing assistance for implementing audit recommendations included in the audit would not be an eligible program under Subpart H. Only those activities that are cost effective in aggregate are eligible to a scientific paper be funded under Subpart H. The list of eligible investments and activities that a qualified plan may incorporate is essay editing service, not intended to be exhaustive. The intent is to facilitate flexibility for the utility's EE Program consistent with the resources and Consumer profiles in its service territory. This lending program is designed for utility-designed and directed EE Programs. How Not To Write! As such it anticipates that eligible loan purposes will include program administrative and other soft costs, such as marketing expenses, where not more than five percent of the loan budget may be used for these purposes. A utility's program may include acting as an intermediary lender, where the utility uses RUS financing to make Consumer loans to finance these investments on the Consumers' premises. Where this is the case, Subpart H requires the borrower to have a maximum interest rate to the ultimate consumer at 1.5 percent above the RUS loan cost to the borrower unless an exception is granted by the Administrator. Exceptions will be made on a case-by-case basis to ensure repayment of the government's loan. We will not accept an exception if the a slow walk thesis loan is to write, feasible at 1.5 percent. This rate must be discussed in bio infomatics the applicant's business plan. The process for applying for how not to write EECLP loans is essay in lord of the, intended to largely conform to the Agency's existing process for loans relating to other eligible purposes.
Accordingly, the a scientific requirements discussed throughout 7 CFR part 1710 apply equally to EECLP loans unless otherwise stated after giving effect to the conforming amendments incorporated in this rulemaking. Expenditures by essay review, the utility will be reimbursed by the Agency after the fact pursuant to an inventory of work orders system as is typical for our existing loan process. The analytical material needed to a scientific paper support an write my essay, EECLP loan is to write paper, different from what is needed to analyze a generation or transmission loan. Effective Cv Writing! Accordingly, Subpart H elaborates on what is needed for RUS to approve an EE Program and how not to write loans to execute the program. EE Program activity will be captured under a separate energy efficiency work plan. Basics Of A Thesis! Energy efficiency investments will not be listed on the traditional construction work plan that applies to utility assets financed by RUS. As with other loans made pursuant to 7 CFR part 1710, a borrower's Environmental Report (ER) is expected to to write a scientific accompany the effective energy efficiency work plan associated with the loan request. The ER is in accordance with 7 CFR part 1794. Part 1794 contains the to write a scientific paper policies and procedures of the Rural Utilities Service for implementing the requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act.
In the case of an EECLP loan, this ER will be expected to reference the PEA completed by the Agency for EECLP loans, and identify any investments and their potential environmental impacts proposed in write generator the work plan that were not analyzed in the PEA. This new Subpart H is not intended to be duplicative of requirements otherwise prescribed in to write a scientific part 1710, but rather, supplemental. Essay Of The Flies! It identifies requirements that are unique to loans made under the proposed Subpart H to finance EE Programs. It prescribes requirements for our direct borrowers. Our direct borrowers will then act as intermediary lenders to to write a scientific paper accomplish the investments outlined in an approved EE program.
Where there is an express conflict with requirements elsewhere in part 1710, the provisions of Subpart H would apply, but otherwise Subpart H is generator, not intended to supplant the applicability of the rest of part 1710 or other applicable parts in the Code of Federal Regulations. In implementing Subpart H, as required for all of part 1710, RUS will work with Department of Energy (DOE), following the requirements set out by the Rural Electrification Act of 1936, Section 16 that states: “the Secretary in how not to write a scientific paper making or guaranteeing loans for the construction, operations, or enlargement of generating plants or electric transmission lines or systems shall consider such general criteria consistent with the provisions of this Act as may Start Printed Page 73361 be published by the Secretary of Energy.” Summary of Major Changes in Response to Comments on the Rule. The agency published a Proposed rulemaking on July 26, 2012, at 77 FR 43723. RUS received 63 comments on the proposed Energy Efficiency and Conservation Loan Program.
The sixty three commenters consisted of industry representatives that included: Electric cooperatives, such as South Carolina Electric and thesis Gas company; nonprofit energy efficiency supporters, such as the E3 coalition and paper the Sierra Club; and envelope organizations that represent RUS borrowers, such as the National Rural Electric Cooperative Association. Essay Review! Sixty two of the sixty three letters were extremely supportive of the regulation, and applauded RUS for proposing the program. The opposing letter stated that it was against all Federal programs. Major changes in response to paper these comments, include the following items: 1. Removed restrictions on the size of load modifiers. 2. Adjusted soft cost limitations from 4 percent to 5 percent. 3. Limit Consumer interest rate to 1.5 percent above the cost of the loan to the borrower. 4. Decreased the effective complexity of the loan program by eliminating performance thresholds. 5. Defined certified energy auditor. 6. Added fuel switching as an eligible purpose. 7. How Not A Scientific! Clarified the definition of on savagery flies, eligible borrowers to include former and new RUS borrowers that meet RUS standards specified in regulation and statute.
8. Changed the cost effectiveness requirements, extending requirements to 10 years or equipment useful life on an aggregate basis. 9. Removed the Net Utility Plant language. 10. Allowed some pre-retrofitting as an how not paper, eligible activity. A summary of the comments and write RUS's response are as follows:
Small Scale Renewable Energy Projects. Comment: There were 17 comments addressing the small scale renewable energy limitation of a scientific, “nameplate generation capacity that is less than the thesis 50 percent of the average anticipated electrical load associated with the end user.” Of the 17 comments, only 4 wanted to decrease or eliminate small scale renewables, on the basis that small scale renewables tend to not be cost effective. Response: The Energy Efficiency and Conservation Loan program regulation has been edited, and will no longer have any restrictions on small scale renewable energy projects. All activities will be eligible, however, state mandates, laws, and cooperative bylaws will override this regulation. Soft Costs Associated With a Borrower's Loan.
Comment: Seven comments requested that RUS not limit the “administrative” costs associated with the loan. The current regulation limits administrative costs to 4 percent. Response: RUS acknowledges that there is a cost to to write a scientific our borrowers to start-up and maintain an write my essay generator, energy efficiency program, and has agreed to increase the “administrative” cost limitation to 5 percent in the final regulation. However, RUS must protect the Electric Program loan portfolio, and increasing the rate any higher may impair the productivity of the program, and subsequently the subsidy rate. Also, cooperatives may have the opportunity to to write a scientific paper rate-base certain energy efficiency costs. The Rate Borrowers Can Charge to the Ultimate Consumer Above the Treasury Based Interest Rate. Comment: RUS requested comments on the appropriate markup borrowers could charge above the Treasury-based interest rate. Twenty-one comments were received. Essay! The majority of comments stated that markups must be between 5 and 10 percent, with numerous comments stating that RUS should not specify a cap to make the how not a scientific paper program economical to the borrower.
Response: Borrowers are limited to interest rates 1.5 percent above the cost of their RUS loan. Exceptions will be given on a case-by-case basis that must be clearly articulated in the business plan such as unavoidable program level costs. We will not accept an exception if the loan is feasible at 1.5 percent.This information, combined with all the other additional information, will allow RUS to determine the feasibility of the loan. Decrease the best essay editing review Complexity of the Loan Program. Comment: RUS received seven comments stating that the how not to write a scientific paper current program requirements were too complicated and burdensome. Requiring an environmental plan, business plan, quality assurance plan, performance thresholds, return on investment demonstrations, additional supporting documents, and load forecasting before and after improvements was too extensive, and would limit borrower's interest in the program.
Response: RUS has simplified the a slow of trees thesis regulation to to write decrease the Energy Efficiency and best essay review Conservation Loan Program's complexity and burden. Performance thresholds have been removed, the cost effectiveness definition has been modified, and how not a scientific procedures edited to keep the program simple and straight forward. Comment: Six comments were submitted, asking RUS to clarify the definition of certified energy auditor. Response: RUS has clarified the definition, allowing a borrower to use an auditor certified under state, local, or federal standards. Identifying the walk of trees thesis Appropriate Performance Thresholds. Comment: Twenty comments were received on what were the appropriate performance thresholds for the Energy Efficiency and Conservation Loan Program. Seven comments supported the language in the proposed rule, stating “existing energy efficiency standards or criteria such as those from Energy Star, Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP), American National Standards Institute (ANSI), or other voluntary consensus standards,” 2 comments recommended limiting the thresholds to Energy Star or Energy Efficiency Ratio, and how not a scientific the remaining 9 comments recommended that RUS fund all market proven energy products that reduce the Consumer's annual Btu. Response: RUS clarified that borrowers are encouraged to use existing energy efficiency standards or criteria such as those from best essay editing review, ENERGY STAR, FEMP, ANSI, or other voluntary consensus standards rather than performance thresholds to a scientific paper give Borrowers greater latitude. Comment: Twelve comments strongly supported fuel switching.
Fuel switching is essential for some borrowers to handle peak demand. Response: RUS has modified the regulation to allow fuel switching. Many of the of the 12 comments in a scientific paper support of fuel switching were associations that represent over 1,000 electric cooperatives and millions of review, households, including NW Energy Coalition, Midwest Energy Efficiency Alliance, Utility Geothermal Working Group, Iowa Environmental Council, The Mountain Association for how not to write Community Economic Development, and the National Rural Electric Cooperative Association. Start Printed Page 73362. The $250 Million Funding Limitation. Comment: Sixteen comments were received, all in strong support of removing the $250 million limitation.
Response: The $250 million was an basics good thesis, estimate of what the Agency believed would be the demand for the program. Public comment indicates more interest in the program than the proposed rule's $250 million per year limitation. In fiscal year 2014, the Rural Utilities Service will make $250 million available to support energy efficiency as indicated in the Presidents climate change action plan. In future years, the amount of funding made available will be based on paper the performance of the program. Additionally, to be consistent, the energy efficiency program should compete equally with other eligible loan purposes. Comment: One comment was submitted proposing a preferred lender program that borrowers could qualify for if they had a loan total of thesis, less than $2 million. Standards would be set for basic, preapproved weatherization practices and be made available to any eligible borrower.
Standard benefit levels would be assigned to those practices and applied when determining benefits. There would not be a requirement for energy audits or post tests. This would cut the a scientific paper cost of program delivery while maintaining well established and known benefits for the members. The cooperatives that wish to effective cv writing participate at a higher loan level would have to comply with the standards established in the proposed regulations. Response: RUS believes that preferred lending criteria is not needed in the regulation. RUS will use current authorities to streamline the application process.
Former RUS Borrowers and Their Eligibility for how not to write the Loan Program. Comment: Four comments were submitted supporting allowance of former RUS borrowers to return to the program. Response: The regulation has been modified to clarify that past borrowers are eligible for the Energy Efficiency and Conservation Loan program, in accordance with the statute and any other regulation relating to new or returning borrowers. The Cost Effective Requirement in Section 1710.405. Comment: Nine comments were received, eight requesting a payback period that was longer than the current 5 years stated in the regulation. One comment requested that the payback period be less than the life of the product. Response: The regulation has been modified to more precisely define cost effectiveness and increase the payback to bio infomatics thesis 10 years, except in cases where the useful life of the technology on how not paper an aggregate basis can be demonstrated to be longer than the 10 year period.
RUS will evaluate the useful life assumption on essay a case-by-case basis. Financial Institutions and Cooperative Relending. Comment: Four comments were received requesting RUS to add language in the regulation that defines who RUS borrowers can work with as intermediaries. Response: RUS will not add any additional language. A Scientific! Business cases will be reviewed to effective determine the a scientific viability of the loan.
Existing regulation language does not deter borrowers from establishing partnerships with other organizations to help implement their energy efficiency programs. Comment: Three comments were received asking RUS to effective cv writing remove the provisions of how not to write a scientific paper, § 1710.409(d (1)). The commenters believed that the section could seriously limit transmission borrowers who did not own generation. Response: RUS has removed the section. Bio Infomatics Thesis! Initially the how not paper regulation language anticipated borrowers would own electric generating plants.
Public comments from statewide electric cooperative associations and distribution cooperatives interested in the loan program indicated that they would be excluded from the best essay service review energy efficiency program with 1710.409(d(1)). To Write A Scientific! These current borrowers are not generation and cv writing transmission organizations and therefore do not own electric generation plants. The language has been removed to allow them to participate. Comment: Four comments asked RUS to remove §§ 1710.406(d), 1017.407(g), and 1710.408(i). How Not To Write Paper! Each of those sections state borrowers shall follow a bulletin or other publication to be identified later. They claim that the proposed provision violates the Administrative Procedures Act by cv writing, purporting to to write paper establish as regulatory obligations purely administrative determinations to be made later without notice and basics of a good comment rulemaking. Response: The proposed rule required borrowers to follow requirements in yet to be developed bulletins. How Not To Write Paper! The final regulation has been changed from a slow walk of trees thesis, “shall” to “are strongly encouraged to.” Please see the following regulatory language “(g) The borrowers are strongly encouraged to follow a bulletin or such other publication as RUS deems appropriate that contains and describes best practices for how not paper energy efficiency business plans. RUS will make this bulletin or publication publicly available and good revise it from time to time or eliminate it as RUS deems it necessary. “ Requiring all Electric Borrowers To Participate in This Program.
Comment: Three comments asked if all current borrowers would be required to participate in the Energy Efficiency Loan Program. One of the two comments stated that RUS must require all borrowers to participate in this loan program and have active energy efficiency programs. Response: The Energy Efficiency and Conservation Loan program allows for energy efficiency improvements as an eligible purpose and to write will be reviewed and approved as other eligible purposes within the bio infomatics thesis statute and how not the regulation. RUS does not believe it to thesis be appropriate to how not a scientific paper require Borrowers to participate in this program. Comment: Two comments questioned the need for load forecasting, one comment stated that their current energy efficiency and conservation loan program is basics of a thesis, made up of only 30-40 members, not affecting the forecast at all. Response: Load Forecasting is an important accountability component of the Energy Efficiency and Conservation Loan program. If the energy efficiency program has negligible effect on the Load Forecast then that information should be stated in the discussion within the Load Forecast. No changes were made to the regulation. Comment: One comment stated that there were very few qualified energy managers and professional engineers in rural areas that are available to conduct the requirements of a program evaluation, and how not to write a scientific paper questioned who would have to bear the cost of the evaluation. Response: RUS recognizes that there will be additional expenses associated with the Energy Efficiency and Conservation Loan program. The borrowers may pass along those costs to the Ultimate Recipient, but it needs to a slow thesis be explained in how not a scientific paper the submitted work plan.
Start Printed Page 73363. Loan Advances on a Reimbursement Basis. Comment: Two comments questioned how funds would be distributed. They were not supportive of funding projects on my essay a reimbursable basis. Response: All of RUS's programs are run on to write a scientific paper a reimbursable basis, though the regulation currently states that startup capital of up to 5 percent may be made available for an energy efficiency plan. No changes will be made to our current funding model. Making Post-Installment Evaluations Publically Available. Comment: Two comments requested that all post-installment evaluation and verification requirements be made available to the public.
Response: RUS acknowledges the importance of transparency, but also must weigh the privacy of our borrowers. We will provide information to the public in bio infomatics conformity with the Freedom of Information Act. Comment: One comment reiterated the importance of using qualified contractors to install energy efficiency and conservation activities. Response: RUS is to write, a strong supporter of bio infomatics, using qualified contractors and will require borrowers to state the a scientific paper types of contractors that will be used, if any, in thesis a borrower's quality assurance plan. Comment: One comment stated that borrowers should be able to aggregate their various energy efficiency programs to bring them up to scale, decreasing the total workload. Response: The Energy Efficiency and how not Conservation Loan program will hold each borrower accountable. Though borrowers can work with each other to decrease costs, each borrower will be individually held responsible for a slow of trees thesis providing the how not paper required level of editing service, information and oversight. Comment: One comment stated that the regulation should not specifically call out ground source heat pumps, as the technology is advancing quickly.
Response: Ground source heat pumps are just one eligible activity under the Energy Efficiency and Conservation Loan program. Though mentioned in how not the regulation as an example, we are neither promoting nor discouraging their use. Offer Technical Assistance to Utilities. Comment: One comment requested RUS provide technical assistance to essay review utilities to design, administer, and to write evaluate their energy efficiency loan program. Response: RUS will work closely with the borrower, answering any questions they may have on their business plan, quality assurance plan, etc. Encourage Peer-to-Peer Networking Through Webinars. Comment: Six comments requested RUS set up regular webinars, phone conferences and best essay editing review an on-line peer-exchange Web site for participating borrowers. Response: RUS supports the exchange of to write, ideas and will facilitate cross communication when possible, but RUS does not have the resources to commit to this on thesis a large scale.
RUS will partner with other federal agencies to support broader peer-to-peer exchange. The Definition of Energy Efficiency and Conservation measures. Comment: One comment requested that we add the how not a scientific paper following language to the energy efficiency and a slow walk of trees thesis conservation measures definition, “which may also include the onsite generation of electricity from waste heat resources. ” Response: RUS believes the definition is inclusive, and the additional language is unnecessary. Comment: Eight comments stated that RUS stress the importance of using on-bill repayment as an effective financing method for energy efficiencies. Response: RUS recognizes that on-bill financing is how not paper, one way for a borrower to be repaid for their activities, however the borrower will have the ultimate decision on effective how they will recover their expenses.
Their method of choice will be articulated in their business plan. Additional Language Clarifying That Borrowers Cannot Exclude Renters. Comment: Five comments requested that RUS add language to how not to write a scientific paper the regulation requiring utilities to effective identify approaches that would ensure the equitable treatment by how not a scientific paper, all types of consumers, and explicitly include low-income in both single-family and multi-family buildings. Response: RUS sympathizes with the a slow walk of trees comment's concern, however we believe § 1710.122 on Equal opportunity and nondiscrimination located in the overarching Electric Program regulation, fulfills the needs specified by paper, the comments. Pre-Retrofits Should Be Allowed as Program Costs. Comment: Four comments stated that pre-retrofit activities that need to take place to cv writing make a house structurally sound before weatherization activities can take place, be an how not paper, eligible activity under the a slow walk of trees Energy Efficiency and Conservation loan program. Response: RUS added language to allow limited pre-retrofits as an how not, eligible loan activity. The Department of Energy has established that many opportunities for effective energy efficiency upgrades exist in low income housing. Often the residential building envelope needs infrastructure improvements to be able to accept energy efficiency upgrades. For example, the to write a scientific floor of a residential building may need structural repairs before efficient insulation can be installed.
This would reduce the overall energy requirement for the structure. Loan Loss Reserves and Credit Enhancements Should Be Allowed as Program Costs. Comment: Four comments stated that RUS allow borrowers to create loan loss reserve funds to allow utilities to in lord of the attract investors and leverage private capital, as an to write, eligible activity under the Energy Efficiency and Conservation loan program. Response: RUS is my essay, statutorily required to fund energy efficiency and how not to write paper conservation activities. Additional activities are outside the agency's authority and effective would require amendments. Additional Language Supporting a Diverse Workforce. Comment: One comment requested that RUS add language to how not require borrowers to use local and under-represented businesses when implementing their energy efficiency program. Response: A borrower must prove that their energy efficiency program is cost effective; specifying who a borrower must work with is beyond the scope of Subpart H. Comment: Seven comments requested that RUS clarify “due diligence” to confirm that ability to a slow walk repay a loan or participate in a program does not have to include a credit check, but rather rely on how not a scientific utility bill payment history.
Response: The borrower is held accountable for paying off the loan, and essay needs to determine eligible Consumers. Their method of choice will be articulated in their business plan. Comment: One comment requested clarification on § 1710.255(b), which requires that all facilities being improved be included in the energy Start Printed Page 73364 efficiency work plan, to state that this section only applies to a scientific utility-owned properties. Response: RUS believes the of a good thesis Energy Efficiency Work Plan (EEWP) must also itemize Consumer upgrades in aggregate. Clarifying Demand Side Management. Comment: Three comments requested that RUS specifically state that switches for water heaters and air conditioning units be eligible under Demand side management, or at a minimum clearly state energy efficiency in the definition. Response: RUS believes the definition is inclusive, and the additional language is unnecessary. Redefine Energy Efficiency and Conservation Measures.
Comment: Two comments requested that RUS change the sentence “ultimate goal is the reduction of paper, utility energy needs” to “ultimate goal is the reduction of best, all forms of consumer energy needs (based on annual Btu consumption). Response: RUS believes the current definition fits the how not to write a scientific paper ultimate goal, to reduce utility energy needs, Consumer energy needs is too limiting as utilities are also eligible to write finance energy efficiency activities in their facilities. Comment: Two comments requested that the how not to write paper words “power quality equipment” be added. Response: RUS believes the definition is inclusive, and flies the additional language is to write, unnecessary. Comment: Two comments requested that RUS remove fuel cells as an eligible activity and effective investment. Response: Fuel cells can be used in how not a scientific paper energy efficiency and conservation activities and service will keep the how not a scientific paper activity in the regulation.
They can act as load modifiers; load modifiers are already identified as an eligible purpose for essay of the loan funds. Comment: Two comments requested that RUS make changes to how not to write § 1710.406 (a)(1). The proposed rule states that eligible program activities and investments “shall be designed to best review improve energy efficiency or MANAGED demand on the customer side of the meter. While demand improvements are a primary goal of the rule, demand improvement can be accomplished through managed or passive improvements on the customer side of the meter. How Not Paper! Consequently the best essay service review word ‘managed' should be removed from the text and to write a scientific replaced with the word “reduce” and the word “peak” should be added before “demand.” The new text should state “shall be designed to improve energy efficiency or reduce peak demand on the customer side of the walk thesis meter. Response: RUS agrees with the how not to write a scientific language request and has incorporated it into this final rule. Comment: One comment requests additional clarification in the background section on what the rate will be for essay flies borrowers. Response: This section has been revised for other reasons, the issue is a scientific paper, moot. Comment: One comment requests the section be modified to essay review remove insured, and revise the how not to write a scientific language to be “a) Purpose and amount. With the exception of minor projects, loan funds will be advanced only for projects which are included in a RUS approved borrower's construction work plan (CWP), EE Program work plan (EEWP), or approved amendment, that have also received written Environmental Clearance and/or Approval from RUS prior to the start of construction, and follow RUS' contract and bidding procedures as set forth in 7 CFR part 1726 if applicable.
Loan fund advances can be requested in an amount up to the actual cost incurred less any contribution in aid of bio infomatics thesis, construction. Response: RUS accepts the following language change: “a) Purpose and amount. With the exception of minor projects, loan funds will be advanced only for projects which are included in a RUS approved borrower's EE Program work plan (EEWP), or approved amendment, that have also received written Environmental Clearance and/or Approval from RUS prior to the start of construction, and follow RUS' contract and bidding procedures as set forth in 7 CFR part 1726 if applicable. Loan fund advances can be requested in an amount up to the actual cost incurred less any contribution in aid of construction. Comment: One comment asked if the Energy Efficiency loan program would override state or federal Law. Response: The Energy Efficiency and Conservation Loan program does not override any statutory state or federal laws. Comment: One comment requested that RUS change the to write a scientific loan program, and loan directly to consumers, bypassing the electric companies.
Response: The Energy Efficiency and Conservation Loan program does not statutorily allow us this discretion. Natural Gas Expansion and write Explicit Support of Water Heaters. Comment: Two comments requested RUS explicitly support a given technology or fuel. A Scientific Paper! One comment requested that RUS create a broader regulation that clearly articulates the a slow of trees thesis importance of a scientific paper, natural gas. One comment requested that RUS explicitly include installation of solar thermal, gas, and basics good electric-resistance water heaters as an eligible use of program funds. Response: RUS does not support one technology or fuel source. No changes will be made to to write a scientific the regulation. Appropriate Performance Thresholds for effective Water Heaters. Comment: One comment requested that RUS set explicit energy efficiency thresholds for water heaters. Response: RUS will not list specific threshold levels in this regulation.
Rather, we have clarified that borrowers are encouraged to use existing energy efficiency standards or criteria such as those from: Energy Star, FEMP, ANSI, or other voluntary consensus standards. Focus on Utility Programs That Support Customer Investments in Energy Efficiency. Comment: One comment asked RUS to establish requirements and guidelines that will ensure program funds are substantially devoted to support utility programs designed to support efficiency investments in customer homes, buildings, and facilities. Response: RUS believes our regulation supports these investments, as well as investments in a scientific decreasing a utility's total energy use. Basics Of A Good! No additional language was added. Leverage Other Federal Programs With the Energy Efficiency Program. Comment: One comment asked RUS to explore leveraging options with USDA's Rural Housing Service, Federal Housing Administration, Department of Veterans Affairs, and the Federal Housing Finance Authority. Response: RUS supports program collaboration, and will continue to work with our Federal partners, but no additional language will be included in the regulation. Start Printed Page 73365. Consider Combined Heat and Power Projects as Eligible Measures.
Comment: One comment asked RUS to how not explicitly state combined heat and power projects are an eligible energy conservation activity under the regulation. Response: RUS believes our regulation provides enough flexibility to allow these forms of activities, without specifying every eligible activity in the regulation. Comment: One comment requested RUS change the definition of fuel switching to “the temporary use of non-electric energy sources as a method to limit electric peak loads during limited time periods. The term fuel switching does not include the permanent replacement of equipment that uses one energy source with equipment that uses a different energy source.” Response: RUS clarified the effective cv writing definition of “fuel switching.' Comment: One comment asked RUS to how not paper adopt data collection procedures to track program financials and measure performance. Response: RUS has and will continue to generator collect data on loan activities, monitoring and tracking performance measures.
No additional language needs to be added to the regulation. Comment: One comment requested RUS target supplementing existing and paper planned energy efficiency programs and budgets, not replacing the programs. Response: RUS believes our current language will support existing and promote new energy efficiency programs. Start List of effective, Subjects. For reasons set forth in the preamble, the Agency amends 7 CFR chapter XVII as follows: PART 1710GENERAL AND PRE-LOAN POLICIES AND PROCEDURES COMMON TO ELECTRIC LOANS AND GUARANTEES. 1. The authority citation for a scientific paper part 1710 continues to read as follows: End Amendment Part Start Authority. 2. In § 1710.2(a) revise the definition of my essay generator, “Demand side management” and add a definition of “Eligible Energy Efficiency Programs” in alphabetical order to how not to write paper read as follows:
End Amendment Part. Demand side management (DSM) means the deliberate planning and/or implementation of activities to influence Consumer use of electricity provided by a distribution borrower to produce beneficial modifications to the system load profile. Beneficial modifications to the system load profile ordinarily improve load factor or otherwise help in best service utilizing electric system resources to best advantage consistent with acceptable standards of how not to write a scientific, service and lowest system cost. Load profile modifications are characterized as peak clipping, valley filling, load shifting, strategic conservation, strategic load growth, and flexible load profile. (See, for example, publications of the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), 3412 Hillview Avenue, Palo Alto, CA 94304, especially “Demand-Side Management Glossary” EPRI TR-101158, Project 1940-25, Final Report, October 1992.) DSM includes energy conservation programs. Eligible Energy Efficiency and Conservation Programs (Eligible EE Program) means an write my essay, energy efficiency and to write a scientific paper conservation program that meets the requirements of Subpart H of this part. Subpart CLoan Purposes and best editing Basic Policies.
3. In § 1710.100, amend the first sentence by adding the words “efficiency and” before “energy conservation”. End Amendment Part. 4. In § 1710.101, amend the second sentence of paragraph (b) by adding the word “direct” before “loans to individual consumers”. End Amendment Part. 5. Amend § 1710.102 as follows: End Amendment Part Start Amendment Part.
a. Amend the first sentence of paragraph (a) by adding “energy efficiency and” before “energy conservation”; and. End Amendment Part Start Amendment Part. b. Amend the first sentence of a scientific, paragraph (b) by adding “energy efficiency and” before “energy conservation”. End Amendment Part Start Amendment Part. 6. Amend § 1710.106 by adding paragraph (a)(6) and editing revising paragraphs (c)(1) and (d) to read as follows:
End Amendment Part. (6) Eligible Energy Efficiency and to write a scientific paper Conservation Programs pursuant to essay Subpart H of to write paper, this part. (1) Electric facilities, equipment, appliances, or wiring located inside the cv writing premises of the Consumer, except for assets financed pursuant to an Eligible EE Program, and a scientific paper qualifying items included in a loan for Demand side management or energy resource conservation programs, or renewable energy systems. (d) A distribution borrower may request a loan period of of a good thesis, up to how not a scientific 4 years. Best Essay Editing Review! Except in the case of loans for new generating and associated transmission facilities, a power supply borrower may request a loan period of not more than 4 years for transmission and substation facilities and to write a scientific improvements or replacements of generation facilities. Essay Editing Service! The loan period for new generating facilities and DSM activities will be determined on a case-by-case basis. The Administrator may approve a loan period shorter than the period requested by the borrower, if in the Administrator's sole discretion, a loan made for the longer period would fail to meet RUS requirements for loan feasibility and how not to write a scientific paper loan security set forth in §§ 1710.112 and 1710.113, respectively. 7. In § 1710.109 amend the first sentence of paragraph (a) by best review, adding the words “energy efficiency and conservation program work plan,” after “construction work plan”. End Amendment Part Start Amendment Part. 8. Amend § 1710.115 by adding paragraph (c) to to write paper read as follows:
End Amendment Part. (c) The term for bio infomatics loans made to finance Eligible EE Programs will be determined in accordance with § 1710.408 of this part. 9. In § 1710.120 add the words “energy efficiency and conservation program work plans,” after “construction work plans,”. End Amendment Part. Subpart DBasic Requirements for Loan Approval. 10.
Amend § 1710.152 by adding paragraph (e) to read as follows: End Amendment Part. (e) EE Program work plan (EEWP). In the case of a loan application to finance an Eligible Energy Efficient Program, an EE Program work plan shall be prepared in lieu of a traditional CWP required pursuant to paragraph (b) of how not to write paper, this section. Effective Cv Writing! The requirements for an EEWP are set forth in § 1710.255 and in subpart H of this part. 11.
Amend § 1710.202 by adding paragraph (d) to paper read as follows: End Amendment Part. (d) Notwithstanding paragraphs (a) through (c) of this section, a power supply borrower that has an outstanding loan for an Eligible EE Program is required to maintain an approved load forecast and an approved load forecast work plan on an ongoing basis. 12. Effective! Amend § 1710.203 by a scientific paper, adding paragraph (f) to read as follows: End Amendment Part. (f) Notwithstanding paragraphs (a) through (e) of essay editing service review, this section, a distribution borrower that has an outstanding loan for an Eligible EE Program is required to to write maintain an approved load forecast and an approved load forecast work plan on an ongoing basis.
13. In § 1710.205 amend paragraph (b)(5) by adding the words “and energy efficiency and conservation program” after “demand side management”. End Amendment Part. Subpart FConstruction Work Plans and Related Studies. 14. Add § 1710.255 to subpart F to read as follows:
End Amendment Part. (a) All energy efficiency borrowers must maintain a current EEWP approved by their board of directors covering in aggregate all new construction, improvements, replacements, and retirements of energy efficiency related equipment and my essay activities; (b) An energy efficiency borrower's EEWP shall cover a period of between 2 and 4 years, and include all facilities to be constructed or improved which are eligible for RUS financing, whether or not RUS financial assistance will be sought or be available for certain facilities. How Not! The construction period covered by an EEWP in cv writing support of a loan application shall not be shorter than the loan period requested for a scientific paper financing of the facilities; (c) The borrower's EEWP may only a slow walk of trees thesis, include facilities, equipment and other activities that have been approved by RUS as a part of an how not a scientific, Eligible Energy Efficiency and Conservation Program pursuant to subpart H of this part; (d) The borrower's EEWP must be consistent with the documentation provided as part of the current RUS approved EE Program as outlined in basics of a thesis § 1710.410(c); and. (e) The borrower's EEWP must include an estimated schedule for the implementation of included projects. Subpart GLong Range Financial Forecasts.
15. Amend § 1710.300 by redesignating paragraphs (d)(3) through (5) as paragraphs (d)(4) through (6) respectively; and adding a new paragraph (d)(3) to how not a scientific paper read as follows: End Amendment Part. (3) RUS-approved EE Program work plan; 16. In § 1710.302 amend paragraph (d)(5) by removing the reference “§ 1710.300(d)(5)” and essay editing service review adding in its place “§ 1710.300(d)(6)”. End Amendment Part. Subpart IApplication Requirements and Procedures for Loans. 17a. In subpart I, redesignate §§ 1710.400 through 1710.407 as §§ 1710.500 through 1710.507, respectively.
End Amendment Part Start Amendment Part. 17b. Add Subpart H consisting of §§ 1710.400 through 1710.499, to a scientific paper read as follows: End Amendment Part. Subpart HEnergy Efficiency and Conservation Loan Program. (a) This subpart establishes policies and requirements that apply to loans and a slow walk of trees thesis loan guarantees to finance Energy Efficiency and Conservation programs (EE Programs) undertaken by how not to write, an eligible utility system to finance Demand side management, energy efficiency and conservation, or on-grid and off-grid renewable energy system programs that will result in the better management of their system load growth, a more beneficial load profile, or greater optimization of the use of alternative energy resources in their service territory. These programs may be considered an essential utility service. (b)(1) The goals of an eligible Energy Efficiency project eligible for funding under this program and Subpart H include: (i) Increasing energy efficiency at a slow walk of trees thesis the end user level; (ii) Modifying electric load such that there is a reduction in overall system demand; (iii) Effecting a more efficient use of how not to write paper, existing electric distribution, transmission and generation facilities; Start Printed Page 73367. (iv) Attracting new businesses and creating jobs in rural communities by investing in energy efficiency; and.
(v) Encouraging the use of renewable energy fuels for basics good thesis either Demand side management or the reduction of conventional fossil fuel use within the paper service territory. (2) Although not a goal, RUS recognizes that there will be a reduction of green house gases with energy efficiency improvements. EE Programs under this subpart may be financed at essay on savagery of the the distribution level or by an electric generation and transmission provider. RUS encourages borrowers to coordinate with the relevant member systems regarding their intention to implement a program financed under this subpart. RUS also encourages borrowers to leverage funds available under this subpart with State, local, or other funding sources that may be available to to write paper implement such programs. This subpart adapts and modifies, but does not supplant, the effective requirements for how not a scientific all borrowers set forth elsewhere where the purpose of the loan is to finance an approved EE program.
In the event there is overlap or conflict between this subpart and the provisions of this part 1710 or other parts of the Code of Federal Regulations, the provisions of this subpart will apply for loans made or guaranteed pursuant to this subpart. EE Programs financed under this subpart may be directed at all forms of energy consumed within a utility's service territory, not just electricity, where the electric utility is in a position to facilitate the optimization of the walk thesis energy consumption profile within its service territory and how not paper do so in a way that enhances the financial or physical performance of the rural electric system and enables the repayment of the energy efficiency loan. For the purpose of this subpart, the generator following terms shall have the following meanings. In the event there is overlap or conflict between the definitions contained in § 1710.2, the definitions set forth below will apply for to write a scientific paper loans made or guaranteed pursuant to this subpart. British thermal unit (Btu) means the bio infomatics quantity of heat required to raise one pound of water one degree Fahrenheit. Certified energy auditor for commercial and to write a scientific paper industrial energy efficiency improvements. (1) An energy auditor shall meet one of the following criteria: (i) An individual possessing a current commercial or industrial energy auditor certification from a national, industry-recognized organization; (ii) A Licensed Professional Engineer in the State in which the audit is conducted with at least 1 year experience and who has completed at least two similar type Energy Audits; (iii) An individual with a four-year engineering or architectural degree with at least 3 years experience and who has completed at least five similar type Energy Audits; or. (iv) Beginning in of a thesis calendar year 2015, an energy auditor certification recognized by the Department of Energy through its Better Buildings Workforce Guidelines project. (2) For residential energy efficiency improvements, an how not a scientific, energy auditor shall meet one of the following criteria: The workforce qualification requirements of the Home Performance with Energy Star Program, as outlined in Section 3 of the generator Home Performance with Energy Star Sponsor Guide; or an individual possessing a current residential energy auditor or building analyst certification from a national, industry-recognized organization. Cost effective means the aggregate cost of an EE Program is less than the a scientific financial benefit of the program over time. The cost of editing, a program for this purpose shall include the costs of incentives, measurement and verification activity and administrative costs, and the benefits shall include, without limitation, the value of energy saved, the to write a scientific paper value of corresponding avoided generation, transmission or distribution and reserve investments as may be displaced or deferred by editing service, program activities, and how not to write a scientific the value of corresponding avoided greenhouse gas emissions and other pollutants. Demand means the electrical load averaged over basics, a specified interval of time.
Demand is expressed in kilowatts, kilovolt amperes, kilovars, amperes, or other suitable units. The interval of time is generally 15 minutes, 30 minutes, or 60 minutes. Demand savings means the how not to write a scientific paper quantifiable reduction in the load requirement for electric power, usually expressed in kilowatts (kW) or megawatts (MW) such that it reduces the cost to serve the bio infomatics load. Eligible borrower means a utility system that has direct or indirect responsibility for providing retail electric service to persons in a rural area. This definition includes existing borrowers and utilities who meet current RUS borrower requirements. Energy audit means an how not to write a scientific paper, inspection and analysis of energy flows in a building, process, or system with the write generator goal of identifying opportunities to enhance energy efficiency.
The activity should result in an objective standard-based technical report containing recommendations for improving the energy efficiency. The report should also include an analysis of the estimated benefits and how not a scientific costs of pursuing each recommendation and the simple payback period. Energy efficiency and conservation measures means equipment, materials and practices that when installed and used at a Consumer's premises result in a verifiable reduction in energy consumption, measured in Btus, or demand as measured in Btu-hours, or both, at the point of purchase relative to a base level of output. The ultimate goal is the reduction of utility or consumer energy needs. Energy efficiency and conservation program (EE Program) means a program of activities undertaken or financed by a utility within its service territory to reduce the amount or rate of energy used by Consumers relative to a base level of output. HVAC means heating, ventilation, and air conditioning. Load means the editing service review Power delivered to power utilization equipment performing its normal function. Load factor means the ratio of the average load over a designated period of time to how not a scientific paper the peak load occurring in the same period. Peak demand (or maximum demand) means the highest demand measured over a selected period of time, e.g., one month.
Peak demand reduction means a decrease in electrical demand on an electric utility system during the system's peak period, calculated as the reduction in basics good maximum average demand achieved over a specified interval of time. Power means the rate of generating, transferring, or using energy. The basic unit is the watt, where one Watt is approximately 3.41213 Btu/hr. Re-lamping means the initial conversion of bulbs or light fixtures to more efficient lighting technology but not the replacement of like kind bulbs or fixtures after the initial conversion. SI means the International System of Units: the how not a scientific paper modern metric system. Smart Grid Investments means capital expenditures for devices or systems that are capable of providing real time, two way (utility and flies Consumer) information and control protocols for individual Consumer owned or operated appliances and equipment, usually Start Printed Page 73368 through a Consumer interface or smart meter. Ultimate recipient means a Consumer that receives a loan from a borrower under this subpart. Utility Energy Services Contract (UESC) means a contract whereby a utility provides a Consumer with comprehensive energy efficiency improvement services or demand reduction services.
Utility system means an entity in the business of providing retail electric service to a scientific Consumers (distribution entity) or an entity in the business of providing wholesale electric supply to distribution entities (generation entity) or an a slow walk thesis, entity in the business of providing transmission service to to write a scientific paper distribution or generation entities (transmission entity), where, in each case, the entities provide the write generator applicable service using self-owned or controlled assets under a published tariff that the entity and paper any associated regulatory agency may adjust. Watt means the SI unit of power equal to a rate of energy transfer (or the rate at which work is done), of one joule per second. (a) General. Eligible EE Programs shall: (1) Be developed and implemented by an Eligible borrower and applied within its service territory; (2) Consist of eligible activities and best service investments as provided in § 1710.406. (3) Provide for the use of a scientific paper, State and local funds where available to supplement RUS loan funds; (4) Incorporate the applicant's policy applicable to the interconnection of effective, distributed resources; (5) Incorporate a business plan that meets the requirements of how not to write a scientific, § 1710.407; (6) Incorporate a quality assurance plan that meets the requirements of § 1710.408; (7) Demonstrate that the program can be expected to be Cost effective; (8) Demonstrate that the program will have a net positive or neutral cumulative impact on the borrower's financial condition over the time period contemplated in the analytical support documents demonstrating that the net present value of program costs incurred by in lord, the borrower are positive, pursuant to § 1710.411; (9) Demonstrate energy savings or peak demand reduction for the service territory overall; and.
(10) Be approved in writing by how not to write a scientific, RUS prior to the investment of funds for essay service review which reimbursement will be requested. (b) Financial Structures. Eligible EE Programs may provide for to write a scientific paper direct recoupment of expenditures for eligible activities and effective investment from Ultimate Recipients as follows: (1) Loans made to Ultimate Recipients located in a rural area where (i) The Ultimate Recipients may be wholesale or retail; (ii) The loans may be secured or unsecured; (iii) The loan receivables are owned by how not to write a scientific, the Eligible Borrower; (iv) The loans are made or serviced directly by the Eligible Borrower or by effective, a financial institution pursuant to a contractual relationship between the Eligible Borrower and the financial institution; (v) Due diligence is performed to confirm the repayment ability of the Ultimate Recipient; (vi) Loans are funded only upon completion of the project financed or to how not reimburse startup costs that have been incurred; (vii) The rate charged the Ultimate Recipient is less than or equal to the direct Treasury rate established daily by the United States Treasury pursuant to § 1710.51(a)(1) or § 1710.52, as applicable, plus the borrower's interest rate from RUS and 1.5 percent . Exceptions will be made on essay on savagery of the a case-by-case basis to ensure repayment of the government's loan and how not to write a scientific must be clearly articulated in the business plan RUS will not accept an exception request if the loan is thesis, feasible at how not a scientific paper 1.5 percent; and. (viii) Loans are not used to effective refinance a preexisting loan. (2) A tariff that is specific to an identified rural Consumer, premise or class of paper, ratepayer; or. (3) On bill repayment and other financial recoupment mechanisms as may be approved by RUS. (c) Period of performance (1) Performance standards. Thesis! (i) Eligible EE Programs activities that are listed under § 1710.406(b) should be designed to how not to write a scientific paper achieve the applicable operating performance standards within one year of the date of installation of the facilities. (ii) All activities other than those included in paragraph (c)(1)(i) of this section should be designed to in lord flies achieve the applicable operating performance targets within the time period contemplated by the analytic support documents for the overall EE Program as approved by RUS. (2) Cost effectiveness.
Eligible EE Programs must demonstrate that Cost effectiveness as measured for the program overall will be achieved within ten years of initial funding, except in cases where the useful life of the technology on an aggregate basis can be demonstrated to be longer than the ten year period. A Scientific Paper! RUS will evaluate the useful life assumption on a case-by-case basis. (a) General. Eligible program activities and best essay editing service investments: (1) Shall be designed to to write paper improve energy efficiency and/or reduce peak demand on the customer side of the walk meter; (2) Shall be Cost effective in how not to write a scientific the aggregate after giving effect to all activities and investments contemplated in the approved EE Program; and. (3) May apply to all Consumer classes. (b) Eligible activities and investments. Eligible program activities and investments may include, but are not limited to, the following: (1) Energy efficiency and conservation measures where assets financed at an Ultimate Recipient premises can be characterized as an integral part of the real property that would typically transfer with the title under applicable state law. Where applicable, it is anticipated that the loan obligation would also be expected to essay in lord of the flies transfer with ownership of the metered account serving that property. (2) Renewable Energy Systems, including (i) On or Off Grid Renewable energy systems; (3) Demand side management (DSM) investments including Smart Grid Investments; (4) Energy audits; (5) Utility Energy Services Contracts; (6) Consumer education and outreach programs; (7) Power factor correction equipment on the Ultimate Recipient side of the how not meter; (8) Re-lamping to more energy efficient lighting; and. (9) Fuel Switching as in: (i) The replacement of existing fuel consuming equipment using a particular fuel with more efficient fuel consuming equipment that uses another fuel but which does not increase direct greenhouse gas emissions; or. (ii) The installation of non-electric fuel consuming equipment to facilitate management of electric system peak loads.
Fuel switching to fossil or biomass fueled electric generating equipment is expressly excluded. (10) Other activities and investments as approved by RUS as part of the EE Program such as, but not limited to, pre-retrofit improvements. (c) Intermediary lending. Essay In Lord! EE Program loan funds may be used for direct re-lending to Ultimate Recipients where Start Printed Page 73369 the requirements of § 1710.405(b) are met. (d) Performance standards. Borrowers are required to how not a scientific paper use Energy Star qualified equipment where applicable or meet or exceed efficiency requirements designated by the Federal Energy Management Program.
An Eligible EE Program must have a business plan for implementing the walk of trees program. How Not To Write Paper! The business plan is expected to best essay editing service review have a global perspective on the borrower's energy efficiency plan. Therefore, energy efficiency upgrades should be identified in aggregate. The business plan must have the following elements: (a) Executive summary. The executive summary shall capture the overall objectives to be met by a scientific paper, the Eligible EE Program and the timeframe in write my essay generator which they are expected to be achieved.
(b) Organizational background. The background section shall include descriptions of the management team responsible for implementing the Eligible EE Program. (c) Marketing plan. The marketing section should identify the target Consumers, promotional activities to be pursued and target penetration rates by Consumer category and investment activity. (d) Operations plan. To Write A Scientific! The operations plan shall include but is not limited to: (1) A list of the thesis activities and how not to write a scientific investments to be implemented under the EE Program and the Btu savings goal targeted for effective cv writing each category; (2) An estimate of the dollar amount of investment by the utility for each category of activities and investments listed under paragraph (d)(1) of this section; (3) A staffing plan that identifies whether and how not to write a scientific paper how outsourced contractors or subcontractors will be used to deliver the program; (4) A description of the process for documenting and perfecting collateral arrangements for basics good thesis Ultimate Recipient loans, if applicable; and. (5) The overall Btu savings to be accomplished over the life of the EE Program.
(e) Financial plan. The financial plan shall include but is not limited to: (1) A schedule showing sources and uses of funds for how not to write a scientific paper the program; (2) An itemized budget for each activity and effective cv writing investment category listed in the operations plan; (3) An aggregate Cost effectiveness forecast; (4) Where applicable, provision for a scientific Ultimate Recipient loan loss reserves. These loan loss reserves will not be funded by RUS. Loan loss reserves are not required when a utility will not be relending RUS funds. (5) Identify expected Ultimate Recipient loan delinquency and default rates and report annually on deviations from the write my essay expected rates.
(f) Risk analysis. The business plan shall include an evaluation of the financial and operational risk associated with the program, including an estimate of how not to write a scientific paper, prospective Consumer loan losses consistent with the loan loss reserve to my essay be established pursuant to paragraph (e)(4) of to write a scientific paper, this section. (g) The borrowers are strongly encouraged to follow a bulletin or such other publication as RUS deems appropriate that contains and describes best practices for energy efficiency business plans. RUS will make this bulletin or publication publicly available and revise it from essay on savagery in lord flies, time-to-time as RUS deems it necessary. An eligible EE program must have a quality assurance plan as part of the program. How Not To Write A Scientific Paper! The quality assurance plan is expected to a slow of trees have a global perspective on how not a scientific paper the borrower's energy efficiency plan. Therefore, energy efficiency upgrades should be identified in aggregate. Every effort is effective, made to fund only EE programs that are administered in accordance with quality assurance plans meeting standards designed to to write achieve the purposes of this subpart. However, RUS and its employees assume no legal liability for the accuracy, completeness or usefulness of any information, product, service, or process funded directly or indirectly with financial assistance provided under this subpart. Nothing in the loan documents between RUS and the energy efficiency borrower shall confer upon any other person any right, benefit or remedy of any nature whatsoever.
Neither RUS nor its employees makes any warranty, express or implied, including the warranties of merchantability and fitness for a particular purpose, with respect to any information, product, service, or process available from an energy efficiency borrower. Basics! The approval by to write a scientific, RUS and its employees of an energy efficiency borrower's quality assurance plan is solely for the benefit of RUS. Approval of the quality assurance plan does not constitute an RUS endorsement. Basics Thesis! The quality assurance plan must have the following elements: (a) Quality assurance assessments shall include the use of qualified energy managers or professional engineers to evaluate program activities and investments; (b) Where applicable, program evaluation activities should use the how not paper protocols for determining energy savings as developed by a slow walk of trees, the U.S. Department of Energy in the Uniform Methods Project. (c) Energy audits shall be performed for energy efficiency investments involving the building envelope at an Ultimate Recipient premises; (d) Energy audits must be performed by to write a scientific, certified energy auditors; and. (e) Follow up audits shall be performed within one year after installation on essay a sample of investments made to confirm whether efficiency improvement expectations are being met. (f) In cases involving energy efficiency upgrades to a single system (such as a ground source heat pump) the new system must be designed and installed by certified and insured professionals acceptable to a scientific the utility. (g) Industry or manufacturer standard performance tests, as applicable, shall be required on any system upgraded as a result of an EE Program. This testing shall indicate the installed system is meeting its designed performance parameters. (h) In some programs the utility may elect to recommend independent contractors who can perform energy efficiency related work for their customers.
In these cases utilities shall monitor the work done by best editing, the contractors and confirm that the contractors are performing quality work. Utilities should remove substandard contractors from their recommended lists if the subcontractors fail to how not paper perform at a satisfactory level. RUS does not endorse or recommend any particular independent contractors. (i) Contractors not hired by the utility may not act as agents of the utility in performing work financed under this subpart. (j) The borrowers are strongly encouraged to of a good thesis follow a bulletin or other publication that RUS deems appropriate and how not paper contains and describes best practices for energy efficiency quality assurance plans. Best Essay Service Review! RUS will make this bulletin or publication publicly available and a scientific revise it from thesis, time-to-time as RUS deems it necessary.
(a) Loan term. The maximum term for loans under this subpart shall be 15 years unless the loans relate to ground source loop investments or technology on an aggregate basis that has a useful life greater than 15 years. To Write A Scientific! Ground source loop investments as the term is used in this paragraph do not include ancillary Start Printed Page 73370 equipment related to ground source heat pump systems. (b) Loan feasibility. Loan feasibility must be demonstrated for all loans made under this subpart. Loans made under this subpart shall be secured.
(c) Reimbursement for walk completed projects. (1) A borrower may request an initial advance not to exceed five percent of the total loan amount for working capital purposes to implement an eligible EE Program; (2) Except for the initial advance provided for in paragraph (c)(1) of this section, all advances under this subpart shall be used for reimbursement of expenditures relating to a completed activity or investment; and. (3) Advances shall be in accordance with RUS procedures. (d) Loan amounts. (1) Cumulative loan amounts outstanding under this subpart will be determined by the Assistant Administrator of the Electric Program and based an applicant's business plan; and. (2) Financing for administrative costs may not exceed 5 percent of the total loan amount. (3) The Rural Utilities Service reserves the right to place a cap on both the how not a scientific paper total amount of funds an eligible entity can apply for, as well as a cap on the total amount of funds the Energy Efficiency and Conservation Program can utilize in cv writing the appropriations. The required application documentation listed in this section is not all inclusive but is how not, specific to Eligible borrowers requesting a loan under this subpart and in most cases is supplemental to the general requirements for loan applications provided for of a good in this part 1710: (a) A letter from the Borrower's General Manager requesting a loan under this subpart. (b) A copy of the board resolution establishing the EE Program that reflects an undertaking that funds collected in excess of how not, then current amortization requirements for essay editing service the related RUS loan will be redeployed for EE Program purposes or used to how not to write a scientific paper prepay the RUS loan. (c) Current RUS-approved EE Program documentation that includes: (1) A Business Plan that meets the requirements of § 1710.407; (2) A Quality Assurance Plan that meets the bio infomatics requirements of § 1710.408; (3) Analytical support documentation that meets the requirements of how not, § 1710.411; (4) A copy of basics of a good thesis, RUS' written approval of the EE Program. (d) An EE program work plan that meets the requirements of § 1710.255; (e) A statement of whether an initial working capital advance pursuant to § 1710.409(c)(1) is included in the loan budget together with a schedule of how these funds will be used. (f) A proposed draft Schedule C pursuant to 7 CFR part 1718 that lists assets to be financed under this subpart as excepted property under the a scientific paper RUS mortgage, as applicable.
Applications for loans under this subpart may only be made for eligible activities and investments included in effective an RUS-approved EE Program. In addition to a business plan and to write operations plan, a request for EE program approval must include analytical support documentation that demonstrates the program meets the requirements of § 1710.303 and assures RUS of the operational and financial integrity of the thesis EE Program. This documentation must include, but is to write paper, not necessarily limited to, the following: (a) A comparison of the a slow utility's projected annual growth in demand after incorporating the EE Program together with an how not paper, updated baseline forecast on file with RUS, where each includes an estimate of energy consuming devices used by effective cv writing, customers in the service territory and a specific time horizon as determined by the utility for meeting the performance objectives established by them for the EE Program; (b) Demonstration that the required periods of performance under § 1710.405(c) can reasonably be expected to be met; (c) A report of paper, discussions and essay of the coordination conducted with the power supplier, where applicable, issues identified as a result, and the outcome of this effort. (d) An estimate of the amount of direct investment in utility-owned generation that will be deferred as a result of the EE Program; (e) A description of efforts to identify state and local sources of funding and, if available, how they are to a scientific paper be integrated in the financing of the of a good thesis EE Program; and. (f) Copies of a scientific paper, sample documentation used by the utility in administering its EE Program. (g) Such other documents and reports as the Administrator may require. Nothing in this subpart changes a Borrower's obligation to comply with RUS's accounting, monitoring and reporting requirements. Effective Cv Writing! In addition thereto, the to write a scientific paper Administrator may also require additional management reports that provide the bio infomatics thesis agency with a means of evaluating the extent to to write a scientific paper which the goals and objectives identified in the EE Plan are being accomplished. Nothing in write my essay this subpart changes a Borrower's obligation to comply with all laws and regulations to which it is subject.
PART 1717POST-LOAN POLICIES AND PROCEDURES COMMON TO INSURED AND GUARANTEED ELECTRIC LOANS. 18. The authority citation for part 1717 continues to a scientific read as follows: End Amendment Part Start Authority. Subpart RLien Accommodations and Subordinations for 100 Percent Private Financing. 19. Amend § 1717.852 by revising paragraph (b)(2)(ii) to essay on savagery in lord of the read as follows: End Amendment Part.
(ii) Renewable energy systems and RUS-approved programs of Demand side management, energy efficiency and energy conservation; and. PART 1721POST-LOAN POLICIES AND PROCEDURES FOR INSURED AND GUARANTEED ELECTRIC LOANS. 20. How Not To Write A Scientific! The authority citation for part 1721 continues to read as follows: End Amendment Part Start Authority. 21. Amend § 1721.1 by revising paragraph (a) to read as follows:
End Amendment Part. (a) Purpose and amount. With the exception of minor projects, loan funds will be advanced only for projects which are included in an RUS approved construction work plan (CWP), EE Program work plan (EEWP), or approved amendment, and in an approved loan as amended. Loan fund advances can be requested in an amount representing actual costs incurred. PART 1724ELECTRIC ENGINEERING, ARCHITECTURAL SERVICES AND DESIGN POLICIES AND PROCEDURES.
22. The authority citation for part 1724 continues to read as follows: End Amendment Part Start Authority. 23. Walk! Amend § 1724.30 by revising paragraph (a) to how not to write paper read as follows: End Amendment Part.
(a) Each borrower shall select one or more qualified persons to perform the engineering services involved in the planning (including the development of an EE Program eligible for financing pursuant to on savagery of the subpart H of part 1710 of this chapter, design, and construction management of the system. PART 1730ELECTRIC SYSTEM OPERATIONS AND MAINTENANCE. 24. The authority citation for part 1730 continues to read as follows: End Amendment Part Start Authority. Subpart BOperations and to write paper Maintenance Requirements.
25. Amend Appendix A to subpart B of thesis, Part 1730 by to write paper, adding paragraph 13.f. to read as follows: End Amendment Part Start Appendix. Appendix A to Subpart B of Part 1730Review Rating Summary, RUS Form 300. f. Energy Efficiency and Conservation Program quality assurance compliance John Charles Padalino, Administrator, Rural Utilities Service.
1. Senator Patrick Leahy as the Chairman of the Senate Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition and thesis Forestry explained this provision in a letter dated June 18, 1993 to Senator Jim Sasser the Chairman of the Senate Committee on the Budget as follows: “These amendments also permit REA [now RUS] to to write a scientific paper make loans for demand side management and energy conservation program[s] which are required by some state agencies. They are also often the most cost effective methods of meeting the energy needs of rural areas.” 2. This Bulletin was rescinded in 2002 when RUS updated and codified the ERC Loan Program as 7 CFR Part 1721, subpart B. (See 67 FR 484, January 4, 2002).
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essay grade sixth Sixth Grade Writing Standards. Writing standards for sixth grade define the knowledge and how not to write a scientific paper skills needed for effective cv writing, writing proficiency at this grade level. By understanding 6th grade writing standards, parents can be more effective in helping their children meet grade level expectations. What is 6th Grade Writing? Sixth grade students are expected to produce cohesive, coherent, and error-free multi-paragraph essays on a regular basis. Sixth-graders write essays of increasing complexity containing formal introductions, ample supporting evidence, and conclusions. Students select the appropriate form and how not develop an identifiable voice and style suitable for the writing purpose and the audience. Sixth grade student writing should demonstrate a command of standard American English and writing skills such as organizing ideas, using effective transitions, and choosing precise wording.
Sixth-graders use every phase of the effective writing process and continue to build their knowledge of a scientific, writing conventions, as well as how to essay on savagery in lord flies, evaluate writing and conduct research. The following writing standards represent what states* typically specify as 6th grade benchmarks in writing proficiency: Sixth grade writing standards focus on the writing process as the primary tool to help children become independent writers. In Grade 6, students are taught to use each phase of the process as follows: Prewriting: In grade 6, students generate ideas and organize information for writing by using such prewriting strategies as brainstorming, graphic organizers, notes, and a scientific logs.
Students choose the of a form of writing that best suits the intended purpose and then make a plan for writing that prioritizes ideas, addresses purpose, audience, main idea, and logical sequence. Drafting: In sixth grade, students develop drafts by categorizing ideas, organizing them into paragraphs, and how not to write a scientific paper blending paragraphs within larger units of text. Writing exhibits the students’ awareness of the audience and purpose. Students analyze language techniques of professional authors (e.g., point of view, establishing mood) to enhance the use of descriptive language and word choices. Revising: In sixth grade, students revise selected drafts by elaborating, deleting, combining, and rearranging text. Effective. Other grade 6 revision techniques include adding transitional words, incorporating sources directly and how not to write paper indirectly into writing, using generalizations where appropriate, and connecting conclusion to beginning (e.g., use of the my essay circular ending). Goals for revision include improving coherence, progression, and to write the logical support of ideas by cv writing focusing on the organization and consistency of ideas within and between paragraphs. Paper. Students also evaluate drafts for use of voice, point of view, and language techniques (e.g., foreshadowing, imagery, simile, metaphor, sensory language, connotation, denotation) to create a vivid expression of ideas. Editing: Students edit their writing based on essay editing, their knowledge of how not, grammar and usage, spelling, punctuation, and bio infomatics thesis other features of polished writing, such as clarity, varied sentence structure, and word choice (e.g., eliminating slang and selecting more precise verbs, nouns, and adjectives).
Students also proofread using reference materials, word processor, and other resources. Publishing: Sixth graders refine selected pieces frequently to “publish” for intended audiences. Paper. Published pieces use appropriate formatting and graphics (e.g., tables, drawings, charts, graphs) when applicable to enhance the appearance of the essay document. Use of technology: Sixth grade students use available technology to a scientific, support aspects of walk thesis, creating, revising, editing, and publishing texts. Students compose documents with appropriate formatting by using word-processing skills and principles of how not a scientific paper, design (e.g., margins, tabs, spacing, columns, page orientation).
In sixth grade, students write to express, discover, record, develop, and reflect on ideas. They problem solve and produce texts of at least 500 to 700 words. Specifically, 6th grade writing standards stipulate that students write in the following forms: Narrative: Students write narrative accounts that establish a point of view, setting, and essay service review plot (including rising action, conflict, climax, falling action, and resolution). How Not To Write. Writing should employ precise sensory details and concrete language to develop plot and character and good use a range of how not to write a scientific paper, narrative devices (e.g., dialogue, suspense, and my essay figurative language) to enhance style and tone. Expository: Students write to a scientific, describe, explain, compare and contrast, and problem solve. Essays should engage the interest of the reader and effective cv writing include a thesis statement, supporting details, and introductory, body, and concluding paragraphs.
Students use a variety of organizational patterns, including by categories, spatial order, order of importance, or climactic order. Research Reports: Students pose relevant questions with a scope narrow enough to be thoroughly covered. Writing supports the a scientific paper main idea or ideas with facts, details, examples, and effective explanations from multiple authoritative sources (e.g., speakers, periodicals, online information searches), and includes a bibliography. Persuasive: Students write to influence, such as to persuade, argue, and request. In grade 6, persuasive compositions should state a clear position, support the position with organized and relevant evidence, anticipate and address reader concerns and counter arguments.
Creative: Students write to entertain, using a variety of expressive forms (e.g., short play, song lyrics, historical fiction, limericks) that employ figurative language, rhythm, dialogue, characterization, plot, and/or appropriate format. Responses to Literature: Sixth grade students develop an interpretation exhibiting careful reading, understanding, and insight. Writing shows organization around clear ideas, premises, or images, supported by examples and textual evidence. In addition, sixth graders choose the appropriate form for their own purpose for writing, including journals, letters, editorials, reviews, poems, presentations, and narratives, and instructions. Grade 6: Writing Evaluation. Sixth grade students learn to respond constructively to others’ writing and a scientific paper determine if their own writing achieves its purposes. In Grade 6, students also apply criteria to write my essay, evaluate writing and analyze published examples as models for writing. Writing standards recommend that each student keep and review a collection of his/her own written work to determine its strengths and weaknesses and to how not paper, set goals as a writer. In addition, sixth grade students evaluate the purposes and effects of film, print, and technology presentations.
Students assess how language, medium, and presentation contribute to meaning. Grade 6: Written English Language Conventions. Students in sixth grade are expected to write with more complex sentences, capitalization, and bio infomatics thesis punctuation. In particular, sixth grade writing standards specify these key markers of proficiency: —Write in to write, complete sentences, using a variety of sentence structures to expand and effective cv writing embed ideas (e.g., simple, compound, and complex sentences; parallel structure, such as similar grammatical forms or juxtaposed items).
—Employ effective coordination and subordination of how not to write, ideas to a slow walk, express complete thoughts. —Use explicit transitional devices. —Correctly employ Standard English usage, including subject-verb agreement, pronoun referents, and the eight parts of speech (noun, pronoun, verb, adverb, adjective, conjunction, preposition, interjection). Ensure that verbs agree with compound subjects. —Use verb tenses appropriately and how not consistently such as present, past, future, perfect, and progressive. —Identify and properly use indefinite pronouns. —Use adjectives (comparative and superlative forms) and effective adverbs appropriately to make writing vivid or precise.
—Use prepositional phrases to to write, elaborate written ideas. —Use conjunctions to connect ideas meaningfully. —Use regular and irregular plurals correctly. —Write with increasing accuracy when using pronoun case such as “He and they joined him.” —Punctuate correctly to clarify and enhance meaning such as using hyphens, semicolons, colons, possessives, and thesis sentence punctuation. —Use correct punctuation for clauses (e.g., dependent and how not a scientific paper independent clauses), appositives and appositive phrases, and in cited sources, including quotations for exact words from sources. —Write with increasing accuracy when using apostrophes in contractions such as doesn’t and possessives such as Maria’s. —Capitalize correctly to clarify and enhance meaning.
—Sixth grades pay particular attention to capitalization of major words in titles of books, plays, movies, and television programs. —Use knowledge of spelling rules, orthographic patterns, generalizations, prefixes, suffixes, and roots, including Greek and Latin root words. —Spell frequently misspelled words correctly (e.g., their, they’re, there). —Write with accurate spelling of roots words such as drink, speak, read, or happy, inflections such as those that change tense or number, suffixes such as -able or -less, and prefixes such as re- or un. —Write with accurate spelling of contractions and syllable constructions, including closed, open, consonant before -le, and walk of trees syllable boundary patterns. —Understand the how not paper influence of other languages and cv writing cultures on the spelling of a scientific paper, English words. —Use resources to of trees, find correct spellings and spell accurately in final drafts. —Write fluidly and legibly in cursive or manuscript as appropriate. Grade 6: Research and Inquiry. In sixth grade, students select and use reference materials and resources as needed for writing, revising, and editing final drafts.
Students learn how to gather information systematically and use writing as a tool for research and how not to write a scientific inquiry in the following ways: Search out multiple texts to complete research reports and projects. Thesis. Organize prior knowledge about a topic in a variety of ways such as by how not paper producing a graphic organizer. Generator. Formulate a research plan, take notes, and apply evaluative criteria (e.g., relevance, accuracy, organization, validity, publication date) to select and use appropriate resources. Frame questions for research.
Evaluate own research and raise new questions for a scientific paper, further investigation. Select and use a variety of relevant and authoritative sources and reference materials (e.g., experts, periodicals, online information, dictionary, encyclopedias, online information) to effective cv writing, aid in writing. How Not A Scientific Paper. Summarize and organize ideas gained from multiple sources in useful ways such as outlines, conceptual maps, learning logs, and timelines. Use organizational features of electronic text (e.g., bulletin boards, databases, keyword searches, e-mail addresses) to locate information. Follow accepted formats for writing research, including documenting sources.
Explain and cv writing demonstrate an understanding of the importance of to write a scientific, ethical research practices, including the need to avoid plagiarism, and know the essay of the associated consequences. Sixth Grade Writing Tests. In some states, sixth graders take standardized writing assessments, either with pencil and paper paper or, increasingly, on a computer. Students will be given questions about grammar and mechanics, as well as a timed essay writing exercise, in which they must write an essay in response to a writing prompt. While tests vary, some states test at of a intervals throughout the year, each time asking students to respond to a different writing prompt that requires a different form of to write a scientific, writing, (i.e., narrative, expository, persuasive). Another type of question asks students to write a summary statement in response to a reading passage. Students are also given classroom-based sixth grade writing tests and write generator writing portfolio evaluations. State writing assessments are correlated to state writing standards. These standards-based tests measure what students know in relation to what they’ve been taught. If students do well on school writing assignments, they should do well on a scientific paper, such a test.
Educators consider standards-based tests to be the most useful as these tests show how each student is meeting grade-level expectations. These assessments are designed to pinpoint where each student needs improvement and help teachers tailor instruction to fit individual needs. State departments of education often include information on writing standards and writing assessments on their websites, including sample questions. Writing Test Preparation. The best writing test preparation in sixth grade is simply encouraging your child to write, raising awareness of the written word, and cv writing offering guidance on how not to write, writing homework. For example, you can talk about the different purposes of writing as you encounter them, such as those of letters, recipes, grocery lists, instructions, and write my essay menus. By becoming familiar with 6th grade writing standards, parents can offer more constructive homework support. Remember, the best writing help for kids is not to correct their essays, but offer positive feedback that prompts them use the how not to write a scientific paper strategies of writing process to my essay, revise their own work. Time4Writing Online Writing Courses Support 6th Grade Writing Standards.
Time4Writing is an excellent complement to sixth grade writing curriculum. Developed by classroom teachers, Time4Writing targets the fundamentals of writing. Students build writing skills and deepen their understanding of the to write paper writing process by working on standard-based, grade-appropriate writing tasks under the write generator individual guidance of a certified teacher. Writing on a computer inspires many students, even reluctant writers. Learn more about Time4Writing online courses for sixth grade.
For more information about general learning objectives for sixth grade students including math and how not a scientific paper language arts, please visit Time4Learning.com. *K-12 writing standards are defined by each state. Time4Writing relies on a representative sampling of state writing standards, notably from Florida, Texas, and California, as well as on the standards published by nationally recognized education organizations, such as the National Council of editing service, Teachers of English and the International Reading Association.