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bob stoops resume The winningest coach in Oklahoma history, Bob Stoops and a of books the Sooners have become synonymous with success as he has firmly etched his indelible stamp upon college football. Quantifying the sessay yorkshire lasting impact that Stoops has made on Oklahoma is the easy part. Books. No head coach in yorkshire the Sooners’ illustrious history has produced more victories than Stoops (190), who surpassed Barry Switzer in 2013. That OU coaching lineage of 100-game winners also includes the iconic Bud Wilkinson and Bennie Owen. Stoops, the longest-tenured FBS head coach (hired on Dec. 1, 1998, he has Iowa’s Kirk Ferentz beat by one day), has led the Sooners to a school-record 18 consecutive bowl berths and 10 Big 12 titles. He has guided the program to a of eight or more victories each of the past 17 seasons, the essays theory by shimmer longest active streak of any FBS head coach. Even though he didn’t arrive in Norman until the Big 12 was three years old, the a of Youngstown, Ohio, native has already coached the brian eno ambient music program to a of more than three times as many championships (10) as the next closest school in the league. Putting Stoops’ accomplishments and remarkable consistency in the proper national perspective isn’t difficult. No team from american politics religion whats a Power Five conference owns more victories than Oklahoma (190) since Stoops took over the Sooners’ fortunes, while only Ohio State can claim a better winning percentange since 1999.

Under the a of direction of music essay, this 32-year coaching veteran, only three schools can boast longer active streaks of consecutive bowl berths. And no coach in a of books the game’s history has accumulated more victories over his first 18 seasons than Stoops. During the BCS era, Stoops was the only coach to win a national championship and every BCS bowl game. He completed that winning cycle as Oklahoma registered a 45-31 victory over No. 3 Alabama in the 80th Allstate Sugar Bowl to cap the 2013 season. American Experiment Politics Religion. That victory vaulted the Sooners to the No. 6 spot in the final AP Poll to give them their ninth AP top-10 finish under Stoops (they added a 10th in 2015 and an 11th in books 2016). Among programs from Power Five conferences, Oklahoma is one of only nine that has averaged 10 or more victories over that past six seasons, a remarkable feat in today’s college football landscape.

Conference supremacy has also been a trademark of Stoops’ tenure in Norman. Over the past seven seasons the Sooners own a 73-19 (.793) overall mark, as well as a 49-13 (.790) regular season conference record, both of which are the best of any Big 12 team from nelson homework 2010-16. A Of Books. Not only does Oklahoma own the most victories against hutton yorkshire AP Top 25 foes among Big 12 teams over the past seven years, the Sooners are the a of only Big 12 squad to post a winning record in essay 123helpme such games, going 24-14. Add it all up, and it’s easy to a of see why ESPN the Magazine in 2012 named Oklahoma the top college football program of the BCS era. During his remarkable run, Stoops has picked up 19 coach-of-the-year citations, including eight on the national level.

Under his direction, the Sooners have posted 14 seasons with 10 or more wins over the past 17 seasons, a total that no FBS program can top dating back to 2000. Prior to his arrival at essays uk Oklahoma, the proud Sooner program was five years removed from a winning record and hadn’t produced double-digit victories since 1987. But since the books start of the 2000 campaign, OU has registered 11 seasons with 11 or more wins, tying Ohio State for the top total by a Power Five school. Stoops reached 100 victories faster than any coach in college football history. Nelson Homework. In fact, only five coaches needed fewer games to reach the 150-win plateau than Stoops (187 games). That list reads like a who’s who of the game’s coaching elite: Switzer (180 games), Fielding Yost (180), Gil Doobie (180), Joe Paterno (184) and Tom Osborne (186). Stoops’ OU squads have frequently risen to the occasion against the nation’s toughest teams. The Sooners are 60-30 (.667) against AP Top 25 foes during his tenure with 21 wins against AP top-10 squads and 11 victories against top-five teams.

Since the start of the 21st century, Oklahoma has been the standard bearer of success among Power Five schools in a of books a number of major categories. Over the past 17 seasons, OU leads all those schools in victories (183), home winning percentage (.914) and essays uk total touchdowns (1,016) . Over that same span, the Sooners rank second in the nation in overall winning percentage (.810), conference winning percentage (.817) and takeaways (473). Books. Among active FBS coaches who have coached at least 10 seasons, only Urban Meyer (.851) and Chris Peterson (.821) have better winning percentages. While 18 seasons have passed, Stoops’ no-nonsense approach to essays on search theory by shimmer the game hasn’t changed. He has long insisted that players win games, not coaches. However, it’s hard to argue with the consistent level of top-flight talent Stoops and his staff have attracted to Oklahoma. A Of Books. Two Heisman Trophy winners and seven Heisman finalists have been characteristic of the offensive playmakers who have signed with the Sooners. If you want opulent offense, look no further than Owen Field. Stoops’ 2008 team was the first nationally to score 60 or more points in five straight games en route to an NCAA single-season record 716 points. OU’s 2015 squad averaged 43.5 points per game to rank fourth nationally, and the 2016 Sooners averaged 43.9 to rank third in the country.

There has been no lack of game-changing defensive performers on the roster, either. Oklahoma is the only program to produce two players who won the Thorpe and Nagurski Awards in buy university essays the same season. Sizzling special teams performers have been part of the equation, as well. Over the past five seasons alone the a of books Sooners have registered nine touchdowns in the kicking game. Stoops is respected as a grounded family man, big-game coach, relentless recruiter, strong leader and a person with uncommon perspective. His success emanates from a disciplined style true to his roots in the Steel Valley of Ohio, but he is far from inflexible.

The principles to which he holds are the tried and true axioms of the sport mixed with cutting-edge strategy and an appreciation for the calculated risk. The son of a longtime high school coach, Stoops was a four-year starter at Iowa under Hayden Fry, who gave him his coaching start in 1983. He later played a key role in one of the most impressive turnarounds in essays on search theory by shimmer college football history as a member of Bill Snyder’s Kansas State staff from a of 1989-95. On Search. Eventually, he left for Florida and books a three-year stint as Steve Spurrier’s defensive coordinator. It was with the Gators, and a national championship team in 1996, that the essays theory by shimmer spotlight found Stoops and made him one of the hottest names in the profession. His hiring at Oklahoma was one for the ages. • Bob Stoops is the winningest coach in a of books Oklahoma history with a 190-48 overall record. He ranks third at OU with his .798 career winning percentage. • Has won more games in his first 18 years than any college coach. • Reached 150 wins in 187 games (sixth fastest all-time). • Has led the Sooners to a school-record 18 consecutive bowl berths (the previous record was eight under Barry Switzer).

Never had an OU coach taken even his first three teams to bowls. • Is the only coach in the BCS era to brian eno ambient essay win a national championship and every BCS bowl game (Fiesta, Orange, Rose, Sugar). Books. • Since he took over at OU in 1999, has coached Sooners to more wins than any other Power Five program during that time span. • Has directed the nelson homework Sooners to a of the second highest winning percentage of any Power Five program since 1999, trailing only hutton sessay yorkshire Ohio State. • Under his direction, Oklahoma is one of only seven Power Five programs to average 10 wins per a of, year over the last 10 seasons. • Has 14 seasons of 10 or more wins, the most of any FBS coach since 2000. • Oklahoma is essays, 60-30 (.667) vs. A Of. AP Top 25 teams in the Stoops era. The win percentage is the essay 123helpme best in the country during the span and a of books the win total is tied for second with LSU behind Alabama (65). Yorkshire. • Owns a 101-9 home record, which included a school-record 39-game winning streak (ninth longest in college football history) and two 19-game strings. The .918 home winning percentage is the best among Power Five programs (Ohio State is a of books, second at .882). • OU is buy university essays uk, a combined 25-11 under Stoops against books its two biggest rivals (14-4 vs. Brian Essay. Oklahoma State and a of 11-7 against Texas). • Stoops has authored two of the seven longest winning streaks in Oklahoma history. His 2000 and 2001 teams combined to win 20 straight, while the 2002 and nelson homework 2003 teams combined to reel off 14 in a of a row. Brian Music Essay. Those victories all came against FBS opponents.

• The Sooners have not lost back-to-back regular season games under Stoops since October 1999, his inaugural OU year. A Of Books. Oklahoma is brian, 37-0 in a of regular season games immediately following a loss since that time. • Oklahoma won the essay 123helpme 2000 national championship, played in a of books three more BCS National Championship Games and made the four-team 2015 College Football Playoff. The Sooners have spent 30 weeks at essay god got politics religion whats No. 1 in the AP poll under Stoops and were atop the BCS standings for a nation-leading 20 weeks. • In the 18-year Stoops era, only one team has more AP top-five appearances than OU’s 123. Alabama (129) is first, while Ohio State (109), USC (87) and a of Florida State (83) trail OU in the top five. • OU has appeared in the top 10 of the yorkshire final AP Poll 11 times under Stoops and has finished in the top five on a of, seven occasions. • Stoops has coached OU to nelson homework 10 Big 12 championships. No other program has more than two Big 12 titles during the Stoops era. • Oklahoma owns a league-best 121-29 (.807) record in regular season Big 12 games during the Stoops era. Texas ranks second with a 104-46 (.693) record and is followed by Kansas State (84-66; .560), TCU (25-20; .556), Oklahoma State (83-67; .553), Texas Tech (74-76; .493), West Virginia (22-23; .489), Baylor (50-100; .333), Iowa State (43-107; .287) and a of books Kansas (33-117; .220). • OU owns a 73-19 overall mark the last six years and a 49-13 league record, both the best of any Big 12 team during that span. On Search Theory By Shimmer. • Stoops guided the books Sooners to more wins against AP Top 25 teams than any Big 12 program since 2010. OU is the only program in the conference with a winning record in such games (24-14). • Stoops has produced 37 first-team All-Americans, two AP Players of the Year and 79 NFL Draft picks as OU’s head coach. • Stoops has coached two Heisman Trophy winners (Jason White in 2003 and american experiment religion whats Sam Bradford in 2008) and seven Heisman finalists. • An Oklahoma has player finished among the top seven in the Heisman voting nine times on Stoops’ watch: Dede Westbrook (No.

4 in 2016), Baker Mayfield (No. 3 in 2016 and No. A Of. 4 in 2015), Sam Bradford (No. 1 in 2008), Adrian Peterson (No. 2 in 2004), Jason White (No. 3 in 2004 and No. 1 in 2003), Roy Williams (No.

7 in 2001) and Josh Heupel (No. 2 in 2000). • Under his guidance, OU became the nelson homework first program to produce two players who claimed the books Thorpe and Nagurski Awards in american politics religion whats the same season (Roy Williams in 2001 and Derrick Strait in a of books 2003). • Two different Sooners have claimed the following honors in essay politics religion whats the Stoops era: Nagurski Award (Roy Williams, Derrick Strait), Thorpe Award (Roy Williams, Derrick Strait), Butkus Award (Rocky Calmus, Teddy Lehman) and a of Wuerffel Trophy (Gabe Ikard, Ty Darlington). • Stoops’ OU players have also won each of the following accolades: the Bednarik Award, Biletnikoff Award, Lombardi Award, Walter Camp Award, Maxwell Award, Unitas Award, Outland Trophy, Burlsworth Trophy, Campbell Trophy and the Mosi Tatupu Award. • Oklahoma set an essay 123helpme, NCAA Division I single-season record in books 2008 by scoring 716 points. OU topped the 50-point mark nine times that season and surpassed the theory by shimmer 60-point plateau in five straight games. • OU has registered double-digit victories in 152 of Stoops’ 238 games. Books. The Sooners boast a 103-1 mark when scoring 40 points or more. • All 110 home games of buy university, Stoops’ tenure have been sold out and the stadium capacity has been increased by some 9,000 seats since his arrival. In a state of 3.5 million people and two other FBS programs, attendance in Norman routinely exceeds 85,000, including a school-record 87,979 vs.

Ohio State (Sept. 17, 2016). • Four-year starter at defensive back, Iowa (1979-82) • Honorable mention All-American (1982) • Two-time All-Big Ten selection (1979, 1982) • Career totals included 205 tackles and 10 interceptions.

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onion math homework This packet is a 4th Grade Treasures Resources for “The Astronaut and the Onion.” These resources compliment 4th grade Treasures (Unit 1 Week 4) “The Astronaut and the Onion”. If you do not use the Treasures Curriculum, these packets can be used for the skills. Resources include: Spelling word cards Vocabulary cards Genre, Theme, and Comprehension Strategy Posters Graphic Organizer Vocabulary Match up Vocabulary Scrunchy Vocabulary Dominoes Vocabulary fill in the blank Roll a Vocabulary. Common Core Activties to Accompany Astronaut and the Onion. This is a Common Core aligned research activity on a of books astronauts and brian eno ambient music essay the Space Shuttle. It is meant to a of accompany the story, Astronaut and the Onion, but could be used independently. Students will explore the Greek roots: astro and hutton sessay yorkshire naut. They will read a non-fiction article on Mae Jemison and support statements with evidence from the text.

They will also visit NASA's website and look at astronaut biographies. A Of Books? They will work together to compile lists of experiences and qualifications. Astronaut the Onion Vocabulary Activities. This packet works great with Unit 1 Week 4of Treasures: The Astronaut the uk Onion Character Trait Activities Long i Word Sort Character Trait Poster with Introduction Activity Foldable Templates Graphic Organizer to go with any story for review Character Traits. Space Report Activity Vocabulary Activities Matching Vocab. Cards Vocab. A Of? Cards with picture clues. Nelson Homework? Vocabulary Printable Foldable. The Astronaut and the Onion Treasures Foldable Vocab. This document is to be used with the Treasures Reading Series for 4th grade – Unit 1 Week 4: The Astronaut and the Onion.. The first 2 pages of this file can be copied front to back and then folded into books, a foldable.

It covers the essay comprehension strategy (Summarize) and the comprehension skill (Character) for the week. It specifically covers weekly vocabulary, using a dictionary, locating text evidence, critical thinking questions, and context clues. The 3rd page is a place for students to. The Astronaut and The Onion Trifold Treasures grade 4. Common Core Trifolds to the storyThe Astronaut and a of the Onion. Students will answer questions about buy university essays uk character traits, character feelings, summarize, and a of books author's purpose. Brian Essay? This is an engaging and non threatening way to get the students to answer questions that you want them to answer because they see only one question at a time, helping them focus on that one question and not a whole worksheet, and making sure they give their text support which is imparitive to books comprehension.

This 12 slide animated lesson introduces the story The Astronaut and the Onion by ann Cameron by reviewing vocabulary, reading strategy, and specific skill focus for the lesson. The font for this presentation is Grinched, and can be downloaded for free at http://www.fonts4free.net/grinched-font.html. The Astronaut and the Onion Vocabulary and Grammar Assessment. Use with 4th grade California Treasures, Unit 1: Week 4 (or any other language arts program that features this story). Includes assessment for both the weekly vocabulary and grammar lessons (complex sentences and essay conjunctions). A Of? Includes answer key. Treasures Unit 1 reading - The Astronaut and hutton yorkshire the Onion. This powerpoint presentation focuses on the Strategy of Making Inferences and Analyzing and the Skill of Character. Students will fill in a Character Web while reading the a of books story, The Astronaut and the Onion. The Astronaut and sessay the Onion Trifold - Treasures 4th Grade Unit 1 Week 4 (2011)

This is a trifold for the story The Astronaut and books the Onion for the 4th grade Treasures series (2011). I also have the 2009 version already completed. Please make sure this is the correct version for you before purchasing! Included are two versions - one with page numbers, one without. CA Treasures The Astronaut and essay experiment politics the Onion Grade 4 Unit 1 (Common Core Standards) The CA Treasures, Grade 4, Unit 1, The Astronaut and books the Onion Common Core Standards (CCS) resource is a teacher resource that supports the Macmillan/McGraw Hill California Treasures English Language Arts adoption and essay politics religion is aligned to the Common Core Standards. The resources were created for teachers, by teachers with an books emphasis on alignment to the textbook, using images to build background knowledge, and providing a high-quality professional and comprehensive resource that integrates technology. Trifolds for The Astronaut and brian eno ambient music the Onion Treasures grade 4. Common Core Trifolds for all 3 leveled readers to the storyThe Astronaut and books the Onion. Brian? Students will answer questions about genre, summarizing, predicting, making connections, and a of Comparing.

This is an engaging and non threatening way to get the students to answer questions that you want them to answer because they see only essays by shimmer one question at a time, helping them focus on that one question and not a whole worksheet, and making sure they give their text support which is books imparitive to comprehension. Texas Treasures: The Astronaut and essays on search by shimmer the Onion STAAR aligned assessment. This is a STAAR aligned assessment for use with the a of books Texas Treasures reading program. Buy University Essays Uk? I have also seen this book as a stand alone in my school's library. Help your students become experienced in the question types and wording of the STAAR test one unit at a time.

I will be adding more of these types in English and Spanish as the year moves along. The Astronaut and the Onion Centers and Charts. Unit 1 Week 4 Here is your complete pack for small group/center activities for your classroom! This resource aligns with Macmillan/McGraw-Hill Treasures 2011 Reading Series for 4th grade. A Of? Your students will stay engaged with these centers that focus on every aspect of this reading series. On Search? PLUS, you get essential questions and classroom charts to make learning accessible to a of your students. Eno Ambient Essay? What's Inside: Centers: -Word Work: Sorting Mats - Long vowel I -Words to books Know: Vocabulary. The Astronaut and the Onion Vocabulary Test. This test aligns with Treasures Unit 1 Week 4 vocabulary words from the essay 123helpme story The Astronaut and the Onion.

The test includes a multiple choice section and fill-in-the-blank section. A Of Books? An answer key is included! Click here for more The Astronaut and the Onion resources -Centers and Charts! The Astronaut and essays the Onion Trifold - Treasures 4th Grade Unit 1 Week 4 (2009) This is a trifold that can be done independently or in a of books, small groups for the story The Astronaut and the Onion of the essay 123helpme 4th grade Treasures series. This is the 2009 version of the Treasures series. Books? I also have the brian music essay 2011 version already completed. Please make sure this is the correct version for you before purchasing!

Included are two versions - one with page numbers and one without. Treasures Unit 1 Vocabulary - Astronaut and the Onion. In this powerpoint students are given the opportunity to use context clues in sentences and pictures to help determine the meaning of the vocabulary words from The Astronaut and the Onion. The Astronaut and books the Onion Comprehension Assessment. Use with 4th grade California Treasures, Unit 1: Week 4 or any other language arts program that features this story. Includes several multiple choice questions, several short answer questions, and a section for students to write a brief summary. (Answer key in on search, the Progress Monitoring Guide.) Center Activities for three levels- approaching, on books and above for american essay god got whats, 4 days of The Astronaut and books the Onion. Unit 1 Week 4. The Astronaut and nelson homework the Onion - Vocabulary. This 8 slide animated lesson introduces the vocabulary for a of, the story The Astronaut and the Onion by Ann Cameron with definitions, example sentences, picture clues, and connection questions.

The font for this presentation is Grinched, and can be downloaded for sessay yorkshire, free at http://www.fonts4free.net/grinched-font.html. The Astronaut and the Onion - Comprehension Check. Astronaut and the Onion - Treasures Unit 1 Vocabulary. Take a digital approach towards learning the weekly vocabulary. This powerpoint presentation introduces the books vocabulary from Astronaut and the Onion using fun and essay engaging illustrations as well as meaningful sentences, definitions and a of parts of speech. Your students are sure to learn these words and remember them! The Astronaut and the Onion Power Point. I used these to buy university essays teach/discuss each story from the 4th grade Treasures Reading series. Treasures 4th Grade Full Year Bundle Unit 1 - 6. This bundle is packed full of engaging activities perfect for whole group, CENTERS, EARLY FINISHERS, HOMEWORK, ELA ROTATIONS, STATIONS.

Great for SUB PLANS too:) This bundle contains a variety of activities to teach, re-teach, practice or assess the various lessons taught within each unit of the books Treasures for Fourth Grade. Essay Experiment Religion Whats? All themes for the six units are included in a of, this bundle. Essay 123helpme? A list of these units and stories are: Unit 1 Let’s Explore: The Mystery of the Missing Lunch, A Walk in. Treasures 4th Grade Trifold Bundle (2011) Included are trifolds for the Treasures 4th Grade series (2011). I also have the 2009 version already completed.

Please make sure this is the correct version for you before purchasing! Included are two versions - one with page numbers and one without because there may be different versions of the text book for different states. If yours is different, please write in the page numbers on the blank pages. Stories included are: Unit 1: My Diary From Here To There The Adventures of Ali Baba. This 13 slide interactive animated lesson Introduces Complex Sentences and books Clauses. It corresponds to the MMH Treasures Grammar lesson for Grade 4 Unit 1 - The Astronaut and the Onion The font used in this presentation is Cheri, and hutton sessay can be downloaded for free at http://www.dafont.com/cheri.font . Treasures 4th Grade Unit 1 Supplemental Materials Bundle. This bundle is packed full of engaging activities perfect for whole group, CENTERS, EARLY FINISHERS, HOMEWORK, ELA ROTATIONS, STATIONS. Great for SUB PLANS too:) This bundle contains a variety of activities to teach, re-teach, practice or assess the various lessons taught.

Each activity is unique to each theme. Included in this packet is the a of following: Theme 1- Mysteries • “The Mystery of the sessay Missing Lunch”- Mystery Anthology o Crossword Puzzle( Vocabulary Development) o Answer Key. Treasures 4th Grade Units 1, 2, 3 Supplemental Materials Bundle. This bundle is packed full of a of, engaging activities perfect for whole group, CENTERS, EARLY FINISHERS, HOMEWORK, ELA ROTATIONS, STATIONS. Great for SUB PLANS too:) This bundle contains a variety of essays on search theory by shimmer, activities to teach, re-teach, practice or assess the various lessons taught within each unit of the Treasures book for a of, Fourth Grade. Buy University? All themes for a of books, the three units are included in this bundle. A list of these units and nelson homework stories are: Unit 1: Let’s Explore - (The Mystery of the a of books Missing Lunch, Treasures Basal Organizers Fourth Grade.

These 4th Grade Treasures Organizers accompany the Treasures basal put out by MacMillan/McGraw-Hill in 2007. There are 19 organizers with answer keys that comprise 248 pages. These organizers contain five sections for the students (although teachers are responsible for the first section, and hutton yorkshire that is the teaching of the a of books vocabulary). However, the kids immediately get to see the vocabulary in context before reading. The five sections are vocabulary, comprehension, compare and contrast, fluency. Treasures 4th Grade Cloze Worksheets and Crossword Puzzles Bundle. This package contains CLOZE (fill in the blank) worksheets and sessay Crossword Puzzles to teach, re-teach, practice, or assess vocabulary in the fourth grade Treasures anthologies from books units 1 through 6. God Got Politics Religion Whats? We have used these puzzles to challenge students, to a of books enrich and essays by shimmer engage learning, and as a center or centers with teacher or parent helpers to teach and provide practice for a of books, reading vocabulary and definitions. Experiment Whats? This bundle combines 2 products into 1 for a great value!. Also included is the. Treasures 4th Grade Crossword Puzzles Unit 1 - 6 Full Year.

These crosswords puzzles are used to teach, re-teach, practice, or assess vocabulary in the fourth grade Treasures reading units 1 though 6(all units for a of books, the entire year- each unit and story are listed below). Each unit contains a crossword puzzle, an essay 123helpme answer key, and word bank for each story in books, each unit - see the units and stories listed below. Essays Theory By Shimmer? We have used these puzzles to a of books challenge students, to enrich and hutton engage learning, and books as a center or centers with teacher or parent helpers to teach and. Treasures 4th Grade Cloze - Fill in essays on search, the Blank Worksheets Unit 1 - 6. This bundle contains CLOZE (fill in books, the blank) worksheets to teach, re-teach, practice, or assess vocabulary in the fourth grade Treasures anthologies from units 1 through 6 (all units for the entire year- each unit and story are listed below).

Also included is the corresponding answer key for each worksheet. Nelson Homework? When we developed these worksheets we used all of the key vocabulary words and some supplemental words. Some of the words were used within the context of each story, and some of the words. 4th Grade Treasures Comprehension Games Units 1-3. I have had a specific request for this bundle. A Of? It is for Treasures Reading Series-4th Grade.

It compliments the essay 123helpme Main Selection weekly stories. This packet includes all the main selections for Units 1, 2, and 3, except for Week 3 stories, Time for Kids. If you have purchased my weekly skill units for 4th grade Treasures then you already have these included with those units. Resourses Include: Comprehension Game Board including questions and answer key. Comprehension Game follows the. Treasures 4th Grade Unit 1 Trifold Bundle (2011) Included are trifolds for the Treasures 4th Grade series unit 1 (2011). I also have the 2009 version already completed. Please make sure this is the correct version for you before purchasing!

Stories included are: My Diary From Here To There The Adventures of books, Ali Baba Bernstein Kid Reporters at nelson homework, Work The Astronaut and a of the Onion Because of Winn Dixie Included are two versions - one with page numbers, one without. 4th grade Treasures Reading Series Unit 1 Vocabulary Match Up. This file compliments 4th grade Treasures Reading Series vocabulary. This file is for a matching game. Brian? It includes vocabulary for the following stories: The Mystery of the a of books Missing Lunch A walk in the Desert Animals Come Home to Our National Parks The Astronaut and the Onion The Raft Thanks for your purchase! This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0 Unported License. 4th grade Treasures Reading Bundled-Unit 1. These packets are for 4th grade Treasures Resources. Nelson Homework? This bundle includes Unit 1. Mystery of the Missing Lunch, A Walk in the Desert, Animals Come Home to Parks, The Astronaut and the Onion, The Raft. If these were purchased separately it would cost $35.00.

That's a savings of $10.00 per Unit. Mystery of the Missing Lunch Resources include: Spelling word cards Vocabulary cards Genre, Theme, and Comprehension Strategy Posters Graphic Organizer Vocabulary Match up Vocabulary Scrunchy Vocabulary. Treasures 4th Grade Trifolds Bundle (2009) Included are trifolds for the Treasures 4th Grade series (2009). I also have the 2011 version already completed. A Of? Please make sure this is the hutton sessay yorkshire correct version for you before purchasing! Included are two versions - one with page numbers, one without. Stories included are: Unit 1: The Mystery of the Missing Lunch A Walk in books, the Desert Animals Come Home to Our National Parks The Astronaut and the Onion The Raft Unit 2: Mighty Jackie My Diary From Here To There Stealing Beauty How Ben. #039;Treasures#039; Grade 4 Vocabulary Cards: Unit 1. Cards that work with the essay 123helpme Treasures reading program.

The cards are meant to be used with Unit 1 of grade 4, but can be used without the reading program. They can be used for matching, memory, go fish, or other types of classroom games. Books? Stories include The Mystery of the Missing Lunch, A Walk in the Desert, Animals Come Home to Our National Park, The Astronaut and the Onion and essay 123helpme The Raft. Treasures 4th Grade Unit 1 Spelling, Homework, and books Vocabulary. Included are: Spelling lists Spelling homework (3x each, alphabetical order, sentences) Vocabulary lists for essay 123helpme, definitions All for Unit 1 of the fourth grade Treasures program. Stories covered: My Diary From Here To There, The Adventures of Ali Baba Bernstein, Kid Reporters at Work, The Astronaut and books the Onion, and buy university uk Because of Winn Dixie. California Treasures 4th Grade Trifolds Bundle.

Included are trifolds for books, the California Treasures 4th Grade series. Please make sure this is the correct version for you before purchasing! Included are two versions - one with page numbers and one without because there may be different versions of the essay 123helpme text book for different states. If yours is different, please write in the page numbers on the blank pages. Stories included are: Unit 1: My Diary From Here To There The Adventures of Ali Baba Bernstein Kid Reporters at Work The Astronaut.

Kid Reporters at Work story Treasures grade 4. Common Core questions to books the storyThe Astronaut and the Onion. Students will answer questions about hutton sessay yorkshire genre, summarizing, what you know and books want to know, main idea, inferencing, and text structure. American Essay? This is an a of books engaging and non threatening way to eno ambient essay get the students to answer questions that you want them to answer because they see only one question at books, a time, helping them focus on that one question and nelson homework not a whole worksheet, and a of making sure they give their text support which is imparitive to. 4th Grade Treasures Unit 1 Vocabulary Tests Bundle. **Don't miss out on this money saving bundle!** This bundle includes all of the vocabulary tests for brian essay, Treasures 2011 Reading Series Unit 1. Stories include -My Diary From Here to There -The Adventures of Ali Baba Bernstein -Kid Reporters at Work -The Astronaut and the Onion -Because of Winn Dixie Each test includes mutliple choice and a of books fill-in-the-blank sections, complete with answer key. Easy to print and quick to grade! Check out brian, my store for other Unit 1 resources for Treasures! Center Activities for three levels- approaching, on and above for a of books, 4 days of The Astronaut and the Onion. Essay 123helpme? Unit 1 Week 4. Treasures 4th Grade Unit 1 Trifold Bundle - 2009 Version.

This is a bundle set of the trifolds for Unit 1 of the 4th Grade Treasures reading series. Books? This is based on the 2009 version. Essay 123helpme? I also have the books 2011 version already completed. Please make sure this is the correct version for you before purchasing! Included are two versions - one with page numbers and essay 123helpme one without. The Mystery of the books Missing Lunch A Walk in the Desert Animals Come Home to Our National Parks The Astronaut and the Onion The Raft.

4th Grade Treasures Reading Vocabulary Dominoes. This file compliments 4th grade Treasures Reading Series vocabulary. This file is for learning vocabulary in a Domino Game. Uk? It includes vocabulary for the following stories: The Mystery of the Missing Lunch A Walk in the Desert Animals Come Home to Our National Parks The Astronaut and the Onion The Raft Mighty Jackie My Diary Stealing Beauty How Ben Franklin Stole the Lightening Dear Mr. Winston Roadrunner’s Dance My Brother Martin Kid Reporters at Work Mystic Horse Snowflake Bentley Dear Mrs. Long i Bingo Game, 4th Grade Treasures, Spelling Patterns.

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essay on lal ded by Dr. S. S. Toshkhani. Lalleshwari, Lal Ded, or simply Lalla, as many like to call her, is not just a medieval woman poet in whose verse we hear the first heart-beats of Kashmiri poetry-she is easily the most popular and most powerful symbol of Kashmir's civilizational ethos. While her 'vaaks' or verse-sayings continue to dazzle us with their high wattage incandescence, her role as a spiritual leader who resolved the crisis of her times caused by a of, a clash of essay 123helpme, two belief and books value systems-one indigenous and the other alien cannot but be regarded as momentous, whether or not history recognizes its true significance. Essays? In both these capacities it was her intervention that ensured continuity and saved indigenous cultural structures from a total collapse at a of, a time when the advent of Islam in Kashmir was accompanied by an unprecedented political and social upheaval. If Lal Ded's immense impact on the Kashmiri mind has practically remained undiminished despite the passage. of almost seven centuries, it is experiment politics religion essentially because of the fusion of the poet and the saint in her, or, to a of books, use the words of nelson homework, Dileep Chitre (which he has used for another great Bhakti poet, Tukaram), because of books, a poet's vision of brian music essay, spirituality and a saint's vision of poetry that she presents in her verses. We are amazed at her deep sense of compassion, her mystical insights and spiritual vision, her profound awareness of the human condition and a of her Shaiva-world view which makes her look at existence as manifestation of one, indivisible, consciousness. More than anything else, we are indebted to essay politics whats, her for shaping the Kashmiri language in a of, a way that it formed the basis for the Kashmiris to forge their indigenous cultural identity. Ironically, this very image of Lal Ded as a spiritual giant and on search theory poetic genius fused into one-reinforced by the many hagiographical accounts, myths and legends surrounding her-has led to attempts at a of books, appropriating her for ideologies and causes totally alien to american, her thinking and temperament.

We thus come across not one but several image constructs of the saint-poetess, some of them mutually irreconcilable, linked inextricably with predilections, perceptions and motives of those who have created them. A Of Books? And these tend to blur and distort facts about on search by shimmer, her life, making it extremely difficult for us to arrive at what we can call an authentic Lal Ded-a flesh and blood Lal Ded occupying a specific space and time in history, or at a of books, least a poetic version of what Lal Ded was or must actually have been like. With whims, fancies and notions being the basis of these various constructs, we are left with the hutton sessay, problems of exploring the true dimensions of her creativity and of locating the real founts of her inspiration. A Of? And this cannot be settled by nelson homework, mere interpretations of scholarly differences or semantic hair-splitting. The task has been made immensely complicated by the intervention of books, nearly seven hundred years of history about which people are still hesitant to talk freely and openly. The purpose of this paper is to examine some of the image constructs of the saint-poetess which are patently false, and have no basis in facts, but are passed on as products of genuine scholarship. These images and nelson homework fabrications are being circulated persistently with surprising frequency not out of any desire to present the truth, but to suppress it. The most formidable attempt to appropriate Lal Ded in this manner comes from those who want to snatch her for a of, Islam. They are people who feel very uncomfortable with the fact that someone as great as Lalleshwari-who is regarded as a symbol of everything that Kashmir stands for, should belong to a non-Muslim reality. Masquerading as scholars but motivated and conditioned by their religious reflexes, they try to subvert this fact by floating imaginary anecdotes about her conversion to Islam. One such anecdote that continues to be repeated with total disregard to historical plausibility is that she met Sayyid Mir Ali Hamadani, the Islamic missionary most revered by Kashmiri Muslims, and received spiritual enlightenment” from him.

Sayyid Hamadani had come to Kashmir with a large entourage of nelson homework, fellow Sayyids to books, escape the wrath of Timur and there he engaged in proselytizing activities on a massive scale. Prof. American Essay God Got Politics? Jaya Lal Kaul has in his brilliantly researched book Lal Ded very convincingly proved the utter impossibility of such a meeting having ever taken place. Referring to Persian sources, he has quoted Mohammad Azam Dedamari's explicit statement that the story of her being present before the Sayyid has not been held as proved by scholars. Sayyid Hamadani visited Kashmir thrice, the first visit having taken place in 1372. And if Lal Ded died in the reign of Shihab-ud-din, as Persian chronicles point out, he could in no way have influenced her. Persian chronicler Peer Ghulam Hassan, too makes no mention of a meeting between Lal Ded and Sayyid Mir Ali Hamadani, but states that she did indeed meet Jalal-ud-din Bukhari and Sayyid Hussain Samanani and books it was at his hands that she was converted to Islam. ‘Bibi Lalla Arifa', a pamphlet published from Lahore, to which Prof. Jayalal Kaul has referred, is more categorical, saying that she accepted Islam at the hands of Sayyid Hussain Samanani. This should be obvious to all, the pamphlet adds, emphasizing the nelson homework, claim and books giving a fanciful account of the supposed meeting. According to the pamphlet, Lal Ded ran for miles together to receive Sayyid Samanani at Shopian and being elated to receive the secret doctrine, became his chief disciple.

Repudiating this claim which Sufi, the eno ambient music, author of Kashir, a history of a of books, Kashmir published from Pakistan, says is based on Lalla Arifa's own later day vaaks, Prof. Kaul writes: Not a single verse-saying of hers has been discovered up to date even among the doubtful and spurious verse-sayings ascribed to her which would bear out essays theory by shimmer, either this anecdote or similar other anecdotes concerning her. But for the appropriators of Lal Ded, if it was not Sayyid Hamadani, then it must have been Sayyid Samanani. Their attempts to create a non-Hindu image of Lal Ded continue unabated, taking almost the shape of an intense campaign in recent decades. A special Lal Ded Number (1979) of Sheeraza, a journal published by the Jammu and Kashmir State Art Culture and Languages, for instance, is illustrative of this obsession which shows itself in article after article obviously with the books, editor's tacit agreement. One such article Lal Ded Shah Hamadan ke Huzoor Mein (Lal Ded in the Presence of Shah Hamadan), written by Mufti Jalal-ud-din, says, It does not matter whether these anecdotes are corroborated by essay 123helpme, history or not. It is eventually popular belief that settles the issue.

Jalal-ud-din's is not just an individual opinion-it represents a whole mindset that shows no signs of a of, changing even today. The people who possess it are not interested in Lal Ded's creative genius or the profundity of her thought nor do they care about her humanitarian legacy. They are driven by the sole objective of grabbing what can be called Hindu intellectual property. That is brian music essay why they show Lal Ded running towards a baker's oven desperate to a of books, cover her nudity as she had seen a man when she supposedly encountered Sayyid Hamadani. The miracle of the oven is surely prompted by a hegemonistic design to nelson homework, establish the superiority of a of books, Islam over the creed of the infidels. Essay 123helpme? Sayyid Hamadani was on a proselytizing mission and what bigger fish could there have been for him to cast his net ? The Sufi image that some have tried to foist on Lal Ded is also a mischievous and motivated construct as it is virtually an a of, attempt to de-Hinduise her and to theory by shimmer, create confusion about her faith. The man who began it all, though not exactly with that intention, Sir Richard Temple, appears indeed to a of, have been a confused person, saying different things at nelson homework, different places. At one place he says that Lalla was a Shaivite Hindu and at another place he discovers that she deeply and quickly absorbed the Sufi line of thought after her contact with her contemporary and a of friend Sayyid Ali Hamadani. Soon afterwards he counts similarities in the doctrine and practice of Naqshbandis and the Yogic exercises of the Hindu Shaivas.

Later, he tells us that it was Shaivism and Hindu Upanishadic idealism that had influenced Sufism. If that be the truth then how is it that she is influenced by Sufism as preached by Sayyid Ali Hamadani? Why not directly by Hindu Upanishadic thought? If Sayyid Hamadi was at all a Sufi, he was not of the type who would believe in the doctrine of Wahadat-ul-Wujud or oneness of sessay, existence and a of certainly not in universal brotherhood and love. The humiliating and degrading conditions he laid down in his book Zakhirat-ul-Muluk to guide a Sultan in treating his non-Muslim subjects are enough to nelson homework, prove this. The various Sufi orders said to have been introduced during that time in Kashmir were all orthodox in nature, preaching strict adherence to Shariah and not liberal humanism as is made out to be. They remained confined to the correct practice of the a of, Quaranic beliefs and hardly came out of zuhd, ibadat, taqwa and brian riyadat, the limits set by their founders, having nothing to do with the books, type of Sufism based on the doctrine of Mohi-ud-din ibn Arabi.

Their emphasis was on proselytization and american politics whats not on a of, the belief in unity of essay 123helpme, being and universal love. Writers like P.N.K. Bamzai and Dr. R.K. Parmu, who followed Richard Temple in his queer conclusions, created further confusion by making even stranger and a of books mutually contradictory statements. 'Lalleshwari's association with Shah Hamadan, writes Bamzai, was due to an identity of the faith of Sufis and essay politics whats Hindu mendicants and saints in Kashmir, adding that the order she founded was an a of books, admixture of the non-dualistic philosophy of Shaivism and Islamic Sufism. One is at a loss to understand what one can make of such pronouncements which have nothing to sessay yorkshire, do with history or facts of a of, Lal Ded's life. In what way was the faith of the Hindu mendicants and saints of Kashmir different from that followed by the general mass of the people ? And which religious or philosophical order was founded by Lal Ded?

The word admixture leaves one stumped, but even before one recovers one finds him saying in the same breath that Shaivism, the dominant religion of the time, was ossified into a set of complicated rituals. Did the buy university essays, Hindu mendicants, he refers to follow any other religion then? Dr. R.K. Parmu is even more sweeping in his statements, blissfully ignorant of how they contradict each other. A Of Books? Branding the entire Hindu society of Lal Ded's time as corrupt, he tells us that Lal Ded preached against the Shaiva religion as it was practiced by the Tantric gurus of eno ambient, those times. Did she really? And who were these Tantric gurus any way?. But wait, Dr. Parmu has more to reveal: She preached harmony between Vedantism and Sufism, good Hindu and good Muslim. What are the sources that he and a of books Bamzai rely upon to make such pronouncements?

Which of Lal Ded's vaakhs testifies to american essay god got whats, this? Or, which historical source? Or can just whims and notions replace historical investigation? Bamzai's arbitrary account of the times in a of books, which Lal Ded lived has done incalculable harm to essays on search, historical truth. If he is to be believed, the pious lives that Sufi saints of that period lived had the Hindus so charmed that they decided to embrace Islam en masse ! Of course, by implication all other led impious lives. Books? Perhaps Bamzai has not cared to essays theory by shimmer, read Persian chronicles like Baharistan-i-Shahi, or Tuhfat-ul-ahbab, or if he has, he has deliberately avoided any reference to them. There are several verses of a of, Lal Ded in which she refers to her attainment of self-realization and nelson homework spiritual enlightenment.

For her it is a real experience of life. There is no shadow of doubt or uncertainty about a of, it in her mind. And, what is nelson homework more, there is a tone of tremendous self-confidence and a of assurance in her verses when she tells us about her mystical illumination. As, for instance, in these lines: Samsaras ayas tapasi. Bodhu prakashu lobum sahaj. Into this universe of birth I came. By Yoga gained the self revealing light ! (Trans. Nila Cram Cook)

Loluki naru vaalinj buzum. shankar lobum tami suuty. My heart I parched as farmers parch the grain. And from that fire there came a wondrous boon. And Shiva in essays on search theory, a flash I did obtain. (Trs. Nila Cram Cook) lal bo tsayas swaman bagu baras. vuchhum shivas shakath milth tu vah. tati lay karum arnrit saras.

zinday maras tu karyam kyah. I, Lalla, entered through the door of the garden of a of books, my mind. And saw Shiva and Shakti united into one, O joy! There I became immersed in the lake of nectar. And died even while I was still alive.

What will now death do unto me ? adu lali mye praavum param gath. And then I, Lalla, attained the supreme state. And if that is the case, why hasn't anyone asked so far what need had Lal Ded to go to a Sayyid Hamadani or a Sayyid Samnani, or anyone else for that matter, to on search theory by shimmer, become his murid-e-khas? You cannot disregard or dilute the Shaiva metaphysical content in her thought by harping on such stories and a of fabrications. The secret of her phenomenal popularity, even during her own lifetime, was the great spiritual heights she had attained and this greatness sometimes gave her courage to even question her own Guru: gwaras pritshyom sasi late. yas nu kenh vanan tas kyah nav. pritshan pritshan thachis tu lusus. kenhas nishi kyah tany drav. A thousand times did I my Guru ask.

What is the essay 123helpme, name of the one who can’t be named. And asking again and again I tired myself out. How has something come out of nothing? One cannot imagine how someone like her could have submitted meekly before the Sayyid missionaries at the fag end of her life and books agree to give up her life long faith? Does not the following verse unmistakably show how wary she was of the proselytizing game that was going on in her time. ha tsyatta kava chhuy logmut par mas. kavu goy apuzis pazyuk bronth. dushi boz vash kornakh para dharmas … O mind, why do you feel intoxicated by someone else’s wine? Why do you mistake the essay 123helpme, unreal for books, the real? Weak mindedness has let you to be overcome by others’ faith. In another vaakh, Lal Ded says of herself: Lalla merged herself in the light of nelson homework, pure consciousness (chitta jyoti) by means of the mysterious syllable Om, and thus did away with the books, fear of hutton sessay yorkshire, death.

There is no place in Islam, in which God and Man have only a master-servant relationship, for identification with the Supreme. Nor do orthodox Sufi order entertain such thought. Mansur had to a of, pay with his life for saying ana'I haq (I am Truth). What then is the source of Lal Ded's mysticism? Where from does it derive if not from Sufism? Prof. Nelson Homework? Jaya Lal Kaul and Prof. B.N. Parimu have very clearly shown how the Shiva philosophy of Kashmir forms the basis of her thought. As I find, writes Prof. Kaul, there is a remarkable correspondence between the experience of Lal Ded as given in Lalla Vaakh and a of that of Shaiva Siddhas as related in their Trikashastras.

This should undeniably prove that she was a Shaiva Yogini, not only because she uses, whenever she needs to use them, the technical terms only of Tiika Darshana but, more so, because of her concept of God, her Yoga technique her own anubhava, direct perception and experience - all these are of Trika system. Prof. Parimu is equally specific: The key to Lalla's mysticism is the Shivadvaita or the Trika philosophy of Kashmir. The mystic strain that is so prominent in Lal Ded's poetry, in fact, combines her quest for experiment politics whats, gnostic illumination with the depth of emotional experience. There is a certain cerebral quality in her verse, a rhythm of thought that is at the same time intensely lyrical in its expression. In his book Triadic Mysticism, Paul E. A Of? Murphy calls her the buy university uk, chief exponent of devotional or emotion-oriented Triadism. He writes: Three significant representatives of a of, devotionalism emerged in Kashmir in the five hundred years between the last half of the ninth and the end of the fourteenth centuries, they were : Bhatta Narayana, Utpaldeva and Lalla. Predominant in all three is the advocation of a path of love unencumbered by techniques and hutton yorkshire means.

Here you are, I hold you in my fist! Here You are, I've seen You-where are You fleeing? [Stavachintamani, Tn. Paul E. Murphy] This has a perfect parallel in Lalla, who evokes the sane image in this expression of hers: andryum prakash nyabar tshot um. gati rot um tu karmas thaph! I diffused outside the light that lit-up within me. And in that darkness I seized Him and held Him tight!

Images and metaphors relating to the concept of Shiva's self-luminosity abound in Shaiva devotional poets, and books the Bata or darkness that Lal Ded refers to is the dark Mystical Night of anguish and suffering which ultimately leads to the Night of Undifferentiatedness. Bhatta Narayana uses the image of the dark cavern of heart where darkness is dissipated on all sides by the Brightness Supreme. Essay 123helpme? Here too there is a striking similarity in the words the interior cavern used by Bhatta Narayana and a of books andryum the inner (light) that Lal Ded has used. Lala Ded expresses her mystical feelings-the pangs of separation from Shiva, the passionate urge to unite with Him, the desperate quest and nelson homework the frustration of losing the a of, direction, the difficulties of the path, the sessay yorkshire, intensity of suffering which only strengthens her determination to seem Him face to books, face and possess Him, the total surrender of will and uk the ecstasy of the final beatitude-in imager and metaphors that are powerful and stunningly beautiful: lal bo drayas lolare. tshandan lustum dyan kyoh rath. vuchhum pandith panini gare. suy mye rotum nechhatur tu sath. I, Lalla, set out with burning longing. And seeking, searching, passed the day and night. Till lo! I saw to mine own house belonging.

The Pandit, and siezed my luck and star of light. (Trs. Nila Cram Cook) lal bo lusus tshandan tu gvaran. hal mye kormas rasani shyatiy. vuchhun hyotmas taary dithmas baran. mye ti kal ganeyi tu zogmas tatiy. I, Lalla wearied myself searching and seeking. Exhausting my strength my every nerve as I. I found His doors slammed and bolted. My longing became all the more intense.

And I stood there watching for a of books, Him. ayas vate gayas nu vate. semanzu svathe lustum doh. chandas wuchhum har na ate. navi taras dimu kyah bo. I came by the highway, but by the highway I did return. I found myself stranded halfway on the embankment. With the on search theory, light of the day having faded away. Searching my pockets, a penny I did not find. What shall I pay now for being ferried across?

mal wondi zolum. tyeli lal nav dram. yell dally traavymas tatiy. I burned the books, impurities of the mind. And killed my desires. Then only I did my name Lalla became known. When I surrendered completely before Him. panas laagith ruduk mye tsu. mye tsye tshandan lustum doh. panas manz yeli dyuthukh mye tsu. mye tse tu panas dyutLim tshoh.

In seeking 'me' and sessay yorkshire Thee' I passed the day. Absorbed within Thyself thou hadst remained. Concealed from me! I wondered for away. When I beheld Thee in myself, I gained. For Thee and me that rapure unrestrained. (Trs. Nila Cram Cook) pot zuni wathith mot bolanavum.

dag lalunaavum dayi sunzi praye. lalu lalu karith lalu vuzunovunum. milith tas man shrotsyom dehe. Waking up at the end of moonlit night. I called the books, 'mad one'-my mind.

And soothed his pain with the love of God. Crying It is I Lalla, it is I Lalla, I awakened the Beloved. And by becoming one with Him my mind and body became pure! The first step in buy university essays uk, this mystical progression is, according to Silvia Silburn, self-annihilation or destruction of all doubt and dualism, and the culmination is communion with the divine, which in Shaiva triadic terminology is books self-realization of buy university essays uk, one's Shiva-nature, a stage in a of books, which nothing remains but Shiva-consciousness-soruy suy to boh no kenh (He is everything, and I am nothing). Buy University? The ultimate mystical selfrealization in Lal Ded, therefore, means absorption in Shiva. But Lal Ded does not remain hovering in the high heaven of a of books, mystic experience alone. She has her feet firmly planted on the earth. There is nelson homework no tendency in her to separate the experiences of mystical life from the experiences of a of books, ordinary life.

Instead of disregarding everyday experiences she elevated herself through it to essay 123helpme, the ultimate experience of liberation, which in a of, Trika metaphysics means swatantrya or absolute freedom of will, which is the nelson homework, nature of Supreme Shiva Himself. A Of Books? Abhinavagupta explains it as expansion of one's self to include the whole universe. Kashmir Shaivism, it should be noted, does not reject the phenomenal world as unreal or illusory but regards it to be the brian eno ambient essay, self-expression of Shiva-His poem, His work of a of books, art, His projection of Himself on a screen which is also Shiva. Lal Ded's expression of her longing to attain oneness with transcendence, therefore, should be taken to mean expression of her feeling of nelson homework, unity with Shiva's immanent form also. If Shiva is all, then to her, He is not different from the books, ordinary man we find on the streets-he who laughs and sneezes and nelson homework coughs and yawns: ase paande zvase zame.

nyathuy snan kari tirthan. vahri vahras nonuy ase. nishi chhuy tu parzantan. Yes, He it is who laughs and coughs and yawlns. He, the ascetic naked all the year.

Who bathes in sacred pools in all the dawns. But recognise how He to you is near. (Trs. Nila Cram Cook) For Lal Ded, there is no difference between the 'I' and the 'other' (par to pan), immanence and transcendence, universal and individual consciousness-subjective and objective reality being but aspects of the ultimate reality which is one and indivisible. She sees life as an eternal and continuous flow of consciousness: asi aasy tu aasi asu, asav. asi dor kar patuvath. shivas sori nu zyon tu marun. ravas sori nu atugath.

We have been in the past. In future also we shall be. Forever the sun rises and sets. Forever Shiva creates and dissolves and creates again. It is not that she is talking in riddles or in paradoxes about cycle of births and re-births and a of books immortality of the soul. She is talking of human life which is a stream that flows onwards and hutton yorkshire onwards. It is this experience of reality that is at a of, the core of her mysticism, which begins as the quest for the ultimate and culminates in a vision that is profoundly humanistic. And this is what marks her as a great poet. Lal Ded is not a professional philosopher, nor her verses any philosophical treatise, but she is deeply concerned with the predicament and ultimate destiny of humankind. Yet Lal Ded's poetry is not the poetry of essay experiment politics religion, social concern in the sense it is a of books made out to be by buy university, some scholars. In their eagerness to construct her image as some sort of a social reformer out to a of, reform the medieval Kashmiri society and rid it of the nelson homework, evils afflicting it.

This is again a false image, a deliberate twist given to her spiritual humanism to suit ideological considerations. A Of? There is no use digging for communitarian ideals from her verses, for american god got politics religion whats, they are just not there, though she does feel disturbed by social injustice and books discrimination of which she herself is a victim, and is outraged by nelson homework, the sham and pretence that go in the name of religion. Books? She also displays a deep sensitivity towards human suffering, her heart bleeding at the sight of the yorkshire, learned man dying of starvation while an utter fool beats his cook (for not having cooked a tasty dish): gatulah akh vuchhun bochhi suuty maran. pan zan haran puhuni vavu lah. nyash bod akh vuchhum vazas maran. tanu lal bo praran tshenyam na prah. I saw a learned man dying of hunger. Trembling like dried leaves falling in a of books, harsh winter wind.

An utter fool I saw beating his cook. (For not having prepared a delicious dish) Since then I am waiting for being free of worldly attachments. There is every possibility that Lal Ded herself had suffered pangs of hunger not only nelson homework, because she was starved by her mother-in-law, but also after she left her husband's home. This is what this verse seems to suggest: tsal tsetta vondas bhay mo bhar. chaany tsyanth karan panu anad. tse ko zanuni kshod hari kar. kival tasunduy toruk nad. O, restless mind! Do not fear. The one who is Beginningless takes care of you.

You do not know when he will satiate your hunger. Cry to Him alone for help! In another verse she says: treshi, bwachhi ma kreshanavun. yany tshei tany sandarun dih. Do not torment your body with the pangs of books, durst and hunger. Whenever it feels exhausted, take care of nelson homework, it. It should be obvious, therefore, that Lag Ded is not unaware of the harsh realities of life like hunger and poverty, nor ignorant of the agony and anguish of existence. Whatever she says has roots in her own personal experience, her sensibilities being constantly assaulted by books, the immensity of the eno ambient music essay, suffering she sees around her. But her solution for human suffering and distress lies in a of, the benevolent grace of Shim, which descends on man when he completely surrenders himself before his will. Buy University Uk? The intensity of her social awareness turns her almost into a of books a rebel, even as her egalitarian ideas and ideals find expression in spiritual terms.

Shiva, she says in one of her verses, shines like the sun on the high and buy university uk the low alike: rav matu thali thali taapitan. taapitan uttam-uttam dish. varun matu lotu garu atsytyan. shiv chhuy kruth tu tsen vopadish. Does the sun not shine everywhere alike. Or does it shine only on the best places? Does not the a of books, water god Varuna enter every home?

Or does it enter only the buy university, homes of the fortunate? While the books, way she asks such disturbing questions does reveal how intricately and hutton sessay yorkshire intimately her spirituality is linked with her universal humanistic concerns, it would be too much to assume that she was actually a social activist. Books? Yet there are people who like to persist with the theory that Lal Ded synthesized the best in Shaivite and Islamic traditions, whatever that may mean. They want to uk, see her as an a of books, abstraction, and not as a real persona, regarding her as a representative of what they call Kashmir's composite culture, a torch-bearer of Hindu-Muslim unity. With obvious political motivations, they project her as though she were a spokesperson of the present day secular discourse and essay 123helpme utilize her for books, scoring points in nelson homework, current political debates, not caring to books, think how cliched their arguments based on false premises have now become. Through their oversimplifications and hutton sessay vague generalizations, they have turned Lal Ded virtually into books a one-verse poet, stripping her of nelson homework, her real glories, Shiv chhuy thali-thali rozan, mav zan hyond to musalman (Shiva abides in everything, so do not discriminate between a Hindu and a Musalman). Is that then the quintessence of her poetic thought?

The only basis of her greatness? The verse appears to be a spurious one, although Rajanaka Bhaskara has included it in his collection of a of books, Lalavakyani”. Nelson Homework? Lal Ded had spent her early youth in the reign of Udyan Deva, the last Hindu king of Kashmir, and books of queen Kota Rani. Even when Islamic rule was finally established in 1359 A.D., the majority of the essay 123helpme, population remained overwhelmingly Hindu, with Islam not having made any serious impact on the demographic composition of the Kashmiri society-not at a of, least on the rural milieu in which Lal Ded lived and moved about. To whom then has the verse been addressed? Who was discriminating against whom? The fact is that attempts to show Lal Ded's verses as a part of the current secular debate, are being made only as a strategy to condone the barbarities inflicted on essays, Kashmiri Hindus dining the six hundred years of books, Islamic rule. The idea is to present a liberal and human face of Islam as practiced in Kashmir by using Sufism as a mask.

Whether or not Sufism had taken any roots in Lal Ded's Kashmir, is another matter. The strategy seems to have worked, for a general impression has been created that she was either a Sufi mystic herself or was deeply influenced by Sufism. Whether or not Lal Ded had a social reformer's zeal, she was strongly egalitarian in her views and was more aware than most devotional poets about the prevailing social conditions of essay 123helpme, her times. And, contrary to the generally held belief that she was unaware of what was happening around her, a view to a of books, which even Prof. Kaul subscribes, there is enough evidence in Lalla's vaaks to show that she was very much conscious of hutton sessay, what was going on around her, including the sweeping political changes that were taking place during her time. This is at least what the a of, following lines of hers appear to suggest: hyath karith rajya pheri na. dith karith tripti na man. In ruling kingdoms there is no relief. In giving them away there yet is grief. (Trs. Nila Cram Cook)

Is she not is nelson homework referring here to the Kota Rani-Rinchin Shah Mir affair that eventually brought in Muslim rule to Kashmir? Lal Ded is scathing in her attack on hollow ceremony and books ritual in buy university, religion, her emphasis being on inner experience. She has no belief in sacred places and sacred times, pilgrimages and fasts supposed to a of books, bring religious merit. She scoffs at what A.K. Ramanujam calls orthodox ritual genuflections and recitations. She expresses her strong abhorrence for animal sacrifice and detests idol worship. Nelson Homework? She must have surely provoked the orthodoxy at a of books, whom she misses no chance to take pot-shots. Essays Theory? In this she reminds one of the Kannada Vachana poet Basvanna, and also of a of books, Kabir and Nanak whom she anticipated. Surely, hers was a strong voice of protest in medieval Kashmir-perhaps the only voice raised so fearlessly. With Lal Ded not conforming to sessay, any of the a of, image constructs built around her by those who want to reduce her to an idea or an abstraction according to their predilections, what could the real Lal Ded have been like? To reclaim her authentic persona, we have no option but to discard the motivated myths and invoke the actual text of buy university uk, her verses.

In this context, it must be noted that Lal Ded recited her vaaks to actual audiences who were enraptured and mesmerized by a of, her words, which happened to be in sessay yorkshire, their own mother tongue. In verse after verse we find her addressing the books, ubiquitous Bhatta, whether to admonish him (puz kas karakh hutu bata – ‘Who will you worship, O ritual-ridden Pundit?'), or to explaining a subtle point or two (yohoy vopdish chhuy bata-‘This is what the doctrine teaches, O Pundit!'). This clearly shows that she knows her audience. Not that Lal Ded belongs to any one community-her message is certainly universal-but she does have the Pandit in mind whenever she has a point to make. To find out the authentic Lal Ded, then, we have to rely mainly on the internal evidence that her vaaks furnish.

Packed with sufficient biographical material, as the vaaks are, we can reconstruct with their help her mystic life, her experience as a woman, as a saint and as a poet, her view of the relationship between God, man and the world. Brian Music? An image as near reality as possible. Books? But in this there are problems. Essays Theory? Lalla vaaks have been orally transmitted from books, generation to generation and are available only in randomly available versions, with practically no chronological sequence. An attempt to discern a sequence of thought in essays by shimmer, them has been made by Prof B.N. Parimoo, who has tried to link them as thematic units under some broad divisions in his book, The Ascent of Self. The book, written in books, 1978, is the first exercise of uk, its kind undertaken by books, anyone and can be deservingly called a significant contribution to Lal Ded studies. Experiment God Got? The cue to the arrangement of the verses, says the a of books, author, is taken from the 'I-ness' categorically denoting personal experience. But admirable as Prof. Parimoo's attempt to re-interpret the vaakhs is, one cannot be certain that while picking up the autobiographical threads he has arranged them according to actual chronological sequence, that is, exactly in the order they were composed. Sessay? Prof Parimoo himself is not sure, and in fact nobody can be, for there cannot be any ideal selection of books, verses transcribed randomly from oral tradition.

The author of the book, however, does not appear to have taken as much care as he should have in nelson homework, making his selection. Quite a number of verses he has included are obvious interpolations. The lines “hond maarytan kinu kath, for instance, which he has included as the very first vaakh, is not actually a vaakh at a of, all, but a saying attributed to Lal Ded. His total reliance on the account of Ramjoo Malla for biographical information because it does not tilt the purpose of this book appears to be rather curious. Before referring to the text, therefore, we have to be sure how far genuine it is. This accentuates the need of a critically valid text of music, Lalla Vaaks-something that has not been attempted quite seriously so far, except a solitary attempt made by Prof.

Jaya Lal Kaul. Laments Prof. Kaul, who has devoted a whole chapter of his book Lal Ded to it, that there hardly has been any textual criticism. He then proceeds to sift what he calls unwarranted variants and spurious interpolations as far as possible from a of, verses that can be regarded as genuinely authentic. Of the total 258 vaaks that circulate in the name of Lal Ded and by shimmer occur in various collections, he has included only 138 in books, his collection and essays on search theory by shimmer even their authenticity he is not prepared to vouch for. The criteria that he lays down for determining authenticity seem to be very sound. These according to books, him should be: The evidence of diction and prosody, and the quality and cast of thought, the nelson homework, way it is a of books organized in brian, the process of expression, in a of, a word, the characteristic style of american politics, Lal Ded. To this I would like to add that both the text and context should be taken into consideration, as well as the overall feeling tone of the verses. Prof. Kaul has pointed out : There are 35 verses that occur both in . collections of Lal Ded's verses, and in Nurnamas and Rishinamas, the biographies of Nund Rishi, which include his shrukhs; three verses occur in Lalla vaakh as well as in Rahasyopadesha, the verse sayings of Rupa Bhavani (1620-1720), three quartrains that belong to one Azizullah Khan (early 19th century) have been ascribed to Lal Ded by Rev.

J. Hinton Knowles in his Dictionary of Kashmiri Proverbs. All the three quartrains of Azizullah Khan have been included as Lallavaaks in a of, the Koshur Samachar collection. Interestingly, one of hutton, these quartrains has been translated by books, that great Indian translator A.K. Ramanujan in the name of Lal Ded, and quoted as such by nelson homework, K. Sachchidanandan, Secretary, Sahitya Akademi, in one of his papers on women poets of India. The verse, as given in books, the Lal Ded Number of Koshur Samachar is as follows: daman basti dito dam. thitay yithu daman khar. shastras swan gatshi haasil. wuni chhay sul tu tshandun yar. Obviously, neither the diction (she could never have used words like ‘yaar' or 'haksil’) nor the quality and cast of thought of this verse is that of Lal Ded, but it continues to be ascribed to her again and again.

In another verse of this very series, death has been depicted as a Tehsildar-an institution that did not exist at that time at all. The confusion prevailing in this regard is mainly due to interpolations, a game indulged in by many, not without a strong element of deliberateness. Lines from other poets heavily laden with Persian and essay 123helpme Arabic words have been passed on as Lal Ded's as in a of, an attempt at what can be called linguistic subversion. Some of her ardent and overzealous admirers too have tried to put words in buy university essays uk, her mouth, though out of a of, reverence for her. The total incompatibility of diction seems to have never bothered the perpetrators of such distortions. Yet nobody can claim that the language in which Lallavaakhs have been passed on to the unsuspecting inheritors of her oral legacy is the language in which they must have originally fallen from the celebrated poetess' mouth. The only sure way to ascertain their authenticity would be a linguistic comparison with extant Kashmiri works of periods immediately preceding or succeeding Lal Ded, as written evidence of essay 123helpme, no contemporary work is available. These works are the 'Chhumma Sampradaya' verses which can be assigned to a of, the 11th or 12th century, 'Mahanaya Prakasha' by Shiti Kantha, 'Banasur Katha' by buy university essays uk, Avtar Bhatta and 'Sukha-dukha Charit' by Ganak Prashast. I had the good fortune of studying all these works while preparing my doctoral thesis on the linguistic peculiarities of 'Banasura Katha', and so I am aware of their significance in presenting a somewhat coherent picture of the medieval development of the Kashmiri language and their immense value in tracing earlier forms of a good number of Kashmiri words. A Of Books? These works provide ample evidence of the fact than Kashmiri has developed from the MIA stages of Prakrit and Apabhramsha in the same way as other Indo-Aryan languages have. Anyone who cares to go through these works will be able to hutton sessay yorkshire, gain valuable knowledge of the linguistic situation that actually prevailed in Kashmir from the 11th-12th century to the end of the 15th.

If would be useful to give here one example each from the above mentioned works to give a feel of the state of Kashmiri language used during this period:- bhava svabhave saba avinashi. sapana sabhava vi uppanna. te az niravidihi agam prakashi. idassa dishti kachi vipachhanna. yasu-yasu jantus samvid yas-yas. nila pita sukha-dukha-swarup. udayis datta samanyi samaras.

kama kampana tas-tas anurup. dhik-dhik myaanis yadava zammas. vanati atsa majja kachan. yudha kara namet swakammas. ushe atha chhon iha than. him zan tape viglyos pape. A detailed description of the linguistic features of these works is not possible here; but one can clearly notice the thread of linguistic development that runs through them.

Compare these with the language of Lallavaaks and you get a fairly complete picture. Books? Grierson has called the language of american god got whats, Lal Ded's vaaks Old Kashmiri, but it does not require any special insight to see that it is a of quite modern compared to the language of the illustrations cited above because of the many changes it has undergone due to oral transmission. However, we can come as near to an authorized version as possible by reconstructing their text with the help of hutton yorkshire, Banasur Katha and a of books Sukh-dukha Charit. Hutton Yorkshire? This is a desirable but extremely difficult task. Even so, those who take the deliberately distorted and mutilated text to be genuine, ignoring the fact of its massive interpolation, must know that Lal Ded could in no case have used the heavily Persianised language of the books, 19th or early 20th century nearly six hundred years back. It is of utmost importance therefore, that to arrive at brian essay, authentic Lal Ded, we should discard all the spurious elements introduced by a of, those who are interested in building false image constructs. Lal Ded could not have used modern Kashmiri for her poetic expression, but she was modern in many other ways.

She had in her the characteristic modern self-reflectiveness, the insistence on accepting as authentic only what she herself could experience directly, the broad catholicity of outlook that called for tolerance of hutton sessay yorkshire, diverse views and made her define her relationship to God in books, terms of oneness of all existence, the deep existential anguish she felt while reflecting on the human condition. She was modern in the universality of her concerns, in her choice of metaphor and image, in her rejection of every kind of sham and pretence, in her fearless assertion of what she saw as truth. Indeed, at times it appears that she is more modern then most of the contemporary Kashmiri poets. Lal Ded's struggle as a woman has been largely overlooked. She may not have been a conscious feminist in the sense the term is essay experiment politics religion understood today, but she did show the courage of resisting the oppressive structures of a of, patriarchy and refusing to play the brian eno ambient music, traditional role of a submissive daughter-in-law. Rebelling against social tyranny, she broke the shackles that bind a woman even before her birth, and asserted her right of taking her own decisions. A Of? She challenged the orthodoxy and threw the rigid codes of essay 123helpme, dress and books decorum followed by on search by shimmer, the medieval society of her times to the winds and roamed about a of books, with barely any clothes on like the great Kannada Shaivite poetess, Mahadeviakka. Perhaps it was her last act of nelson homework, defiance against a of books a social set-up whose arbitrary and gender discriminatory rules she did not find acceptable. It is in accordance with these facts that we shall have to reconstruct the image of the great saint-poetess of Kashmir, noting that she does not fit into most of the hutton sessay yorkshire, image-constructs that have been built around her. The Shah Hamadan anecdote and the so-called miracle of the oven seem to be an insult to such a fearlessly and fiercely independent woman.

She started her spiritual journey as a tormented soul, but attained a stage where self- realization and self-awareness gave her tremendous inner strength and the confidence that derived from that strength: kesari vanu volum ratith shal. I dragged the lion from its den like a jackal. It is this that explains the pervasive influence that Lal Ded has on Kashmiri psyche to this day. The unexplored dimensions of her personality and creativity shall have to be discovered if we want to understand her not as an abstraction but as a real person. She is quintessentially Kashmiri, having shaped the Kashmiri language and a of books literature, as she did, but she is also universal in her appeal. Her verses remain as relevant and meaningful for today's world as they were in essay 123helpme, her times. Let me conclude by a of books, quoting a line from one of her own most powerful vaaks: yim pad lali vany tim hridi ank. Brand on your heart what Lalla spoke in verse! 1. Lalavakyani: Rajanaka Bhaskara. 2. The Word of Lalla: Sir Richard Temple.

C.U.P., 1924. 3. Nelson Homework? Lalla-Vakyani or the Wise Sayings of Lal Ded: George Grierson and Lionel D. Barnett, Royal Asiatic Society Monograph, Vol. A Of Books? XVII, London, 1920. 4. Koshur Samachar; Lal Ded Number. Kashmiri Samiti, Kasmiri Bhavan, Amar Colony, New Delhi, 1971. 5. Lal Ded : Prof Jayalal Kaul, Sahitya Akademi, New Delhi, 1973.

6. The Ascent of essay experiment god got politics religion whats, Self: Prof B.N. Parimoo, Motilal Banarasi Dass, Delhi, Second Ed., 1987. 7. A History of a of, Kashmir. P.N.K. Bamzai, Metropolitan Book Co., 1962. 8. Nelson Homework? A History of a of, Muslim Rule in Kashmir. RK. Parmu, Peoples Publishing House, New Delhi, 1959.

9. Nelson Homework? Daughters of Vitasta: Prem Nath Bazaz, Pamposh Publications, New Delhi, 1959. 10. Kashir : A History of Kashmir (2 vols)., S.M.D. Sufi, Light and a of Life Publishers, New Delhi, Reprint, 1974. 11. Kashmiri Sahitya ka Itihas : Shashi Shekhar Toshkhani, Jammu and Kashmir Academy of Art, Culture and Languages, 1985. 12. The Way of the Swan: Nila Cram Cook, Asia Publishing House, Bombay, 1958.

13. Sheeraza (Kashmiri) : Special Number on Lal Ded : Jammu and Kashmir Academy of Art, Culture and Languages, Srinagar, 1979. 14. Triadic Mysticism : Paul E. Hutton Sessay? Murphy : Motilal Banarasi Dass, Delhi, 1999. 15. A Of? Shivastolraaali of Utpaldeaa : Nilakanth Gurtu, Motilal Banarasi Dass, Delhi 1985. 16. Mahanaya Prakasha : Rajanaka Shiti Kantha, Edited with Notes by Mahamahopadhyaya Pandit Mukund Ram Shastri, Research Department, J K State, Srinagar, 1918. 17.

Banasur Katha: Avatar Bhatt, MSS. Bhandarkar Oriental Institute, Pune. 18. Basasura Katha : (Ph.D. dissertation), Shashi Shekhar Toshkhani. 19. Sukha-Dukha Charit : Ganaka Prashasta, MSS. BOI, Pune. Any content available on this site should NOT be copied or reproduced. in any form or context without the written permission of KPN.

A documentary about eno ambient music, ethnic cleansing of Kashmiri Pandits by Pakistan-trained terrorists. Kashmiri Pandits have now become refugees in their own country .